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• AGRICULTURE IS A PRIMARY ACTIVITIES .
• IN THE WORLD 50 % OF PEOPLE ARE BUSY IN
• ABOUT 2/3 OF INDIANS ARE AT THE MERCY OF
TYPPES OF FARMING
• COMMERICAL FARMING
• Subsistence agriculture is self-sufficiency
farming in which the farmers focus on growing
enough food to feed themselves and their
• The typical subsistence farm has a range of
crops and animals needed by the family to feed
and clothe themselves during the year.
1. Shifting agriculture
• In this type of agriculture, a patch of forest land is cleared by
a combination of felling and burning, and crops are grown.
• After 2-3 years the fertility of the soil begins to decline, the
land is abandoned and the farmer moves to clear a fresh
piece of land elsewhere in the forest as the process continues.
• While the land is left fallow the forest regrows in the cleared
area and soil fertility and biomass is restored. After a decade
or more, the farmer may return to the first piece of land.
• This form of agriculture is sustainable at low population
densities, but higher population loads require more frequent
clearing which prevents soil fertility from recovering, opens
up more of the forest canopy, and encourages scrub at the
expense of large trees, eventually resulting in deforestation
and heavy erosion and leads to global warming.
CONTINUED[PART1]. . . ………
• In this type of farming people migrate along
with their animals from one place to another in
search of fodder for their animals.
• Generally they rear cattle, sheep, goats, camels
and/or yaks for milk, skin, meat and wool
• . This way of life is common in parts of central
and western Asia, India, east and south-west
Africa and northern Eurasia.
• Examples are the
nomadic Bhotiyas and Gujjars of the
3.Intensive subsistence farming
• . In very densely populated countries like India and
China, farmers use their small land holdings to produce
enough for their own consumption, while the little remaining
produce is used for exchange against other goods.
• The cultivators use simple tools to produce the crop. It
results in much more foodbeing produced per acre compared
to other subsistence patterns .
• These farmers try to obtain maximum yield from the
available lands by intensifying cultivation
techniques, including the preparation of paddy fields which
can be used year after year.
• In the most intensive situation, farmers may even create
terraces along steep hillsides to cultivate rice paddies. Such
fields are found in densely populated parts of Asia,such as in
• They may also intensify by using manure, artificial
irrigation and animal waste as fertilizer.
• Commercial agriculture is a large-scale production
of crops for sale, intended for widespread
distribution to wholesalers or retail outlets.
• In commercial farming crops such
as wheat, maize, tea, coffee, sugarcane, cashew, rubb
er, banana, cotton are harvested and sold in the
• Commercial agriculture
includes livestock production and livestock grazing.
Due to the expensive nature of capital formation
and implementation of technological processes, the
landowners of such farms are often large
agricultural corporations (especially in developing
1.Intensive Commercial Farming is system of
agriculture in which relatively large amounts of
capital or labour are applied to relatively
smaller areas of land. It is practiced in countries
where the population pressure is reducing the
size of landholdings.
• The State of West Bengal in India provides one
of the best examples of intensive commercial
2.Extensive Commercial Farming is a system of
agriculture in which relatively small amounts
of capital or labour investment are applied to
relatively large areas of land.
• At times, the land is left fallow to regain its
fertility. It is mostly mechanized as labour is
very expensive or may not be available at all.
• It usually occurs at the margin of the
agricultural system, at a great distance from
market or on poor land of limited potential.
Crops grown are sugarcane, rice and wheat.
• Plantation Agriculture: Plantation is a large
farm or estate usually in a tropical or subtropical country where crops are grown for sale
in distant markets rather than local
• Major crops include maize (corn), wheat, rice & millets.
• Jute , cotton
Beverage crops are coffee and tea
are fiber crops.
• Maize is central to Mexican food. Virtually
every dish in Mexican cuisine uses maize.
• On form of grain or cornmeal, maize is the
of tortillas, tamales, pozole, atole and all the
dishes based on
them, like tacos, quesadillas, chilaquiles, enchila
das, tostadas and many more.
• In Mexico even a fungus of maize, known
as huitlacoche is considered a delicacy.
This grain is grown on more land area than any
other commercial food.
• World trade in wheat is greater than for all other
• Globally, wheat is the leading source of vegetable
protein in human food, having a higher protein
content than other major cereals, maize (corn) or
• In terms of total production tonnages used for
food, it is currently second to rice as the main
human food crop and ahead of maize, after allowing
for maize's more extensive use in animal feeds.
• Rice is the seed of the monocot plants
sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza
glaberrima (African rice).
• As a cereal grain, it is the most widely
consumed staple food for a large part of the
world's human population, especially in Asia.
• It is the grain with the second-highest
production, after maize (corn), according to
data for 2010.
• The millets are a group of highly variable small-
seeded grasses, widely grown around the world
as cereal crops or grains for both human food and fodder.
• They do not form a taxonomic group, but rather a
functional or agronomic one.
• Millets are important crops in the semi-arid tropics of Asia
and Africa (especially in India, Nigeria, and Niger), with
97% of millet production in developing countries.
• Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that
can be spun into coarse, strong threads.
• It is produced from plants in the
genus Corchorus, which was once classified with
the family Tiliaceae, more recently
with Malvaceae, and has now been reclassified
as belonging to the family Sparrmanniaceae.
• "Jute" is the name of the plant or fiber that is
used to make burlap, Hessian or gunny cloth
• Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or
protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the
• The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the
cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersion of the seeds.
• The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions
around the world, including the Americas, Africa, and India. The
greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found in
Mexico, followed by Australia and Africa.
• Coffee is a brewed beverage prepared from the
roasted seeds of several species of an
evergreen shrub of the genus Coffea.
• The two most common sources of coffee beans are the
highly regarded Coffea arabica, and the "robusta"
form of the hardier Coffea canephora. The latter is
resistant to the coffee leaf rust (Hemileia
vastatrix), but has a more bitter taste.
• Coffee plants are cultivated in over 70
countries, primarily in equatorial Latin
America, Southeast Asia,and Africa. Once
ripe, coffee "berries" are picked, processed, and dried
to yield the seeds inside.
• The seeds are then roasted to varying
degrees, depending on the desired flavor, before
being ground and brewed to create coffee.
• Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly
prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over
cured leaves of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis.
• After water, tea is the most widely consumed
beverage in the world.
• It has a cooling, slightly
bitter, and astringent flavour that many people