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Final memory
 

Final memory

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psycology course (27,29-2-2012)

psycology course (27,29-2-2012)

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    Final memory Final memory Presentation Transcript

    • Memory Dr. Osama RefaatLecturer of Psychiatry, Cairo UniversityDirector of Training Department MOH
    • Definition• Memory: The capacity to retain information over time• Memory is one of the most important concepts in learning; if things are not remembered, no learning can take place
    • Physiology of Memory• Memory trace represents a biochemical and electrophysiological change in brain• Major areas: – Temporal lobe – Diencephalon – Mammillary bodies – Limbic system (amygdala, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus)
    • • Major neurotransmitters: – Acetylcholine • Nucleus basalis of Mynert (Forebrain) – Glutamate • NMDA receptors
    • Stages of Memory• Encoding: the conversion of incoming information into a form that can be stored in memory (memory trace).• Storage: maintaining information in memory over a period of time.• Retrieval: the process of searching for stored information and bringing it to mind.
    • Basic Reasons for Forgetting• Encoding Failure: information did not get into memory.• Storage Failure: information has disappeared from memory; it is no longer in storage.• Retrieval Failure: information is stored in memory but it cannot be located.
    • Major Theories of Forgetting• Decay Theory: information in memory eventually disappears if it is not used. (“Use it or lose it.”)• Interference Theory: information stays in memory permanently even if it is not used. Forgetting occurs because other things we have learned somehow prevent us from finding the information we want• Repression: active forgetfulness
    • ExperimentYou learn a list of 10 “nonsense syllables” (like XUG or MUW), then get a test on it 1, 2, 4 or 8 hours later (“retention interval”). Does it matter if you are asleep or awake during this retention interval?
    • We are exposed to new information when we are awake but not when we are asleep. Compare the amount recalled after 8 hours awake to the amount recalled after 8 hours asleep. Your choices: (A) Recall will be higher after being asleep. (B) Recall will be higher after being awake. (C) Asleep = awake.Decay Theory predicts: ?Interference Theory predicts: ?
    • Decay Theory predicts: CInterference Theory predicts: A
    • Results Supported theSyllables Recalled (out of 10) 10 Interference Theory Asleep 5 Awake 0 0 2 4 6 8 Retention Interval
    • Types of Memory3 types of memories: – Sensory Memory – Short-Term Memory – Long-Term Memory
    • These memories differ in terms of 3 characteristics:• Capacity: how many units of information can be held at one time.• Duration of Storage: how long the information can be held.• Reason for Forgetting: storage failure versus retrieval failure.
    • Long-Term Memory• Relatively permanent storage of information
    • Long-Term Memory Contains... Declarative Memory: Nondeclarative Memory: Information you cannot Information you can describe describeSemantic Episodic Memory: SkilledMemory: Habits Personally actions General experiencedinformation events
    • Long-Term Memory• Capacity: virtually unlimited.• Duration of Storage: up to a lifetime.• Reason for forgetting: retrieval failure (e.g., interference).
    • Short-Term Memory (Working Memory)• Def: Brief storage of information currently being used• Capacity: 7 units, plus or minus 2 – Chunking can increase the capacity of STM• Duration of Storage: less than 30 seconds without rehearsal.• Reason for forgetting: storage failure (e.g., decay, displacement).
    • Sensory Memory• Def: Temporary storage of information• Capacity: large; contains most details of sensory input.• Duration of Storage: visual: 1/10 second; auditory: 2 seconds.• Reason for forgetting: storage failure (e.g., decay).
    • Forgetting
    • STM LTM Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement?After information enters STM, a copy may or maynot be sent to LTM.Soon, however, that information will disappearfrom STM.Two processes could cause information todisappear from STM: decay and displacement.
    • STM LTM Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement?Decay: information that is not rehearsed disappearsas time passes.Displacement: information being held in STM ispushed out by newly arriving information.Displacement is most likely to occur when thecapacity limit of STM has been reached (about 7units of information).
    • STM LTM Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement?B R D Q L T H JDisplacement is most likely to occur when thecapacity limit of STM has been reached (about 7units of information).
    • STM LTM Forgetting from Short-Term Memory: Decay or Displacement? B R D Q L T H JDisplacement is most likely to occur when thecapacity limit of STM has been reached (about 7units of information).
    • Types of Interference• Retroactive Interference: – Recently learned information prevents recall of earlier learned information.• Proactive Interference: – Earlier learned information prevents recall of later learned information
    • • When information is learnt:• RI: Interferin Target Info g Info• PI: Interferin g Info Target Info
    • • When information is learnt:• RI: Lesson 1 Lesson 2• PI: Lesson 1 Lesson 2
    • Remembering
    • Basic SequenceSensory Short-Term Long-Term Sensory MemoryInput Memory Memory Suppose that you wanted to memorize the phone number of a restaurant: 562-7837. In terms of the model, your goal is to get this information into long- term memory. You look at a page of a phone book. Scanning the page, you find the listing you want. This is a “sensory input” to the system. The first stop is sensory memory.
    • Basic SequenceSensory Short-Term Long-Term Sensory MemoryInput Memory Memory Attention A copy is made in sensory memory of the visual patterns, 562-7837. Generally, just paying attention to something in sensory memory moves it to short-term memory. However, with verbal information, there is an extra step because short-term memory prefers to take information in an auditory form—a form you can hear.
    • Basic SequenceSensory Short-Term Long-Term Sensory MemoryInput Memory Memory Attention This is called auditory encoding, the conversion of visual patterns to sounds. You do this when you “listen” to the sounds of these words on the screen. It involves pattern recognition. Visual patterns in sensory memory are compared to prototypes in long- term memory.
    • Basic SequenceSensory Short-Term Long-Term Sensory MemoryInput Memory Memory Attention Sounds corresponding to the visual patterns are then located and copied into short-term memory. . When you become aware of these sounds, you know they are in short-term memory. The process of auditory encoding has been completed. The link from LTM to STM illustrates the process of retrieval, a key intermediate step in memorization.
    • Basic SequenceSensory Short-Term Long-Term Sensory MemoryInput Memory Memory Attention You have a new sequence of sounds in short-term memory: 562-7837. Your goal is to move this sequence into long-term memory. There are two strategies for moving information from STM to LTM: (1) repetition; (2) elaboration.
    • Basic SequenceSensory Short-Term Long-Term Sensory MemoryInput Memory Memory Attention Repetition When you repeat (rehearse) information, two things happen: 1. You recirculate it in STM. Each time you do this, you “reset the clock” and get another few seconds before the information decays. 2. You increase the chances that the information will be copied into LTM. But this is an unreliable strategy.
    • Basic SequenceSensory Short-Term Long-Term Sensory MemoryInput Memory Memory Attention Elaboration Elaboration is much more effective. You retrieve related information from LTM and combine it with the information you are holding in STM. For example, you can use the letters that correspond to the digits on the phone dial and make a word out of the digits:
    • Basic SequenceSensory Short-Term Long-Term Sensory MemoryInput Memory Memory Attention Elaboration 5 6 2 - 7 8 3 7 L O B S T E R Visualization works best. Try to come up with words that refer to objects you can picture in your “mind’s eye”.
    • Basic SequenceSensory Short-Term Long-Term Sensory MemoryInput Memory Memory Attention Elaboration What you encode (enter into) long-term memory is the word, lobster, and the mental picture of a lobster. You also encode the rule, “Dial the digits that go with the letters.”
    • Basic SequenceSensory Short-Term Long-Term Sensory MemoryInput Memory Memory Attention Elaboration It will help if you create a mental picture that links the lobster to the restaurant; maybe visualize a lobster going inside, like a customer. When it comes time to dial, the thought of the restaurant triggers the image of the lobster, which reminds you of your code word, “lobster”, and the rule: “Dial the digits that go with the letters.”
    • Testing Memory• Bed side tests – Registration – Short term memory (digit span: the capacity to hear and immediately repeat back a unfamiliar sequence of numbers) – Long term memory• Specialized memory tests – WMS• Part of cognitive battery – CAMCOG
    • Disorders of Memory• Amnesia: – Anterograde – Retrograde – Global – Circumscribed• Hypermnesia• Paramnesia: – Retrospective Falsification – Confabulation – Déjà vu (illusion of familiarity) – Jamais vu (illusion of unfamiliarity)