Language and Speech developmentPresented by: Maie HilmySpecialist of Psychiatry - Cairo University
Definitions: Language: Communication of thoughts and feelings through a system of signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, or written symbols. Speech: Speech The act of expressing or describing thoughts, feelings, or perceptions by the articulation of words
Almost every human child succeeds in learning language We tend to take theprocess of language learning for granted, language seems like a basic instinct as simple as breathing or blinking In fact, it is the most complex ability that a human being will ever master.
Linguists in the Chomskyan tradition Universal coreA particular configuration of optional features ‘parameters’
Language is an InstinctDriven by specifically human Evolutionary adaptations.
Many psychologists disagreeLanguage does not emerge from a unique instinct But Operation of general processes of Evolution, Cognition, Social processes, Facts about the human body Language development is a window on the operation of the human mind.
Developmental course of language acquisition u Early auditory development: Beyond the basic level of auditory processing, infants appear to have a remarkable capacity to record and store sequences of auditory events. Records input sounds Replays them Accustoms the ear to their patterns Well before learning the actual meanings of these words
Evidence Ifthe perceptual class of the stimulus suddenly changes, the baby will brighten up and turn to look at the new stimulus. Infants prefer the language that resembles the speech of their mothers. Prefer their own mother’s voice, as opposed to that of other women. Suggests that, during the first eight months, The child is remarkably attentive to language. Although not yet learning words, but acquiring the basic auditory patterns of his native language
1) Early articulation Exploration of the coordinated Deaf use of the D infants mouth, I babble Lungs, andH S much like larynx.U T Hearing YN R P children OR K A DIT ACG E AU DBE S I FEER S N BABBLING Consonant Drift in the -Vowel direction of the CRIES COOING (CV) native syllables language0 3 6 9 12 Months
1) The first words Based on three earlier developments: • Infant’s growing ability to record the sounds of words. • Ability to control vocal productions that occur in the late stages of babbling. • General growth of the symbolic function, as represented in play and imitation.
The forms of early words often deviate radicallyfrom the adult standard. Children tend to:•Drop unstressed syllables, producinghippopotamus as poma.•Repeat consonants, producing water as wawa.•Simplify and reduce consonant clusters,producing tree as pee. PROBLE M IS So many simplifications occur at once Making so many words difficult to recognize
Throughout the second year, child struggles with perfecting the sounds and meanings of the first wordsFor several months, the child produces only isolated single words
1) Word combinations Child soon realizes the importance of combining Predicates (e.g. want, more, go) Arguments (e.g. cookie or Mommy) First step in syntactic development
Child has to figure out how This is also guided by earlierdevelopments in comprehension.
Example: MILK MORE More Milk Child gradually ARGUMENT VERB: Want builds up longersentences Want More Milk and more complex grammar ARGUMENT I
1) The child’s first sentences Allincomplete and ungrammatical. Include only the most important words, without any of the relational glue. ? Have not yet Know the ‘glue words’ but find it learned the difficult to coordinate their missing words production in the correct orderChildren tend to be conservative and unsure about how to use verbs productively until about age 5
SPEECH DEVELOPMENT Begins to use two word phrases Initial emergence of past tenses Begins to learn the social uses of language Begins to form subject–verb–object sentences Begins to tell narratives Development of ‘ed’ endings 20 2 yrs 3 4 5 yrsmonths
Speech and language development (1). AGE PERIOD DEVELOPMENTAL ADVANCE Prenatal Functional maturation of hearing at about 5 months gestational age Birth Ability to discriminate sounds. Transition to breathing . Vocalization begins. Birth to 1 month Reflexive stage of phonetic development (cries, hiccups, belches) 2 to 3 months Cooing stage 4 to 5 months Expansion stage (Remodeling of vocal cords) 6 to 10 months Babbling stage. Vocalizations begin to reflect the ambient language. 11 to 18 months Auditory discrimination of speech is tuned to the ambient language
Speech and language development (2). AGE PERIOD DEVELOPMENTAL ADVANCE 19 to 24 months Possess 10 to 20 consonants + sufficient phonetic ability to learn many new words. 25 to 36 months Continued growth in phonetic inventory, along with vocabulary and syntax. Stuttering is often first noticed at about this age 3 to 4 years Almost all vowels are mastered by this age, along with a number of consonants. 4 to 6 years Closing in on phonemic mastery, with the exception of fricative (noise) sounds. Teeth fall. 6 to 9 years Phonemic mastery typically completed, but refinements in speech production continue. 9+ years Speech development is complete, but developmental changes can be observed (E.G., Voice change in adolescence)
Language In teacquisition us ra ct t ra io pa n be ap tw l ee ca vo n ch ith ild w an e d tic pa ac re nt Pr DEVELOPMENTAL s PROCESS + opportunities for learning Individual lexical items
DISORDERS Language disorders: Expressive language disorder Mixed receptive-expressive language disorder Speech disorders: Phonological disorder Stuttering
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