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Obesity

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  • 1. OBESITY
  • 2. OBESITY - WHAT IS IT? Presence of excess body fat Determined by body mass index (BMI) BMI = weight (kg) / height (m) 2 BMI of 25 to 29.9 = Overweight BMI of over 30 = Obese Being overweight is associated with a higher risk of disease, particularly if the body fat is concentrated around the abdomen.
  • 3. CAUSES OF OBESITY Obesity is a complex disorder with multiple interactive causes Obesity occurs when a person consumes more kilojoules (energy) than he or she burns (through physical activity) The cause of the imbalance between kilojoules input and output may differ from person to person
  • 4. CAUSES OF OBESITY - BIOLOGICAL FACTORS Gender; women carry more fat, but men carry more fat around stomach, therefore greater risk CVD Age; maintenance of body weight becomes more difficult with age Genetics; including inheritance of specific body type
  • 5. CAUSES OF OBESITY - BIOLOGICAL FACTORS  Hormonal factors; BMR; basal metabolic rate - Your basal metabolic rate, or BMR, is the minimum calorific requirement needed to sustain life in a resting individual. It can be looked at as being the amount of energy (measured in calories) expended by the body to remain in bed asleep all day! - Thyroxin (hormone produced by the thyroid gland) is a key BMR-regulator which speeds up the metabolic activity of the body. The more thyroxin produced, the higher the BMR.
  • 6. CAUSES OF OBESITY - BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS Eating behaviour; food choices, cultural influences, emotions, eating habits, attitudes Lack of Physical activity; the amount and intensity of exercise
  • 7. CAUSES OF OBESITY - ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Technology; has increased time being sedentary (not active), computers, remote controls etc Industrialisation; increased availability of high fat, sugar and energy dense foods Urbanisation; people living environment that promotes sedentary lifestyles eg. Take away food outlet convenience
  • 8. OBESITY - A RISK FACTOR FOR… Life threatening chronic illness; CVD, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke, cancers Non-fatal debilitating conditions; reduce quality of life, gall bladder disease, respiratory difficulties, infertility and osteoarthritis Psychological problems; depression, low self esteem
  • 9. ROLE OF NUTRITION AS A PROTECTIVE FACTORFOR DISEASE  An individuals nutrient and food intake can have both short-term and long-term consequences on their health.  Food choices can act as a protective factor against certain diseases.  Some commonly consumed foods are energy dense, rather than supplying a range of nutrients  Regular consumption of these foods decreases the quality of nutrient intake.
  • 10. CONTINUED The associated level of protection foods offer, is very closely linked with other factors such as;- Physical activity- Biological influences- Genetics (includinggender)

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