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10 social

  1. 1. Social Psychology Akmal Mostafa
  2. 2. Introduction Social psychologists are concerned with how we explains others’ behaviour and how others’ behaviour affects us.
  3. 3. Attribution Theory Hieder (1958) People attribute others’ behaviour to their dispositions (internal or external). Personality explanation. Sometimes this is over course true, we do have personalities after all We overestimate the importance of personality in others’ behaviour
  4. 4. Attribution Theory We tend to do the other with us, so when we do something we blame the situation The fundamental attribution error • We have more data in essence Attributions have big effects • Do you blame the person or the situation, and then do you generalize….
  5. 5. Attitudes Attitudes are evaluative response that predispose us to react in a certain way to Objects Events People It has three components: cognitive- Affective and Behavioral.
  6. 6. Functions of Attitude1- Knowledge.2- expression.3- Ego-Defense.4- Social adjustment.
  7. 7. Balance Theory:People tend to organize their attitude inharmony.Cognitive dissonance:When two or more of our attitudes areinconsistent with each other
  8. 8. Attitude change Do we change the way people think? Not necessarily Attitudes guide actions if • Outside influences are minimal • Attitude is specifically related to the behaviour • Awareness of attitudes is important
  9. 9. Social InfluenceDifferent ways to have power (social power over others:1- Authority.2- reward.3- Coercive power.4- Charisma.5- Expert.
  10. 10. Conformity and Obedience Conformity is the agreement of people with each others. • Suicides go up after suicides are published • So do car crashes • Airplane crashes
  11. 11. Factors that affect conformity Made to feel incompetent At least three people High status group Unanimity No prior commitment Our behaviour is in the open Cultural effects
  12. 12. Social Influence Normative social influence • When it is clear what the norm is (goal is social acceptance). Informational social influence • When we are not sure about what to do, but we have to do the right thing
  13. 13. Milgram Teacher and Learner Learner was a confederate Paired associates Wrong answer, given a ‘shock’ ‘You must continue’ 63% completed! Started a big debate about ethics Most participants were happy to learn this scary thing about themselves
  14. 14. What does it all mean? People go against their beliefs under the right circumstances Under the right conditions people will do awful things • Don’t let this absolve anyone
  15. 15. Social Facilitation Improved performance in the presence of others of the same species. Probably due to arousal
  16. 16. Social Loafing Doing things as a group and loafing When you believe others are trying, you may quit Cultural effects Less accountable
  17. 17. Crowded behavior and Deindividuation People feels to loose their identity and belong to group (during football matches). Diminished responsibility Less likely to help a stranger when you are in a group
  18. 18. Crowd factors lead todeindividuation:1- Anonymity.2- Diffuse responsibility.3- decreased self awareness.
  19. 19. Group Polarization Small differences between groups tend to grow More specifically you get an enhancement of a group’s prevailing tendancies
  20. 20. Groupthink Overconfidence Conformity Self justification Can be stopped by a good leader that listens to others and welcomes criticism Minorities can affect the group if they stick to their guns
  21. 21. Cultural effects Of course, in social psych cultural effects are going to be huge Different cultures have different norms Personal space for example There are cultural effects on gender roles, though there are quite a few universals too
  22. 22. Prejudice Mixture of beliefs, emotions and actions towards a group Influences cognition While blatant prejudice is on the wane, subtler forms are still out there
  23. 23. Victims They experience a few different things Social inequality Exclusion scapegoating
  24. 24. Where does it come from? We have a need to categorize stuff The availability heuristic does not help much The just world hypothesis • They deserve it
  25. 25. Aggression There are genetic factors There are biochemical factors The frustration aggression hypothesis Learning effects
  26. 26. Conclusions Social psychology is cool Just because you think you know something, does not mean you do, lots of counter-intuitive data The situation is important The group is important WE ARE DONE