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Workshop #2 details, details, details
 

Workshop #2 details, details, details

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    Workshop #2 details, details, details Workshop #2 details, details, details Presentation Transcript

    • Module #2 Update March 2010 Details, Details, Details Vaccine Names, Brands, Specific Details • Vaccines have at least two names – CDC recommended abbreviations – Brand names • Use of CDC recommended abbreviations is highly recommended!! – At times we find ourselves referring to vaccines by their brand name to specifically identify a vaccine – However, document vaccines with CDC recommended abbreviations • These abbreviations stay the same over time • Brand names of vaccines come & go • Use of brand names on patient record is extremely confusing when brand is no longer is use and has become unfamiliar to us 1
    • The first module focused on the vaccine-preventable diseases. Now let’s tie those diseases to the vaccines which are used for their prevention. • But first, let’s define some vaccine terms used in this module – Pediatric vs Adult formulations • Some (but not all) vaccines • Have different formulations • That can be used ONLY for specific age groups – Do NOT use ½ doses or make other adjustments on your own • Use vaccines correctly!! 2
    • Definitions (cont) – Combination vaccines • Vaccines which protect against more than one disease – Valid vs invalid doses of vaccine • Immunizations given correctly are said to be “valid” • Immunizations given incorrectly are said to be “invalid” – Invalid doses usually need to be repeated • Most common errors that make a vaccine dose invalid are – Vaccine dose given to a patient before the minimum age for that vaccine – Vaccine dose given before the minimum interval between doses has passed 3
    • Definitions (cont) • Vaccines for Children Program (VFC) – A federal program which allows you to administer vaccines at no charge to children in specific categories – Program will be discussed in depth in Module #8 4
    • Disease: Hepatitis B Vaccine Abbreviation: Hepatitis B (Hep B) Two brands: 1) Recombivax HB 2) Engerix-B Formulations: 1) Recombivax HB a) Pediatric/Adolescent formulation Use for birth thru 19 yrs of age b) Adult formulation Use for 20 yrs of age and older 2) Engerix B a) Pediatric/Adolescent formulation Use for birth thru 19 yrs of age b) Adult formulation Use for 20 yrs of age and older 5
    • Disease: Hepatitis A Vaccine Abbreviation: Hepatitis A (Hep A) Two brands: 1) Havrix 2) VAQTA Formulations: 1) Havrix a) Pediatric/Adolescent formulation Use for 1 yr thru 18 yrs of age b) Adult formulation Use for 19 yrs of age and older 2) VAQTA a) Pediatric/Adolescent formulation Use for 1 yr thru 18 yrs of age b) Adult formulation Use for 19 yrs of age and older 6
    • Diseases: Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis Vaccine Vaccines to prevent these three diseases have been in Abbreviations: combination since the 1940s. Currently there are several of these vaccines in use. They are called diphtheria tetanus containing vaccines. DTaP DT DTP Td Tdap - These vaccines are all different vaccines - They are not interchangeable - Each is given at a specific age or for a specific reason - Yet each, if valid, can be counted as a dose in this series of vaccines 7
    • Diseases: Diphtheria, Tetanus, Pertussis (cont) Work Carefully! • Capitalized letters vs lower case letters – Diphtheria Tetanus (with and without Pertussis) containing vaccines have a very strict use of • Both capital letters AND lower case letters • The order in which the letters are written also indicates a specific vaccine – You will need to know the difference between these vaccines. They are NOT the same vaccines!!! – Memorize them (and the details that follow) now • DTaP • DTP • DT • Td • Tdap 8
    • Diphtheria, Tetanus, Diseases: Pertussis (cont) Vaccines & Brand Contains these Licensed for this age Names vaccines group DTaP Diphtheria, tetanus, 6 weeks thru 6 yrs of age 1) Tripedia pertussis 2) Infanix 3) DAPTACEL DTP (Currently not used in (Is in use in many other U.S.) countries of the world) DT Diphtheria & Tetanus 6 weeks thru 6 yrs of age Td Tetanus & diphtheria but 7 yrs of age and older in different proportions than in DTaP & DT Tdap Tetanus, diphtheria, & pertussis but in different 1) ADACEL proportions than in 11 yrs thru 64 yrs of age DTaP 2) Boostrix 10 yrs thru 64 yrs of age9
    • Disease: Hib (Haemophilus influenza type b) Vaccine Abbreviation: Hib Three brand names: 1) ActHIB 2) PedvaxHIB 3) Hiberix Disease: Polio Vaccine Abbreviation: IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine) Only one brand IPOL currently in use in U.S: IPV and OPV are two OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine) is in different vaccines but both prevent the same wide use in other countries 10 disease
    • Disease: Pneumococcal This is a category of disease diseases which has types and subtypes Vaccine These vaccines Abbreviations are not interchangeable. & Brands: 1) PCV7 Prevents 7 types of Brand name: pneumococcal disease Prevnar 2) PCV13 Prevents 13 types of pneumococcal disease (Newly licensed 2-2010) 3) PPSV23 Prevents 23 types of Brand name: pneumococcal disease 11 Pneumovax
    • Disease: Meningococcal This is another category of diseases which has types disease and subtypes Vaccine Abbreviations & Brands: 1) MCV4 Both brands of MCV4 vaccine protect against the a) Menactra same 4 types of disease b) Menveo Newly licensed 2-2010 2) MPSV4 This vaccine protects against the same four subtypes of (Menomune) disease as MCV4. However, it is made in a very different manner and is not interchangeable with MCV4 vaccines. 12
    • Work Carefully: conjugate vs polysaccharide • Two vaccines currently come as Conjugate vaccines and as Polysaccharide vaccines – These are two different ways of making vaccines – Conjugate and Polysaccharide vaccines are NOT interchangeable • The “C” identifies pneumococcal & meningococcal vaccines as conjugate • The “PS” identifies pneumococcal & meningococcal vaccine as polysaccharide – PCV7 Pneumococcal CONJUGATE vaccine – PCV13 Pneumococcal CONJUGATE vaccine – PPSV23 Pneumococcal POLYSACCHARIDE vaccine – MCV4 Meningococcal CONJUGATE vaccine – MPSV4 Meningococcal POLYSACCHARIDE vaccine • Pay close attention to which vaccine is ordered • Give the correct vaccine • Document the correct vaccine 13
    • Work Carefully: conjugate vs polysaccharide (cont) • PCV7 - Pneumococcal CONJUGATE vaccine - Brand name: Prevnar - Routine childhood vaccine • PCV13 - Another Pneumococcal CONJUGATE vaccine - Brand name: Prevnar13 - Newly licensed 2-2010 • PPSV23 - Pneumococcal POLYSACCHARIDE vaccine - Brand name: Pneumovax - NOT a routine vaccine for children - But can be given to high-risk children who are 2 years of age and older - Generally given to adults 14
    • Work Carefully: conjugate vs polysaccharide (cont) • MCV4 - Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine - Brand names: Menactra & Menveo - Licensed for ages 2 (two) - 55 years only - Given routinely to adolescents • MPSV4 - Meningococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine - Brand name: Menomune - NOT given routinely - Used if patient 56 years old or older - Used if pt 2-55 yrs old but MCV4 not available - Used if patient has history of Guillian-Barre syndrome - NOT on Vaccines for Children program 15
    • Disease: Rotavirus Vaccine Abbreviations and Brand Names: Abbreviation Brand Name 1) RV5 RotaTeq ® 2) RV1 Rotarix ® Rotavirus vaccine schedule is not covered in this module but please be aware that it has a very specific schedule that must be followed when administering this vaccine 16
    • Diseases: Measles, Mump, Rubella Vaccine Abbreviation: MMR History of disease gives immunity. However, patient must have had history of all three of these diseases before vaccine is held Disease: Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine Abbreviation: Varicella or Var Again, history of disease gives immunity & vaccine may be held if specific criteria are met 17
    • Disease: Human Which causes cervical Papillomavirus cancer and genital warts Vaccine Vaccine is licensed only for Abbreviations & persons age 9 years through 26 yrs (Brand Names) 1) HPV4 - Licensed for females for prevention of cervical cancer (Gardasil) and genital warts - May be used for males for prevention of genital warts 2) HPV2 - Licensed only for females (Cervarix) for prevention of cervical caner - Does not prevent genital warts 18
    • Disease: Shingles Vaccine (Abbreviation): Zostavax (Zoster) Vaccine is licensed only for persons 60 yrs or age and older Disease: Influenza Vaccine Types 1) TIV (Trivalent Influenza Injectable vaccine Vaccine) 2) LAIV (Live Attenuated Intranasal vaccine Influenza Vaccine) Influenza vaccines are made each year specifically for the upcoming influenza season. Products and recommendations vary. 19
    • Combination Vaccines This is simply a list of current combination vaccines It is not a complete list of details for their use. Brand Name Combination contains these vaccines Pediarix DTaP – IPV - Hep B Pentacel DTaP – IPV - Hib Kinrix DTaP – IPV Comvax Hib – Hep B Twinrix Hep A – Hep B ProQuad MMR - Varicella DTaP, DT, Td, Tdap Discussed previously MMR Discussed previously 20
    • Additional Definition of Terms – Presentation • Term used to describe whether vaccine comes to you as single dose vial, multi-dose vial, prefilled syringe, etc. – Preservative Free (PF) • Does not contain thimerosol – Which was frequently used as preservative in the past – With only a few exceptions, has now been removed from vaccines 21
    • Additional Definition of Terms (cont) • Live vs Killed vaccines – Live vaccines (attenuated) • Strength has been weakened so germ will begin immune process in the body but will not give disease if patient’s immune system is healthy • Very fragile vaccines • Do NOT give to pregnant women • Do NOT give to people whose immune systems are not normal • Routine vaccines which are Live – MMR, Varicella, MMRV, Zoster, LAIV, RV5, RV1 – Killed vaccines (inactivated) • All other vaccines which are given routinely • Absolutely impossible for these vaccines to cause the disease in persons who receive the vaccine 22
    • Additional Definition of Terms (cont) • Vaccines which come as liquid – Usually (but not always) are ready to be administered • Vaccines which come as powder – Must be mixed up • Reconstitute – Word used for “mixing” the powder & liquid • Diluent – Word used for liquid that is mixed with powder 23
    • Additional Definition of Terms (cont) • Diluents – You MUST use ONLY the diluent which comes specifically with each powdered vaccine – Current vaccines that need to be reconstituted: • ActHIB – Comes with its own diluent in the box • MPSV4 (Menomune) – Come with its own diluent • MMR, Varicella, MMRV – All made by same company – Merck – Diluent comes in separate box – Labeled as “Sterile Diluent for Merck Live Virus Vaccines” – Do NOT freeze diluent – Do not use any other liquid to mix Merck vaccines 24
    • Screen for contraindications and precautions • At times there are reasons to NOT give specific vaccines – Contraindications • Permanent conditions that prohibit a patient from ever getting vaccine • E.g., Anaphylactic reaction to vaccine – Precautions • Temporary conditions that may or may not prohibit a patient from getting vaccine • Provider must look at risk of vaccine vs benefit of vaccine – Pregnancy – Moderate – severe illness 25
    • Screen for contraindications and precautions (cont) • Every patient must be screened • Every time a vaccine is to be given • This module will not cover screening in detail • Screening must be done by provider or experienced nurse 26
    • Screen for contraindications and precautions (cont) • Screening Forms – One for children and teens – Another for adults – With appropriate screening questions – From Immunization Action Coalition (IAC) – Updated as necessary by that agency – Available in AIM Kit & on IAC website 27
    • Screen for contraindications and precautions (cont) • Screening Forms (cont) – Additional information on back of form – For help if patient’s answer indicates a potential problem 28
    • Again, Work Carefully: • Vaccines given in other countries – Remember: other countries often use different combination vaccines – Do NOT assume you can guess which vaccine is which – Ask to have vaccine record translated by someone who knows the language – E.g., Sarampion in Spanish is Measles • But a Sarampion vaccine contains only Measles vaccine • It does not contain Mumps or Rubella vaccine 29
    • Details, Details, Details • These are only a few of the details about working with vaccines • Always work very carefully with vaccines • If you are unsure about something, ask questions from a reliable source before you make a mistake! 30
    • Games People Play #1 Review of diseases, abbreviations, & brand names Let’s Practice: Note to instructor: • Write names of all diseases, vaccine abbreviations, & brand names -- one each -- on small pieces of paper • Put all pieces of paper into a hat • Attendees at class then – Draw one piece of paper out of hat – If disease is written on paper, attendee will give abbreviation of vaccine, & brand name – If brand name is written on paper, attendee must give disease prevented, & abbreviation, etc. – Repeat • Go around the room, attendees take turns drawing • Until all review is completed 31