Modal Verbs

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Modal Verbs

  1. 1. MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS By JESÚS HERRERO
  2. 2. MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>LIST </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>GROUPS </li></ul><ul><li>PERFECT MODALS </li></ul>
  3. 3. DEFINITION
  4. 4. MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS DEFINITION <ul><ul><li>1. They are part of the verbal phrase: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I must get there before 7 o'clock. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. They always accompany, assist or help other verbs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. They add abstract (modal) meanings like obligation, permission, advice, etc </li></ul></ul>must get
  5. 5. LIST OF MODAL VERBS
  6. 6. LIST OF MODAL VERBS <ul><ul><li>can could </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*be able to must </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*have to need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>should *ought to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may might </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. MODAL VERBS STRUCTURE
  8. 8. MODAL VERBS STRUCTURE <ul><ul><li>1. How do we use modal verbs? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative: subject + modal + infinitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ex. She should stay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative: subject + modal(n't) + infinitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: She shouldn't stay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrogative: (Wh) Modal + subject + inf.? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ex: Why should she stay? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. MODAL VERBS STRUCTURE 2. Modal verbs are used with infinitives without to (bare infinitives) with the exception of ought to : We must get there before 7 o'clock. She should study harder. I ought to go home now. ( Have to is studied with modal verbs but it's not a pure modal verb as it needs auxiliary verbs and has -s in the third person singular)
  10. 10. MODAL VERBS STRUCTURE 3. Modal verbs do not add -s or -es to the third person singular. They are invariable verbs. He can swim. He cans wim
  11. 11. MODAL VERBS STRUCTURE <ul><ul><li>4. They don't need auxiliaries to form short answers or negative and interrogative sentences: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She shouldn't eat salt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She doesn't should eat salt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May I help you? Yes, you may. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I may help you? Yes you do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. They do not have infinitives or -ing forms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> canning to might </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. MODAL VERBS STRUCTURE <ul><ul><li>6. Modal verbs do not have all the tenses. They use other verbs to complete the tenses: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>can > could, be able to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can swim now > She will be able to swim next year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>must > had to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You must come early > You had to come early yesterday </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS
  14. 14. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS <ul><ul><li>We are going to study them from two points of view: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a. number of meanings or concepts that they express: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> single, double </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. modal meanings that they express: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> permission, ability, obligation ... </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. NUMBER OF MEANINGS
  16. 16. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS (a. number of meanings) <ul><ul><li>1. The same modal verb can have different meanings depending on the context. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May I come in? It may rain tomorrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. We can make two categories: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Single concept modals: These modal verbs have 1 meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Double concept modals: They have 2 meanings </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS (a. number of meanings)
  18. 18. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS (a. number of meanings)
  19. 19. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS (a. number of meanings)
  20. 20. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS (a. number of meanings)
  21. 21. MODAL MEANINGS
  22. 22. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS (b. modal meanings) <ul><ul><li>Modal verbs express a series of modal meanings like: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- obligation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- prohibition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- necessity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- possibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- certainty </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS (b. modal meanings) <ul><ul><li>ABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(can, could, be able to) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Present: can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two of my friends can play the guitar. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Past: could </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> When he was a child he could ski well. </li></ul></ul>saben sabía
  24. 24. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS (b. modal meanings) <ul><ul><li>ABILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Other tenses: be able to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Next week they 'll be able to vote. (future) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- We haven't been able to go on holiday this year. (present perfect) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- We would be able to do it. (conditional) </li></ul></ul>hemos podido podrán podríamos
  25. 25. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS (b. modal meanings) <ul><ul><li>OBLIGATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present: must </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applicants must answer the questions honestly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other tenses (including present): have to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- I have to study hard this year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- I will have to work hard as a lawyer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- I have had to stay at home lately </li></ul></ul>Tienen que Tengo que Tendré que He tenido que
  26. 26. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS (b. modal meanings) <ul><ul><li>PROHIBITION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We use mustn't to express prohibition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- You mustn't eat too many sweets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- You mustn't cheat in exams </li></ul></ul>No debes / no puedes
  27. 27. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS (b. modal meanings) <ul><ul><li>NECESSITY / NO NECESSITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmative: need to (it's not a modal verb) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You need to do this to pass the subject </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative: needn't (no obligation) = don't have to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You needn't do it = You don't have to do it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrogative: need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need I do this? </li></ul></ul>No es necesario Hay que, es necesario que
  28. 28. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS (b. modal meanings) <ul><ul><li>ADVICE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can use ought to, should, shouldn't to express advice or recommendation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Candidates should be friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- You shouldn't worry too much about exams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Candidates ought to be friendly </li></ul></ul>No deberías deberían
  29. 29. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS (b. modal meanings) <ul><ul><li>POSSIBILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present & future: may, may not, might, mightn't, could: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- It may be time for Linda to go </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- They might choose Danny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- They could be on the train </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past: may / might / could + have + past perfect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He might have received our message </li></ul></ul>Puede que, tal vez
  30. 30. GROUPS OF MODAL VERBS (b. modal meanings) <ul><ul><li>CERTAINTY / LOGICAL DEDUCTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive: must </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It must be quite late, because it's getting dark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative: can't </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That can't be true </li></ul></ul>No puede Debe de
  31. 31. MODALS + PERFECT INFINITIVES
  32. 32. MODALS + PERFECT INFINITIVES <ul><ul><li>When they refer to the past, certain meanings must be expressed with a modal + perfect infinitive (have + past participle): </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. certainty / logical deduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>positive, negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. possibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. advice / recommendation </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. MODALS + PERFECT INFINITIVES <ul><ul><li>1. CERTAINTY / LOGICAL DEDUCTION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive: must have + past participle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Danny must have felt disappointed when he didn't win the prize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative: can't have + past participle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>She can't have passed the exam, she didn't study at all </li></ul></ul>Debió de (haberse) No pudo (haber)
  34. 34. MODALS + PERFECT INFINITIVES <ul><ul><li>2. POSSIBILITY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When we talk about possibility about the past we can use: might / may / could + have + past participle: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- They might not have received our message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- He may have gone to the cinema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- The government could have acted more quickly </li></ul></ul>Podría haber / no haber Puede que haya / no haya
  35. 35. MODALS + PERFECT INFINITIVES <ul><ul><li>3. ADVICE / RECOMMENDATION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When we express criticism or regret about a past action we can use should / shouldn't </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Linda shouldn't have talked so much </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- We should have gone to see that film while it was still on at the cinema </li></ul></ul>No debería haber / debería haber
  36. 36. PRACTICE Click on this link to practice modal verbs: http://mimosa.pntic.mec.es/~jherre23/

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