Do Women and Men Think Differently about Ethics? Lawrence Kohlberg Six Stages of Moral Development Heinz’s Dilemma Used in studying moral development in children Presented to an 11-year old boy named Jake -Heinz should steal the drug Presented to 11-year old girl named Amy -Hesitant and Evasive
The Dilemma In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. One drug that doctors thought might save her. Drug was expensive – Cost $400, Charged $4000 (10 times the cost). Husband, Heinz could not afford and asked druggist to sell it cheaper – or let him pay later. Druggist said , “No, I discovered the drug and I am going to make money from it.”
The Dilemma Heinz tried every legal means. Heinz gets desperate and considers breaking into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife.
The Husband Values of compassion for his wife. Value of reason – with druggist. Loyalty to his wife. Acting in care-based way. Golden rule – treat others. Dilemma - stealing is ethically wrong.
The Druggist Has a right to make money. Druggist discovered the drug. Overcharging for the medicine. Not willing to work with Heinz on payment methods,
Justice vs. Mercy Moral Paradigm The druggist is not playing any favorites; he is staying impartial to a very heart wrenching situation. Heinz is acting in the mercy based way; he has love beyond restriction, even if that means violating the law.
Justice vs. Care Gilligan’s Objection – Kohlberg’s central idea was flawed. Heinz Dilemma: 11-year old boy named Jake “ Because the druggist can get a thousand dollars later.” “ Because people are all different and so you couldn’t get Heinz’s wife again.” Jake appeals to impersonal principles “ For one thing, a human life is worth more than money.” Signs of Justice Based Moral Development
Justice vs. Care 11-year old girl named Amy “ I think there might be other ways besides stealing it – make a loan or borrow.” “ He really shouldn’t steal the drug-but his wife shouldn’t die either.” “ So they really should talk about it and find some other way to make the money.” Amy appeals to Care principles “ For one thing, a human life is worth more than money.” Signs of Care Based Moral Development
Carol Gilligan's Theories Traditional Theories are biased against women's because they were constructed and tested based upon the experience of men. Centers around how people grow in their concepts of responsibility, and what it means to care. Care first as a selfish concept, followed by conformity to traditional ideal of feminine unselfishness, and lastly as a universal ethic. Ethic of care was a moral construct separate from that of justice – moral development needed to include justice and care.
Do Women and Men Think Differently about Ethics? Gilligan’s Objection – Kohlberg’s central idea was flawed. Suggests that women’s basic moral orientation is one of caring: “taking care” of others in a personal way, not just being concerned for the humanity in general. “ Caring, empathy, feeling with others, being sensitive to each other’s feelings, all may be better guides to what morality requires in actual contexts than may abstract rule of reason, or rational calculation, or at least they may be necessary components of an adequate morality” (p. 150).
Research has shown that in the majority of studies showing gender differences, it is clear that both genders use both care and justice. There is no support for pure justice or pure care. Research has also shown that when participants describe a personal dilemma, there is a tendency to support the orientation to care versus an impersonal dilemma where there where the responses tend to be justice based. Gilligan’s description of how men and women mature in their morality integrate both justice and care into their moral perspective. As one matures, both genders use a combination of justice and care.
“ To be loving, loyal, and dependable is to be a certain kind of person, which is very different from impartially ‘doing your duty’” Feminism and the ethics of care, from The Elements of Moral Philosophy . Rachels (2010, p. 156).
Ethics of Care Approach “ The ethics of care begins with a conception of moral life as a network of relationships with specific people, and it sees ‘living well’ as caring for those people, attending to their needs, and maintain their trust” Feminism and the ethics of care, from The Elements of Moral Philosophy . Rachels (2010, p. 153).
21 st Century Ethics of Care Now on a path that is not considered part of the feminist movement Has become Care-Based
To be a loving, loyal, and dependable is to be a certain kind of person, which is very different from impartially “doing your duty.” The ethics of care, therefore, is best understood as one part of the ethics of virtue.