Workshop #1 intro & diseases

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  • 1. Orientation to Immunizations for Medical Personnel who are new to working with vaccines Module #1 Introduction to Vaccine Preventable Diseases Carolee Besteman, RN MS Clinical Consultant Michigan Primary Care Association Updated March 2010 1
  • 2. Introduction • This Introductory Course – Gives information to • Work as a team (e.g., medical assistant and provider) – Does NOT give enough information • For medical assistant (MA) to assess for needed immunizations on your own • To make decisions – About medical care – About specific contraindications or precautions – Expectations are that you will: • Continue to learn about vaccines and immunizations • Participate in yearly inservices from LHD or MDCH – To teach you additional details – To let you know what is new 2
  • 3. Module #1 Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Why do we give immunizations? • Prevention • Immunity – Antibodies • Proteins the body makes that protect us from diseases – Do NOT confuse with Antibiotics • Medicines that fight disease after infection has begun 3
  • 4. Why Immunize? • Vaccines prevent specific communicable diseases • Why learn about these diseases? – All of these communicable diseases • Spread easily (usually - but not always - from person to person) • May be very serious – Cause pain and suffering – May be deadly • Are vaccine-preventable diseases • To work with vaccines, MA does NOT need to recognize or diagnose the diseases • But the diseases all need to be real – To you – To your patients & families • You must recognize the names of the diseases if you hear they are spreading in your state or town • Sometimes the disease and vaccine are called by the same name – Ask if this becomes confusing to you 4
  • 5. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases • Many are spread by talking, coughing, or sneezing • One is spread in the dirt (Tetanus) • Some are spread in other ways – Blood or body fluids (Hepatitis B) – Sexual activity (Human Papillomavirus & Hep B) – Contaminated food or water (Hep A) 5
  • 6. Vaccines-Preventable Diseases Hepatitis B • Virus which infects the liver • Spread by blood and other body fluids • Symptoms may include yellow eyes & skin, tiredness, loss of appetite & nausea • Or may cause no symptoms that we can see 6
  • 7. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Hepatitis B (cont) • Can lead to different kinds of liver disease – Cirrhosis – Liver cancer • Some people become carriers – Which means they never get rid of the virus in their liver – Will have life-long liver problems – Can spread virus to other people without being aware of it 7
  • 8. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Hepatitis A • Hep A virus and Hep B virus both infect the liver • However, Hep A disease is caused by a different virus than the Hep B virus • Usually spread by food or water that is contaminated with stool from another person with disease • Causes the same symptoms as Hepatitis B which we may or may not be able to see 8
  • 9. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Diphtheria • Disease has several types • One type forms thick gray coating over back of throat. • Coating can eventually cover the airway and suffocate the patient •Can also effect one’s heart • Kills 1 of 10 people infected with it 9
  • 10. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Tetanus • Lives in the dirt and feces of some animals • Enters the body through cuts, abrasions, and puncture wounds • Muscles become rigid & the patient cannot open mouth or swallow • May not be able to breathe 10
  • 11. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Tetanus (cont) • Causes painful contractions & spasms • Spasms may break the patient’s bones • Kills 3 in 10 people infected with it 11
  • 12. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Pertussis (Whooping Cough) • Horrendous cough that can last 6-9 months • With great amounts of mucus and choking • May turn blue from lack of oxygen while coughing • Blood vessels in eyes and face may break from coughing 12
  • 13. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Hib (Haemophilus influenza type b) • Disease can take many forms – This child’s facial tissue is infected with Hib – Hand is gangrene from sepsis with Hib – Can also cause pneumonia, arthritis • In past, was a major cause of meningitis • However, do not call it “meningitis vaccine” 13
  • 14. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Polio • Disease which cripples and paralyzes many of its victims • Before vaccine, outbreaks terrified whole towns and states • Many patients did not look or feel sick but still spread the disease • Now rarely seen in the US but still a problem in some parts of the world 14
  • 15. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Polio cont 15
  • 16. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Pneumococcal disease • Again, disease can take many forms • Leading cause of meningitis • Causes 10% of ear infections in the US • But do NOT call it the “ear infection” vaccine • Child can still get ear infections from other causes 16
  • 17. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases • Meningococcal disease – Often affects the brain and spinal cord (meningitis) – Spreads by • sneezing • coughing • kissing • sharing food and drinks with infected person – In places where people are in close contact (such as college dorms) – Common early symptoms include • fever • headache • confusion • stiff neck 17
  • 18. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Meningococcal Disease (cont) • Can also affect other parts of body & cause – Loss of arms or legs – Deafness – Nervous system problems – Mental retardation – Seizures – Strokes 18
  • 19. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Rotavirus • One major cause of – Vomiting – Diarrhea – High fever • Child becomes severely dehydrated very quickly • Vaccine does not prevent all rotavirus illness but does give 98% protection against severe disease 19
  • 20. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Measles • Begins with red, watery eyes and runny nose • Then patient develops rash over whole body • May lead to severe complications such as – Pneumonia – Deafness – Miscarriage if the woman is pregnant – Premature birth 20
  • 21. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Measles (cont) • Disease is still a problem world wide 21
  • 22. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Mumps • Causes painful swelling under the jaw and in front of the ear • Can cause painful swelling of the testicles in men which can make them sterile • Can also cause – Meningitis – Brain damage – Deafness 22
  • 23. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Rubella • Rash especially on face and neck. • Slight fever • Patient may not feel very ill • Teach patients to call diseases “measles” and “rubella” – Do NOT allow confusion to develop with names like “German measles,” “rubeolla”, “3-day measles” 23
  • 24. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Rubella (cont) • Very serious if pregnant woman becomes infected – She can pass disease on to unborn baby – May cause miscarriage – May cause stillbirth • Or she may give birth to child with Congenital Rubella Syndrome – Physical problems, such as • cataracts or blindness • hearing loss or deafness • heart damage – Mental retardation 24
  • 25. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Chickenpox (Varicella) • Itchy rash that forms blisters • Often mild but can be very serious • Before vaccine, 50- 100 people died each year from chickenpox disease in US 25
  • 26. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Chickenpox (Varicella) cont 26
  • 27. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Human Papillomavirus • Infection that causes – Genital warts – Cervical cancer • Passed from person to person by sexual activity • Virus is very, very common • Most people with infection do not know they have it • But certain strains, over a period of time, can cause cervical cancer 27
  • 28. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Shingles (Herpes Zoster) • Varicella (chickenpox) virus has been dormant in body • Now emerges again and causes shingles • Most common in people 50 years of age and older • But may affect children also • Causes clusters of blister- like rash – In a strip-like pattern – On one side of the body – Itching or numbness – Severe pain that can last for weeks, months, or years 28
  • 29. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Influenza (“flu”) • Respiratory infection – That begins suddenly – May include • Aching all over • Fever • Runny nose • Sore throat • Cough • But is NOT a – “Stomach problem” • Is NOT vomiting • Is NOT diarrhea • Can be very severe with many possible complications 29
  • 30. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases • ALL of these diseases: – Are preventable!! – With vaccines!! • But to give protection, vaccines must be: – Administered correctly – Handled and stored correctly – Documented correctly • Your patients must be: – Assessed correctly for contraindications and precautions – Taught about • Which vaccines they are given • Which vaccines they will need next • When they will need next vaccines 30
  • 31. Vaccine-Preventable Diseases • If you need more information about the vaccine-preventable diseases – Read Vaccine Information Statements (VIS) • VIS have information on – Disease – Vaccine – Side effects from vaccine – AND much more! – Check out The Pink Book from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) • Online at 31