Alzheimer Disease is the most common cause of age-related cognitive decline, affecting more than 12 million people in worldwide. The disease is characterized by progressive memory impairment, cognitive decline, altered behavior and language deficit.
How DNA vaccines made
Methods of delivery
Advantages and Disadvantages
Current clinical trials
A vaccine is a biological preparation that
improves immunity to a particular disease.
It contains an agent that resembles a
disease-causing microorganism, and is
often made from weakened or killed forms
of the microbe, its toxins or one of its
The agent stimulates the body's immune
system to recognize the agent as foreign,
destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the
immune system can more easily recognize
and destroy any of these microorganisms
that it later encounters.
DNA based vaccines
DNA vaccination is a technique for
protecting an organism against disease by
injecting it with genetically engineered
DNA to produce an immunological
Circular double stranded DNA molecule,
referred to as a plasmid fabricated with
DNA sequence containing genes encoding
one or more proteins of a pathogen.
As this DNA inserted into cells it is
translated to form antigenic protein. As this
protein is foreign to cells , so immune
response raised against this protein.
are third generation vaccines and are made
up of a small, circular piece of bacterial DNA
In 1990, University of Wisconsin, Jon Wolff found that
injection of DNA plasmids produce a protein response in
In 1993, Merck Research Laboratories, Dr. Margaret Liu
found that intramuscular injection of DNA from influenza
virus into mice produced complete immune response.
In 1996, trials involving T-cell lymphoma, influenza &
herpes simplex virus were started.
Why DNA vaccines?
vaccines having a
possible risk of the vaccine
being fatal. But in DNA
vaccines there is no need of
primarily Humoral immunity.
On the other hand DNA
Humoral & Cell mediated
DNA vaccine is made
Plasmid with foreign gene
Transform in to bacteria
Plasmid DNA get Amplified
Plasmid DNA isolated
Stored in vials
Ready for Apply
Methods of delivery
Large amount of DNA
vaccines applied directly to the
Gene Gun: Small amount of vaccine
applied through DNA coated gold
beads to the abdominal skin.
Pneumatic Jet Injection: Very high
amount of vaccine applied to the
BY TWO PATHWAYS
ENDOGENOUS :Antigenic Protein is
presented by cell in which
it is produced.
:Antigenic Protein is formed
in one cell but presented by
How DNA vaccines work
When Virus Enter in the Body
with no risk for infection.
Antigen presentation by both MHC class I and class II
Immune response focused only on antigen of interest.
Stability of vaccine for storage and shipping
Long-term persistence of immunogen.
to protein immunogens.
of affecting genes controlling
of inducing antibody
production against DNA.
of tolerance to the
antigen (protein) produced.
Recent advance in immunotherapies for Alzheimer
DNA vaccination has been developed as a
new therapy for Alzheimer Disease
Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most
common cause of dementia characterized
by progressive neurodegeneration.
An Adeno-assosiated Viral vector
developed by Zhang and his colleagues
could express Aβ in in-vivo condition.
They prepare DNA vaccine using this
AAV genome and tested on AD model
of Aβ burden in APP23 mice after DNA
vaccination is shown in the diagram. Prophylactic
administration of Fc-Aβ vaccine prevented the Aβ
deposition to 10–30% of that in untreated animals before
12 months of age and to 40–50% after 15 months (closed
triangles). The effects of therapeutic administration were
almost same as those of prophylactic administration.
Other clinical trials:
2006,DNA vaccine examined on horse. Horse
acquired immunity against west nile viruses.
2007,DNA vaccination against
Sclerosis was reported as being effective.
Oct. 2011 DNA Vaccines Show Promise in
Preventing Dental Caries. DNA vaccine prepared using
recombinant flagellin protein derived from Salmonella
as mucosal adjuvant for anti-caries DNA vaccine.
with multiple genes
provide immunity against many
diseases in one booster.
infectious diseases such as
AIDS, Rabies, Malaria can be
In future DNA vaccines can be
applied to boost up the immune
Grammatikos, Alexandros P.; (June 2009). "Meta-analyses on
Pediatric Infections and Vaccines". Infectious Disease Clinics of
North America 23 (2): 431–57.
Alarcon JB, Waine GW, McManus DP (1999). "DNA vaccines:
technology and application as anti-parasite and anti-microbial
agents". Adv. Parasitol. 42: 343–410.
Tang DC, DeVit M, Johnston SA. (1992)“Genetic immunization is a
simple method for eliciting an immune response”. Nature; 356:1524.
Barry MA, Lai WC, Johnston SA.(1995) “Protection against
mycoplasma infection using expression- library immunization”.