• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Public distribution system
 

Public distribution system

on

  • 11,921 views

study of pds system in himachal pradesh a project report

study of pds system in himachal pradesh a project report

Statistics

Views

Total Views
11,921
Views on SlideShare
11,921
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
449
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Public distribution system Public distribution system Document Transcript

    • AUTOMATION OF PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN HIMACHAL PRADESH A SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN PROJECT Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree ofBACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY (INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY) BY Nikhil Aggarwal (978) Vikram Thakur (979) Varun Vir Pathania (986) Abhinav Sharma (987) UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY HIMACHAL PRADESH UNIVERSITY SUMMER HILL SHIMLA June , 2011 1
    • CANDIDATE DECLARATIONWe hereby declare that the work which is presented in the project report entitled―AUTOMATED PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN HIMACHAL PRADESH‖ inpartial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of degree of BACHELOR OFTECHNOLOGY in ―INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY‖ submitted in University InstituteOf Technology Shimla, is an authentic record of our own work carried out during theperiod from Aril 2011 to June 2011 under the supervision of Er. Balvir Thakur. Thematter embodied in the project report has not been submitted by us for the award ofanother degree.Date:Place:This is certified that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to best ofmy knowledge.Er. Balvir ThakurUniversity Institute of Information TechnologyShimla-05. 2
    • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe would like to place on record our deep sense of gratitude to Dr. Raman Sharma ,Director , UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY , HIMACHALPRADESH UNIVERSITY for his generous guidance , help and useful suggestions.We express our sincere gratitude to Er. Balvir Thakur , UNIVERSITY INSTITUTE OFINFORMATION TECHNOLOGY , HIMACHAL PRADESH UNIVERSITY for theirstimulating guidance , continuous encouragement and supervision throughout thecourse of the present work and providing us with the infrastructure facilities to work on, without which the work would not have been possible.Nikhil AggarwalVikram ThakurVarun Vir PathaniaAbhinav Sharma 3
    • PREFACEThe project titled “Automation Of Public Distribution System In Himachal Pradesh” ismotivated by the idea to bring transparency in the system of public distribution to thebeneficiaries. The project study has been done according to the steps of systemdevelopment life cycle namely recognition of need, feasibility study, analysis anddesign. The current system involves manual monitoring of the PDS system whichincludes maintenance of record of allocation and distribution of subsidized goods tothe beneficiaries. The system has loopholes and can be manipulated to bring benefitto the favored individuals. 4
    • CONTENTSCHAPTER TITLE Page No. CANDIDATE’S DECLARATION 2 ACKLMOWLDEGEMENT 3 PREFACE 4 CONTENTS 5 LIST OF TABLES 5 LIST OF FIGURES 6 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY 8 SCOPE 81.0 1.1 General 10 1.2 System Overview 132.0 RECOGNITION OF NEED 2.1 Current System 14 2.1.1 Limitations Of Current System 15 2.1.2 Information Gathering 17 2.1.2.1 Questionnaires 19 2.1.2.2 On Site Observation / Interview 213.0 INTRODUCTION TO PROPOSED IT BASED SYSTEM 254.0 4.1 Existing system of Ration Card Submission 27 4.2 New Proposed Online Submission Of Ration Cards 315.0 RATION CARD DATABASE 346.0 SMART CARD 357.0 PONT OF SALE (POS) DEVICE 36 5
    • 8.0 BENEFITS FROM UID 379.0 FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PROPOSED SYSTEM 9.1 Economical Feasibility 39 9.2 Technical Feasibility 40 9.3 Behavioral Feasibility 4010.0 DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS 4111.0 NETWORK DIAGRAMS FOR PDS 4312.0 FLOW CHART OF PROPOSED SYSTEM 4613.0 DATABASE DESIGN 4814.0 ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP MODEL 5215.0 CONCLUSION 5416.0 SCOPE FOR FUTURE STUDY 55 REFERENCES 56 6
    • LIST OF TABLESTABLE No. DESCRIPTION PAGE No.1. STOCK MAINTENANCE (FOR FAIR PRICE 48 SHOP)2. USER IDENTIFICATION 483. CATEGORIZATION OF USERS 484. ALLOCATION TABLE CORRESPONDING TO 49 CATEGORY5. BILLING TABLE 50 LIST OF FIGURESFIGURE DESCRIPTION PAGE No.No.1. PDS SYSTEM OVERVIEW 132. BILL RECEIPT GIVEN TO A RATION CARD HOLDER 22 IN CURRENT SYSTEM3 - 6. SHOWING LAG IN UPDATION OF ALLOCATION 22-24 DETAILS TO FPS IN CURRENT SYSTEM OF PDS IN HIMACHAL PRADESH7. FLOW CHART FOR ONLINE SUBLISSION OF 31 RATION/SMART CARD 7
    • 8. DEPICTING FORMS FOR ONLINE SUBMISSION OF 33 RATION/SMARTCARD[DESIGNED IN VISUAL BASIC9. REPRESENTING A POINT OF SALE (POS) DEVICE 3610. DATA FLOW DIAGRAM LEVEL-0 (CONTEXT 41 DIAGRAM)11. DATA FLOW DIAGRAM LEVEL-1 4212. NETWORK DIAGRAM FOR MONITORING OF PDS 4313. SYSTEM CONCEPT DIAGRAM 4414. LINK BETWEEN FPS AND GODOWN 4415. FPS SMART CARD CREATION FLOW 4516. FLOW DIAGRAM OF PROPOSED SYSTEM 4617. LINK BETWEEN TABLE 3, 4 AND 5 5118. ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM 53 8
    • OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of the present study are: To study the problems relating to the implementations of current PDS. To study the benefits derived out of PDS to the beneficiary. To offer suggestions to improve the working of PDS by adopting automation of PDS. SCOPE The proposed project can be implemented at the bottom level of PDS network that is at one Fair Price Shop (FPS). After optimized evaluation it can be implemented to larger areas extending to each tehsil, block, district in the later phases. 9
    • INTRODUCTIONIndia’s Public Distribution System (PDS) with a network of 4.78 Lakh Fair Price Shops(FPS) is perhaps the largest retail system of its type in the world. Since 1951 publicdistribution of food grains has been retained as deliberate social policy by India withthe objectives of:(i) Providing food grains and other essential items to vulnerable sections of the societyat reasonable (subsidized) prices(ii) To put an indirect check on the open market prices of various items and(iii) To attempt socialization in the matter of distribution of essential commoditiesPDS is an important constituent of the strategy for poverty eradication and is intendedto serve as a safety net for the poor whose number is more than 33 Crores and arenutritionally at risk. PDS is operated under the joint responsibility of the Central andthe State Governments. The Central Government has taken the responsibility forprocurement, storage, transportation and bulk allocation of food grains, etc.The operational details of the PDS differ from state to state. Though the policy ofsetting up of FPSs owes its initiation to national food policy, its implementationremains the direct responsibility of the state governments. The operationalresponsibilities including allocation within the State, identification of families belowpoverty line, issue of ration cards, supervision and monitoring the functioning of FPSsrest with the State Governments. The Food and Civil Supplies Department of the StateGovernment is mainly entrusted with the task of monitoring PDS in the state.According to world bank report in India [ 1] the poorest sections and Scheduled Tribeshave been the worst hit, with 53.6 per cent and 52.7 per cent, respectively, saying theycould not access ration cards because of red-tapism, says the report, ―SocialProtection for a Changing India. 10
    • Food Subsidy:Food Subsidy is provided in the budget of the Department of Food and PublicDistribution to meet the difference between the economic cost of food grains and theirsales realization at Central Issue Prices for TPDS (Targeted PDS) and other welfareschemes. In addition, the Central Government also procures food grains for meetingthe requirements of buffer stock.Hence, part of the food subsidy also goes towards meeting the carrying cost of bufferstock.The subsidy is provided to FCI under TPDS and other welfare schemes and formaintaining the buffer stock of food grains as measure of food security.The quantum of food subsidy depends on the level of procurement of food grains andoff take under TPDS and other welfare schemes.The budgetary estimate for food subsidy during 2008-09 was about Rs. 37,000Crores.PDS System Today:The TPDS system today supports over 40 Crore Indians below the poverty line withmonthly supply of subsidized food grains. The system also provides gainfulemployment for 4.78 Lakh Fair Price Shops Owners, their employees and hired labourwho work at the FCI and state warehousing godowns.PDS also has become a cornerstone of government development policy and is tied toimplementation of most rural development programs. PDS is also a key driver of publicsentiment and is an important and very visible metric of government performance.The Planning Commission had the following to say on the PDS system in its 2005report.“For every Rs 4 spent on the PDS, only Rs 1 reaches the poor”“57% of the PDS food grain does not reach the intended people ”Recently National Advisory Council (NAC) has cleared the draft National Food SecurityBill 2011, which guarantees subsidized food grains to at least 90 percent of ruralhouseholds and 50 percent urban households. The food bill, the most envisagestwo types of households as eligible for discounted grain—―priority households,‖ whichincludes those below the poverty line (BPL) and ―general house group‖ comprisinglower middle class families. The bill has categorized 46 percent rural and 28 percenturban households under ―priority group‖ entitled to receive food grains (7kg per head) 11
    • at Rs. three, two and one for wheat/rice/millets, respectively. In addition, 49 percentrural and 22 percent urban households, categorized as ―general group‖, are entitled toreceive food grains (4 kg per head) at not more than 50 percent of the MSP of therespective food grain. The draft bill follows a life cycle approach and introduces anumber of other universal guarantees, including nutrition support to children, destitutefeeding and affordable meals for homeless and other needy urban populations ; andspecial guarantees for starvation and emergency. It also creates accountabilityframework for protection of these entitlements and allows imposition of fines ondefaulters and compensation to the victim and thus envisages a strong grievancesredress and monitoring system from centre to the block level [2].In this project report, we have tried to cover all this so that the PDS system should betransparent and optimized one. 12
    • SYSTEM OVERVIEW FARMERS CENTRAL GOVERNMENT STATE GOVERNMENTDISTRICT ADMINISTRATIONBLOCK ADMINISTRATION GODOWNS FAIR PRICE SHOPS BENEFICIARY FIGURE: 1 [ PDS FLOW ] 13
    • RECOGNITION OF NEEDCURRENT SYSTEM:In the present Public Distribution System, paper ration card are issued to eligiblefamilies. Commodities like wheat, sugar, rice and kerosene oil etc. are being offered atsubsidized prices as per the eligibility recorded in the ration card. The record ofeligibility and transactions is maintained manually both in the ration cards and theregister maintained in the Fair Price Shop (FPS).Food grains are transferred from Food corporation Of India (FCI) store to states andthen to region levels. The following steps have been integrated to cover the completefood chain [3] :  State wise allocation of food grains by Central Government.  District wise allocation of food grains by State Government.  Block wise allocation of food grains by District Administration.  Storage of food grains in godowns.  Off take of food grains against allocation.  Distribution of food grains to the Fair Price Shops.  Sale to the beneficiary. 14
    • LIMITATIONS/CHALLENGES OF CURRENT SYSTEM The most serious flaw regarding the system at present is the lack of transparency and accountability in their functioning. There is a huge diversion of commodities from the PDS due to misuse and duplication of ration cards. According to some estimates around 30% of the food grains and other commodities allocated for poor families do not reach them. According to 2010 report by a Supreme Court Committee headed by former Justice D.P. Wadhwa, India has 23 million ―ghost ration cards‖ in fictitious names and around 121 million deserving poor deprived of subsidized food. Each fake card guzzles Rs. 8200 of the annual subsidy. A large number of families living below the poverty line have not been enrolled and therefore do not have accessed to the ration card. A number of instances where benefits are being availed in the names of rightfully entitled families without their knowledge. This shadow ownership is possible due to inefficiency in ration card issuance, distribution and record keeping. Many FPS are opened only for a few days and hence people are denied their rights. There is a significant differences in the manner in which the Central and State governments arrive at the number of BPL families. This difference usually means mismatch in number of allotments. It is estimated that 25% diversion that takes place before the ration reaches to the beneficiary. Error in categorization that lead to the APL families getting BPL cards and vice versa. A significant portion of benefits provided to the APL category, are not availed by the intended beneficiaries and are instead diverted out of the system. No biometric identification for the users. 15
    •  Pilferage – PDS food grains find way to the market and all the allot do not reach the eligible person.  There is no central monitoring system to track the carriage trucks.  The entire delivery mechanism has no RFID (Radio Frequency Identification Device).In summary, targeting is not serving its real purposes, as the beneficiaries do not getfood grains in accordance with their entitlements. There is a need for foolproofmonitoring system from central store to Fair Price Shop covering transactions at alllevels and transport. 16
    • INFORMATION GATHERINGQuestionnaire: 1. Have you heard about Public Distribution System? Yes / No 2. Are you a ration card holder? Yes / No 3. Which category of Ration Card Holder do you fall under ? APL/BPL/AAY 4. Do you Regularly buy subsidized food commodities from the Fair Price Shops ? Yes / No 5. Do you Buy all the available commodities ? Yes / No If No, which commodities of the following do you prefer to buy ? i. Rice Grains ii. Pulses iii. Sugar iv. Cooking Oil v. Kerosene Oil vi. Wheat 17
    • 6. Are you aware of the maximum quantity of a particular item you can purchase? Yes / No7. Have you heard about any corruption in the PDS ? Yes / No8. Do you think the PDS system in India needs changes? Yes / No 18
    • RESULTS1. Are you a Ration Card Holder ? No. of Card Holders Yes-89% No-11%2. Do you regularly claims the subsidized goods from your FPS? Yes-22% No-78% 19
    • 3. Does the PDS in India require changes? Yes-87% No-13% 20
    • ON SITE OBSERVATION / INTERVIEWInteraction with a Fair Price Shop Owner Mr. Naresh Gupta who owns a depot atRajgarh Road, Solan was conducted. We observed that the commodities weretransferred to him from the local godown of the Civil Supplies Corporation .Thisallocation is done according to the number of ration cards that are enrolled with eachFPS.The FPS issues the goods to the dealer as per the type and number of peoplementioned in their respective Ration Cards. The three main categories of Ration Cardsare Above Poverty Line (APL) , Below Poverty Line (BPL) , Antodaya (AAY).Each FPSmaintains a bill book into which the Bills of every PDS sale is made. At the end of the month, this records are forwarded to the Civil Supplies Deptt. whichin turns maintains manual records of the distribution done to the people. Subsequentstocks that are left over at any FPS are carried forward to the next month. In the nextmonth , the same FPS receives lesser quantity. In this way, Only manual records aremaintained but not computerized ones until recently. This results in significant gaps inthe updating of stock status on the government website. 21
    • FIGURE: 2 [ BILL RECEIPT ]FIGURE: 3 [e-HIMAPURTI HOME PAGE ] 22
    • FIGURE: 4 [e-HIMAPURTI MONTHLY INFORMATION OF FPS ]FIGURE: 5 [e-HIMAPURTI MONTHLY CONSOLIDATED SALES AND ALLOCATION ] 23
    • FIGURE: 6 [e-HIMAPURTI NO INFORMATION AVAILABLE ]On visiting the official website of Deptt. Of Food &Civil Supplies , Govt. of HimachalPradesh ,it was observed that there was a lag of about 6 months In the updating ofdetails of sale and stocks at each FPS in the state. 24
    • PROPOSED I.T. BASED SOLUTION SYSTEMA significant part of the challenge in the PDS emanates from bogus and shadow rationcards if the bogus cards can be weeded out and a mechanism put in place topositively confirm and track the individual take off on the monthly basis, the problemsrelated to PDS leakages, Transparency and Transportation would get resolved.The proposed is aimed at checking leakages, curbing corruption and ensuring needbased allocation in the Public Distribution System.Earlier attempts at addressing the challenges have focused on identifying the―Physical Theft‖ and used tools like human monitoring. All these tools are easily by-passable and even if they work efficiently cannot address PDS leakages.A solution that improves the quality of the beneficiary database and can trackindividual off take coupled with the computerized MIS system can effectively improvesPDS.A database record of all the beneficiaries and allow fare distribution of commodities,identification and verification of the right person through a secured mechanism. All thepersonal details, daily transactions and details of the record will be kept and alsotransferred in a secure manner to the main branch by ICT intervention.AIMS OF THE PROPOSED SYSTEM] :  Create transparency in operations so that every citizen can very easily know what is happening and what is supposed to happen. Transparency is the basic requirement to check corruption. Without providing adequate transparency no controls or inspections can reduce corruption. 25
    • Transparency [4] will be created by computerizing all operations and providing all information on the web and some vital information through SMS. Provide most convenient way to give feed back or lodge complaints for the citizens. When an ordinary citizen found some corruption in the system, there should be a way out to make a complaint or give a suggestion to the authorities. The system to lodge the complaint should be as easy as possible so that anyone can use it without any effort. Most of the people will not be ready to spent time and money to lodge complaints. Even if they find corruption in the Public Distribution System. Call centre with the toll free number can be provided and is a convenient way to lodge a complaint. Build confidence in the public that complaints lodge through the system will be attended to. If the complaints lodged through the system are unattended citizens slowly loose confidence in the system and stop using the same. 26
    • EXISTING SYSTEM OF RATION CARD SUBMISSION [5] :Sl. No……………………„FORM-F‟[See clause 10(1)]FOOD, CIVIL SUPPLIES & CONSUMER AFFAIRS DEPARTMENTGOVERNMENT OF HIMACHAL PRADESHApplication for Consumer Card :1.City/Town/Village/Panchayat……………………………………………………………………………………………………2.Whether new or duplicate withreasons……………………………………………………………3. Name of house-owner…………………………………………………………………………4. Name of the House (with house No.)………………………………………………………………………………5. Name of the applicant………………………Father/Husband………………………………………………6. Full address with occupation &designation……………………………………………………………………………7. Date/reason of arrival of in the distributionarea…………………………………………………………………… 27
    • 8. Total monthly income of family from allsources……………………………………………………………………(with allowances for employees of the Govt./Semi-Govt.Departments/Corporations, Boards etc.)9. Gas connections : Yes/No. ConsumerNo……………………………………………………… DBC: Yes/No10. Particulars of family members for which consumer card is required:-Receipt of the application formSerial No………………………Name of the applicant ………………….………………………………This acknowledgment should be produced on …………………………….at……………………………………………when distribution card will be issued if the application is found in order.Date…………………………… 28
    • 11. I do hereby solemnly affirm and state that :(a) the information given in this form is true ;(b) Name of the persons mentioned in para-10 are in receipt of the ration from Army,neither names of these persons are entered in any consumer card in India ;(c) None of the person mentioned in para -10 are in receipt of regular diet from anyHostel/ Boarding House neither their names are entered in the ration cards issued fortheBoarding House/Hostel. Myself or my family members have a gas connectionNo.………………..Single/Double Cylinder.Signature/Thumb impression ofthe applicant along with date12. The applicant is the head of family and I know him personally ;I hereby certify that the information given above is correct;Signature of the Certifying /attesting Officer along withdesignation with sealINSTRUCTIONS FOR FILLING IN THE APPLICATION(i) The application should be filled in neatly while applying for a new distribution card.(ii) The persons coming from other state / city / town / village, should attach cacellation/migration certificate issued by the previous card issuing authority.(iii) If the applicant is a Government servant, he should get the application certified bytheHead of the office. If the person is not a Government servant, he should get hisapplication attested by a Muncipal Comissioner or a Gazetted Officer in the town oranyother class of persons specially or generally authorized by the Government.………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 29
    • FOR OFFICE USE ONLYEnquiry report of the officer / official :-Enquiry was conducted on the address given by the applicant in para -10 today andthe factsmentioned in the application form have been found to be correct.Adults Children Infants Total MembersSignature of the Enquiry Officer with Seal(Inspector, Food, Civil Supplies & ConsumerAffairs/Gram Panchayat Vikas Adhikari).Date…………………………………………Code No. of the Consumer Card……………………………… SerialNo……………………………………………………Dated……………………… Signature of card preparing Officer/Official. 30
    • NEW PROPOSED ONLINE SUBMISSION OF RATION CARDS STARTUID DATABASE ONLINE SUBMISSION OF DATA NO VERIFY PAN No. NO DATABASE YES PANCHAYAT FAMILY PAYMENT NO REGISTER YES GENERATE RECEIPT GENERATE PDS CARD No. GET CARD FROM PANCHAYAT END FIGURE: 7 31
    • ONLINE SUBMISSION OF DATA 32
    • FIGURE: 8 33
    • RATION CARD DATABASEThe data will be available in a database which is a base for the computerization ofPDS. The data will be made accessible to public on web. Public will be able to accessthe following:  Village-wise, ward-wise or FPS Fair Price Shops (FPS)-wise details individual ration card holders along with his name, father’s name and type of ration card.  Village-wise, ward-wise number of beneficiaries.  Fair price shop details  FPS wise allotment details  FPS wise no. of cards and allotment of different commodities for the selected month are available online for public view.  Lifting details will be available online: The quantity of commodities reached FPS from Distribution Centers is known as Lifting. Delays in lifting are one of the big challenges that department faces. For day to day monitoring of lifting by different districts and distribution centers, lifting details will be made available online.  Sales details of individual FPS FPS owners will be supposed to submit an affidavit every month with the details of the sales actually made against the allotment for that month. The sales quantities will be used to calculate entitlement of quantities that actually be issued to the shop, keeping into account the previous month’s balance quantities available in the shop. This information would be made available on the website on real time basis. 34
    • SMART CARDSmart Cards [1] are secure electronic devices which are used for storing datepertaining to the beneficiary, in a secure form. It is pertinent to note the onlyauthorized persons can view the date stored on the card and/or write informationthereon [3].The smart cards would be compliant with the unique ID (UID) project called Aadhaar.When a smart card is used In PDS, the following data can be stored on the card: 1. The name of the Beneficiary, family members. 2. The address of the beneficiary. 3. Bio metrics of the beneficiary and family members. 4. The category In which the beneficiary falls (i.e. APL, BPL, Antodaya) and the monthly entitlement.A smart card resembles a debit card in size and shape. Integratedcircuits/microprocessor are embedded in these cards to enable them to process data.These cards can receive inputs, which are processed — by way of the IntegratedCircuit Card applications — and deliver an output. The card can be embedded with ahologram to avoid counterfeiting. The microchip will store all information and helpgovernment track utilization. Card-holder can buy from an approved private grocer.Biometric feature would act as safeguard against misuse. Moreover, it will eliminateintermediaries, lower pilferage, thus help reduce food subsidy [6].At all Fair Price Shops , a smart transaction terminal (STT) will be used to match thefingerprint records on the smart card with that of the consumer’s and authenticatethe transaction. 35
    • POINT OF SALE DEVICE (POS)A PoS device is a single fully integrated machine having sufficient memory to storetransaction data over a period of time. The objective of using this device is to track off-take of commodities by beneficiaries with precision and to thereby eliminate avenuesfor diversion of stock. The device has the capability of carrying out sales and billingtransactions, and to print the receipt of a completed transaction [3].The other main features of a PoS device are:  It is powered by a removable, rechargeable high capacity Li-ion battery, which supports 170-200 transactions. This device should be able to function for 5-6 hours before it requires to be recharged.  It is a tamper proof device to protect data.  Enables authentication of the biometric fingerprint of beneficiaries.  Stores data of transactions carried out in the month.  Can function off-line and the stored data can be transferred subsequently as and when connectivity becomes available. FIGURE: 9 36
    • BENEFITS FROM UIDThe PDS stands to benefit from the legislative, technology and administrativeinfrastructure that are being created for the implementation of the UID program [4].The key ones are:  Better Identification:- Integration with the UID program will lead to better identification of individuals and families leading to a better targeting and increased transparency and therefore better functioning of the system and increased public approval.  Off Take Authentication: The UID database will maintain details of the beneficiaries that can be updated from multiple sources. The PDS can use this database for authentication of beneficiaries during the Off take recording process . A mechanism of verifying the ID of the person at the time of delivery of grains will help in improving the targeting of the grains .  Legislative Support: The legislative support in form of the need for submitting the UID number of several transactions will push residents to acquire a UID. It is being issued on a compulsory basis. The most convenient mechanism will be for residents to get a ration card and this will create a supporting environment for computerization of ration cards.  Technology Support: The UID program is putting together technology specifications and infrastructure to handle enrollment , storage and identity confirmation of all HP residents. The PDS can leverage this and rapidly move ahead with the enrollment process. 37
    •  Duplicate And Ghost Detection: The UIDAI will provide duplicate detection infrastructure to the PDS program . It can also assist in the development of special tools to assist in the assessment of eligibility of applicants. Support for PDS reform : The UID will become an important identifier In banking services and day to day needs of the resident . This can support the PDS reform by as an example providing the banking account number for a family to effect direct cash transfer. 38
    • FEASIBILITY STUDY [7]1. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY [2] :  According to the ECONOMIC SURVEY OF INDIA REPORT 2011, The Central government allocates Rs.428 crores to the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution out of which Rs.119 is spent of Public Distribution.  The Planning Commission Report 2005 says that out of Rs 4 spent on the PDS only Re.1 reaches the grass root level i.e. 75% of the total money allocated is not utilized for the purpose it is intended for.  According to Justice D.P. Wadhwa Report Rs. 8200 is the estimated loss each year on every fake card caused to the government [2] . If every FPS has on average 5 fake cards of the 1500 total projected , the total loss is estimated to Rs. 18,72,47,000.  If on average Rs. 30,000 is the estimated expenditure on every FPS to install the proposed system to the 4567 FPS in the state of Himachal Pradesh , the total expenditure is approximated around Rs. 13,70,10,000.Also the cost of issuing smart cards to 16,31,804 card holders in the state is approximately Rs. 50 out of which only 50% may be bourne by the government and the rest by the consumer. 39
    • 2 . TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY:  Technical Requirements for the proposed system consists of a computer desktop and a Biometric POS for every FPS and a state centralized server.  The connectivity required for the maintenance of database can be segregated into rural and urban . Urban Areas are easily connected to internet facilities whereas in the rural areas the same can be achieved through satellite communication and Radio Frequency. Help can also be taken from state run schemes like LOK MITRA and GRAM SUGAM which aims at enhancing rural connectivity. The GRAM SUGAM scheme working in the PPP model aims to set-up 3366 e-governance centers at panchayat level in the state.3. BEHAIVOURAL FEASIBILITY:  The implementation of the proposed system may create resistance in the common masses . Resistance can be reduced by implementing the system parallel . i.e. Introduction of computers for some works and doing the rest of the work manually.  The Fair Price Shop owner can be trained in using the system. 40
    • DATA FLOW DIAGRAMS LEVEL-0 [CONTEXT DIAGRAM]FIGURE: 10 [DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR PDS] 41
    • Database of card holders of FPS FINGER PRINT Check for category &material allocated POS VERIFI-USER CATION SMART CARD FPS RATION ONLINE GIVEN & ENTRY TO BILL UPDATE GENERATED DATABASE TRANSACTION DATABASE STOCK DATABASE CENTRALIZED SERVER FIGURE 11 [DATA FLOW DIAGRAM FOR PDS] 42
    • FLOW DIAGRAMSNETWORK DIAGRAM [8]: FIGURE : 12 [NETWORK DIAGRAM FOR MONITORING OF PDS] 43
    • SYSTEM CONCEPT DIAGRAM: FIGURE: 13LINK BETWEEN FPS AND GODOWN: FIGURE: 14 44
    • FPS SMART CARD [10] CREATION FLOW: FIGURE: 15 45
    • FLOW DIAGRAM FOR PROPOSED AUTOMATION OF PDS YES COMMUNICATION LINK 46
    • FIGURE: 16 47
    • DATABASE DESGIN USING TABLESTABLE: 1 FOR FPS (STOCK MAINTENANCE):-S.NO COMMODITY STOCK QUANTITY QUANTITY REMAINING PURCHASED1 WHEAT2 RICE3 SUGAR4 PULSES : CHANA DAL KALA CHANA URAD SABUT5 COOKING OIL : REFINED OIL MUSTARD OIL6 SALT7 KEROSENE OILTABLE: 2 FOR USER IDENTIFICATION:-PDS CARD No. NAME U.I.D.TABLE: 3 FOR CATEGORIZATION:-PDS CARD No. CATEGORY 48
    • TABLE: 4 DEPICTING ALLOCATED COMMODITIES:-CATEGORY APL BPL AAY IRDP QUANTITY PRICE QUANTITY PRICE QUANTITY PRICE QUANTITY PRICEWHEATRICESUGARCHANA DALKALACHANAURADSABUTREFINEDOILMUSTARDOILSALTKEROSENEOIL 49
    • TABLE: 5 SHOWING BILLING:-RATION CARD ITEM PRICE PER QUANTITY NET VALUENO UNIT ITEM PURCHASED WHEAT RICE SUGAR CHANA DAL KALA CHANA URAD SABUT REFINED OIL MUSTARD OIL SALT KEROSENE OIL TOTAL VALUE 50
    • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TABLES CATEGORY TABLE 3 TABLE 4 PDS CARD NUMBER TABLE 5 FIGURE: 17TABLE 3:- TABLE FOR CATEGORIZATION OF USERSTABLE 4:- TABLE DEPICTING ALLOCATED COMMODITIESTABLE 5:- TABLE SHOWING BILLING.Table 3 and table 4 are linked to each other through common field ― category‖.Table 3 and table 4 are linked to table 5 through the common field ―PDS card number‖.The entire liking procedure has been done to generate a fps bill according to thecategory of the card holder and quantity purchased according to government decidedsubsidized rates. 51
    • ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP MODEL1. ENTITY:  CUSTOMER  FAIR PRICE SHOP (FPS)2. ATTRIBUTES:  FOR ENTITY CUSTOMER:  NAME  PDS CARD No.  CATEGORY  QUANTITY OF EACH MATERIAL ALLOCATED  BIOMETRIC INFORMATION  FOR ENTITY FPS:  FPS NO(unique)  Total number of smart cards under it  Material to be allocated by the FPS  Transaction details 52
    • ENTITY-RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM QUANTITY NAME PDS CARD No. ALLOCATED CUSTOMER CATEGORY BIOMETRIC INFORMATION SERVICES TOTAL No. OF SMART CARDS FPS NO (unique) UNDER IT FAIR PRICE SHOP MATERIAL TRANSACTION ALLOCATION DETAILSFIGURE:DETAILS 18 FIGURE: 18 53
    • CONLUSIONThe present study that is ―AUTOMATION OF PUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM INHIMACHAL PRADESH‖ is an alternative method for monitoring the supply anddistribution of grains and is focused on to bring out cost-effective, corruption free andtransparent system of PDS in Himachal Pradesh. The project if implemented shall alsoreduce the time consuming process for registration of new ration cards. The processwill verify all the personal details of beneficiaries with the existing database based onUID, PAN and Panchayat family Register. 54
    • SCOPE FOR FUTURE STUDYThere is considerable future scope to carry out specific study for ―AUTOMATION OFPUBLIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM IN HIMACHAL PRADESH ‖. The process canfurther be enhanced with interfacing it with the data base of Health Insurance Scheme,Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guaranteed Scheme and exponentialgrowth of population on year to year basis resulting in automatic calculation of demandand supply of food grains or future planning process. 55
    • REFERENCES1. Contify BANKING; POSTED: May 26, 2011 ―India should use smart card in Public Distribution System, suggests world bank‖.2. The Tribune; dated July 24, 2011 ―NAC clears Food Security Bill draft’.3. JUSTICE WADHWA COMMITTEE REPORT4. UID and PDS System Report5. e-himapurti website6. OUTLOOK Magazine; dated; March 24, 2008 ―for a sloppy PDS, the smart card is perfect remedy-hopefully‖.7. Elias M. Awad; ―Systems Analysis and Design‖ Second Edition.8. Presentation By Food, Civil Supplies and Consumer Affairs Department Government of Gujrat, Gandhinagar; ―Smart PDS- A complete e-Governance Solution for Gujarat State Public Distribution System‖.9. Bradley; ―Programming in Visual Basic 6.0‖.10. Aditya Kwatra February- March 2002: (Research Project)-―Finger print recognition and using it to implement a computer controlled locking system‖, IIT Roorkee, India. 56