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Community dent1

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  • 1. BEHAVIOURAL DENTISTRY Lecture 1: Introduction Dr. Manal Awad Community Dentistry 1
  • 2. BEHAVIOURAL DENTISTRY: INTRODUCTION
    • Behavioural dentistry:
    • “ Behavioural medicine (dentistry) is a new field in which clinical methods and theories derived from the behavioural sciences are applied to the treatment and prevention of medical (dental) illness” (Brown & Fromm, 1987)
    • “ Behavioural Medicine (dentistry) is the field concerned with the development of behavioural science knowledge and techniques relevant to the understanding of physical health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation” (Schwartz & Weiss, 1978)
    Copyright © 2005/06 The University of Sharjah slide
  • 3. BEHAVIOURAL DENTISTRY: INTRODUCTION
    • MAJOR DISCIPLINES WITHIN BEHAVIOURAL DENTISTRY
    • Sociology:
    • the scientific study of the origin, development, organisation and functioning of human society.
    • Psychology:
    • the scientific study of the mind, mental states, mental processes and human behaviour.
    • Social Psychology: the scientific study of interpersonal behaviour.
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  • 4. BEHAVIOURAL DENTISTRY: INTRODUCTION
    • MAJOR DISCIPLINES WITHIN BEHAVIOURAL DENTISTRY
    • Health Psychology:
    • the systematic application of psychology to health, disease and the health care system.
    • Psychiatry/Clinical Psychology:
    • that branch of medicine/psychology that deals with the study, treatment and prevention of nervous and mental disorders or illness.
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  • 5. Old Health Perspectives
    • BIOLOGICAL OR BIOMEDICAL MODEL OF
    • DISEASE/HEALTH
    • This model assumes illness is the consequence of biological pathogenesis
    • Health – the absence of disease
    • Health is restored by mechanical means
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  • 6. Old Health Perspectives Cont
    • In treating health the biomedical way the major diseases of the time declined
    • Polio, Cholera, Influenza
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  • 7. New Health Perspectives
    • The major diseases of today are heart disease, cancer, and lung disease
    • Preventable through modifications in behavior
    • Also clear now that psychological attitudes and social factors maintain unhealthy behaviors
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  • 8. Biomedical Model Replaced
    • Biopsychosocial Model
    • Health and Illness are products of biological, psychological, and social factors
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  • 9. The Biopsychosocial Model represents:
    • an attempt to integrate the psychological and the environmental into the traditional biomedical model of health as follows: the bio contributing factors included genetics, viruses, bacteria and structural defects.
    • The psycho aspects of health and illness were described in terms of cognitions (e.g. expectations of health), emotions (e.g. fear of treatment) and behaviours (e.g. smoking, diets, exercise)..
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  • 10. The Biopsychosocial Model represents (Con’t)
    • The social aspects of health were described in terms of social norms of behaviour (e.g. the social norm of smoking or not smoking), pressures to change behaviour (e.g. peer group expectations, parental pressure), social values on health (e.g. whether health was regarded as a good or a bad thing), social class and ethnicity
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  • 11. What causes illness?
    • The Biomedical Model : diseases either come from outside the body, invade the body and cause physical changes within the body, or originates as internal involuntary physical changes. Such diseases are caused by a number of factors, including chemical imbalances, bacteria, viruses and genetic predisposition.
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  • 12. What causes illness?
    • The Bio psychosocial model Human beings should be seen as complex systems and illness is caused by a multitude of factors and not by a single causal factor
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  • 13. Who is responsible for illness?
    • Biomedical Model:
    • illnesses arise from biological changes beyond the patients control, individuals are therefore not seen as being responsible for the illnesses. They are regarded as victims of some external force causing internal changes.
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  • 14. Who is responsible for illness?
    • The Bio psychosocial model
    • illnesses regarded as the result of a combination of factors, the individual is no longer simply seen as a passive victim.
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  • 15. How should illness be treated?
    • The Biomedical Model:
    • treatment is in terms of a vaccination, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, all of which aimed to change the physical state of the body.
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  • 16. How should illness be treated?
    • The Bio psychosocial model:
    • the whole person should be treated, not just the physical changes that have taken place. This can take the form of behaviour change, encouraging changes in beliefs and coping strategies, and compliance with medical requests.
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  • 17. who is responsible for treatment?
    • The Biomedical Model:
    Copyright © 2005/06 The University of Sharjah slide The responsibility for treatment rests with the medical profession
  • 18. who is responsible for treatment?
    • The Bio psychosocial model:
    • the patient is in part responsible for their treatment. This may take the form of responsibility to take medication, responsibility to change beliefs and behaviour. They are not seen as a victim.
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  • 19. What is the relationship between the mind and the body?
    • The Biomedical Model:
    • The mind and body function independently of each other. The mind is incapable of influencing physical matter. The mind is seen as abstract and relating to feelings and thoughts, and body is seen in terms of physical matter such as skin, muscles, bones, brain and organs. Changes in the physical matter are regarded as independent of changes in state of mind.
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  • 20. What is the relationship between the mind and the body?
    • The Bio psychosocial model: There is an increasing focus on an interaction between the mind and the body. This shift in perspective is reflected in the development of a holistic or a whole person approach to health. The mind and body interact. The mind and body are considered as separate but there is interaction between distinct structures.
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  • 21. What is the role of psychology in health and illness?
    • The Biomedical Model
    • illness may have psychological consequences, but not psychological causes. For example, cancer may cause unhappiness but mood is not seen as related to either the onset or progression of the cancer
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  • 22. What is the role of psychology in health and illness?
    • The bio psychosocial model:
    • psychological factors are seen as not only possible consequences of illness but as contributing to it's aetiology. ( Some research suggests that stress could have an impact on development of cancer ).
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  • 23. In Summary
    • 1. Health psychology aims to understand, explain, develop and test theory by:
    • Evaluating the role of behaviour in the aetiology of illness.
    • Predicting unhealthy behaviours
    • understanding the role of psychology in the experience of illness
    • Evaluating the role of psychology in the treatment of illness.
    • 2. Putting theory into practice, can be implemented by:
    • promoting healthy behaviour
    • preventing illness.
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