PREDATIONThe snake is holding on to the rat. The rat is the snake’s meal. The snake is equipped with body structures that allow it to hunt for food. It hunts small animals. This process of obtaining food iscalled predation. The hunter is called the predator and the hunted is the prey.
PARASITISM Parasitism is a kind of hunter-prey relationship. Here, the parasite depends on another organism for food, protection, andreproduction. One example of a parasite is a tapeworm. Itlives inside the intestine of a larger animal such as pig, cow, or human.
PARASITISM The tape worm gets food from its host. Theorganism which a parasitedepend on is called a host.
COMMENSALISM Commensalism exists when an organism benefits from anotherwithout harming it. One example of commensalism is best seen between trees and attached plants like orchids and ferns.The tree is not affected by thepresence of orchid on its trunk..
MUTUALISM In mutualism, both organisms benefit inthe relationship. This is demonstrated by the fishes – grouper and wrasse. The grouper allows the wrasse to dart in and out of itsmouth. The wrasse cleans the grouper’s mouth in exchange for the small pieces of foods it can get.
MUTUALISM In the rice fields, Azolla (water fern) is grown together with therice plants. Azolla allows an alga, Anabaena to live with it. The Anabaena fixes nitrogen in thesoil making it fertile. The Azollaand Anabaena both benefit from the presence of each other.
MUTUALISMThe gas exchange between plants and animals is another exampleof mutualism. Oxygen needed by animals is given off by plantswhile the carbon dioxide neededby plats is given off by animals.
These relationships affect the food chain. If a harmful kind ofrelationship dominates in an ecosystem, it will cause a problem. For example, if all frogs living in a pond leave or die, what will happen to the population of animals that feed on frogs? How about this animals that the frogs eat? This condition disrupts the food chain.
The Producers and Consumers In a food chain, green plants contain thegreatest amount of stored energy from thesun. look at the number of consumers in the food chain. Animals that feed on these plants are called the primary consumers. Those that eat primary consumers are called secondary consumers. Tertiary consumers are animals that feed on secondary consumers.
The SUN Is the source Of ENERGY. PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARYPRODUCER CONSUMER CONSUMER CONSUMER
Producers manufacture foodsthat contain energy. This energyis used to sustain the operations of the life processes in thebody. Activities such as running, climbing, inhaling and even thinking require energy use.