Transcript of "ISF presentation about Seed provenances at OECD WK on Forest reproductive material on april 2012"
Use of FRMProvenance policiesand climate change April 2012 Thomas Dietl, Montaraz Group
International tree seed tradeHistorically tree seed traded for many centuries acrossbordersEvidence: early 1600’s in Europe & 1700’s US ↔ EU (Picea, Pinus & other species)Concl: All major countries have international tree seedprovenances in their territories.
International trend – regulated FRM First EU regulation 89 objective: certify genetic quality in order increase production of forests. (17 spcs) Further EU and OECD regulations: warrant trueness on name, origin and genetic quality, in order facilitate international trade (47 spcs EU, + 25 some countries) Actually discussion even on shrub species BASIC MATERAIL: no international definition about the criteria for determinate source identified One of the most controlled and regulated seed market, but open to interpretation
Provenance policy Recent policy change: countries requiring national and even local provenance for reforestation and use Countries take decision on use of FRM mainly on political & market arguments without scientific criteria Local provenance = short term thinking Examples showing that in some cases foreign provenances better for future forest (in light of climate change)
Provenance trials Seeds from different provenances tested for their performance Results show that foreign provenances may be as good or even better than national Supply problems in some regions or countries – after natural disaster or dried conditions
Climate Change & effect on forestsMany report on effects of climate change on forests• “Forests are particularly sensitive to climate change, because the long life-span of trees does not allow for rapid adaptation to environmental changes.” [EU report 2008]• “Climate change effects on forests are likely to include changes in forest health and productivity and changes in the geographic range of certain tree species”[IPCC report 2007]• “In general it is expected that habitats will shift towards the poles and move upwards in elevation. With the shift of these habitats, forest biodiversity will be forced to adapt and as a result species compositions in forests is likely to change and those species and populations which are already vulnerable will potentially become extinct” [CBD ]
USDA report on Climate Change & forest diseases (April 2012) Key findings include: Armillaria root disease is projected to result in the greatest risk under drought (warmer and drier) conditions. Armillaria is common on conifers and some hardwoods; it lives on tree roots and grows exponentially when a tree becomes stressed. Yellow-cedar decline, Cytospora canker on Aspen and dwarf mistletoes also pose high risk under drought conditions. Sudden oak death and other Phytophthora tree diseases are likely to be most damaging under wetter and warmer conditions. These deadly pathogens reproduce and spread quickly under favorable moist and warm conditions Full report, "A Risk Assessment of Climate Change and the Impact of Forest Diseases on Forest Ecosystems in the Western United States and Canada," go to: http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr236/
ISF proposal of new WG activity OECD stands for promotion of free international trade Defend the recommendation of use attending to scientific criteria Collect information of actual and historic provenance trails WW Promote research programs on provenances Promote the establishing transnational regions & use of FRM based on scientific evidence