FACULTY OF EDUCATION
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (EDU702)
Mohd Nur Fadly Basar
Mohammad Norshim Hashim
Nur Amalina Muhammad Amir
Grounded theory method (GT) is a systematic methodology in the social sciences
involving the discovery of theory through the analysis of data.
Grounded theory method is a research method which operates almost in a reverse
fashion from traditional social science research. Rather than beginning with a
hypothesis, the first step is data collection, through a variety of methods.
A grounded theory design is a systematic, qualitative procedure used to generate a
theory that explains, at a broad conceptual level, a process, an action, or an
interaction about a substantive topic (Creswell, 2008).
‘‘Grounded Theory is the most common, widely used, and populer analytic
technic in qualitative analysis
It is mainly used for qualitative research, but is also applicable to other data.
“A qualitative research method that uses a systematic set
of procedures to develop an inductively derived
grounded theory about a phenomenon”
• (Strauss & Corbin ,1998 p24)
“Grounded Theory is the study of a concept! It is not
descriptive study of a descriptive problem” (Glaser,2010)
Creswell (2009), “a qualitative strategy of inquiry in which
the researcher derives a general, abstract theory of
process, action, or interaction grounded in the views of
participants in a study.” (p. 13 & 229)
This process involves using multiple stages of data
collection and the refinement and interrelationships of
categories of information (Charmaz, 2006; Strauss and
Corbin, 1990, 1998).
Key DefinitionsKey Definitions
Two sociologists, Barney G. Glaser and Anselm L
developed grounded theory in the late 1960s.
Their collaboration in research on dying hospital patients led
them to write the book Awareness of Dying. In this research
they developed the constant comparative method, later
known as Grounded Theory Method.
Glaser and Strauss developed a pioneering book that
expounded in detail on their grounded theory
procedures, The Discovery of Grounded Theory(1967).
Development of the Grounded TheoryDevelopment of the Grounded Theory
• The purpose of grounded theory research in
education and management is to develop new
concepts and theories of education-related
phenomena, where these concepts and theories
are firmly grounded in qualitative data
• It allows for the emergence of original and rich
findings that are closely tied to the data
The purpose of grounded theoryThe purpose of grounded theory
How to Do Grounded TheoryHow to Do Grounded Theory
How to Do Data AnalysisHow to Do Data Analysis
I believe grounded theory draws from literary analysis,
and one can see it here. The advice for building theory
parallels advice for writing a story. Selective coding is
about finding the driver that impels the story forward.
• Uses of grounded theory
– Explore new domains
– Leverage human tendency to interpret and theorize
• Practices of grounded theory
– Begin coding and theorizing with the first data
– Constant comparison with data and theory
– Iterations of coding and theorizing
• Strengths of grounded theory
– Bring data into focus and depth
– Build theory that is descriptive, abstract, and powerful
Grounded Theory ProcessGrounded Theory Process
1. Identify your substantive area
2. Collect data
3. Open code
4. Write memos throughout the entire process
5. Conduct selective coding and theoretical sampling
6. Sort your memos and find the theoretical code
7. Read the literature
8. Write up your theory.
How do you do Grounded Theory?How do you do Grounded Theory?
One answer is:
Never! Clearly, the process described
above could continue indefinitely.
Grounded theory doesn't have a
clearly demarcated point for ending a
study. Essentially, the project ends
when the researcher decides to quit.
When does this process end?When does this process end?
To sum up, Grounded Theory is recommended to use in any
research as it provides several advantages that may ease the
process of having the data/findings.
Despite that, Grounded Theory helps researchers analyzing the
data early and it encourages detailed analysis of the data.
Grounded theory provides researchers an ample evidence to
back up their claims.
Furthermore, Grounded Theory encourages a constant
interplay between data collection and analysis.
1. What is the Grounded Theory mainly used for ?
2. What is the purpose of Grounded Theory ?
3. Give one (1) example of the Grounded Theory Process ?
4. Give one (1) advantages of the Grounded Theory ?
5. What type of approach use for Grounded Theory ?
To develop new concepts and theories of education-related
phenomena, where these concepts and theories are firmly grounded in
To Explore new domains
Leverage human tendency to interpret and theorize
It has intuitive appeal for researchers, since it allows them to become
immersed in the data.