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Computer harware

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Transcript

  • 1. Computer Hardware
  • 2.  
  • 3. Overview of Computer Systems
    • Computer – device that performs stored instructions.
    • Program – instructions for computers to perform tasks.
    • Computer system – consist of computers and other peripheral devices.
    • Hardware – physical components of a computer system
    • Software - programs
  • 4. Basic Model of Computer System CPU RAM ROM INPUT DEVICES OUTPUT DEVICES STORAGE DEVICES ALU Control Unit
  • 5. Performance variables of IT
    • Functional capabilities
    • Ease of use
    • Compatibility
    • Maintainability
  • 6. Measuring functional capabilities
    • Amounts of data
    • Time
    • Rate of data transfer
    • Internal clock speed & transmission frequency
    • Speed of executing instructions
  • 7. Machine representation of data
    • On = 1
    • Off = 0
  • 8. Number systems
    • Decimal system
    • Binary system
    • Hexadecimal system
    • Octal system
  • 9. Coding data for computer processing
    • Binary representation of numbers
      • E.g. 7 = 111
    • Binary representation of text
      • E.g. Letter “A” is 01000001
  • 10. Measuring amounts of data
    • Bit - a binary digit
    • Byte = 8 bits
    • Kilobyte = 1024 bytes
    • Megabyte = 1024 Kilobytes
    • Gigabyte = 1024 Megabytes
    • Terabyte = 1024 Gigabytes
  • 11. Measuring time
    • Millisecond = 10 -3 second
    • Microsecond = 10 -6 second
    • Nanosecond = 10 -9 second
    • Picosecond = 10 -12 second
  • 12. Measuring rate of data transfer
    • Bps – Bit/sec
    • Kbps – Kilobit/sec
    • Mbps – Megabit/sec
    • Gbps – Gigabit/sec
  • 13. Measuring clock speed
    • Hz – Hertz
    • KHz – Kilohertz
    • MHz – Megahertz
    • GHz - Gigahertz
  • 14. Measuring speed of executing instructions
    • MIPS – Millions of instructions per second
    • FLOPS – Floating point operations per second
  • 15. Ease of use
    • Related to size, weight, portability, user interface, ergonomics
  • 16. Compatibility
    • Conformance to standards
    • Usability in combination or as substitute to other similar technologies.
    • Interchangeability
  • 17. Maintainability
    • Keeping the technology running
    • Related to modularity
    • Ease of upgrading
  • 18. Types of Computers
    • Mainframe
    • Midrange computer
    • Personal computer
      • Laptop/Notebook
      • Workstation
      • Servers
    • Supercomputer
    • Embedded computer
  • 19. Computer System Architecture
    • Centralized computing
    • Distributed computing
    • Personal computing
    • Network computing
    • Client-Server computing
      • Thick client vs. Thin client
  • 20. Centralized computing
  • 21. Distributed computing
  • 22. Personal computing
  • 23. Network computing
  • 24. Approaches for increasing computer performance
    • Faster and more powerful processors
    • Improved instruction set
    • Specialized processors
    • Parallel processing
  • 25. Input Devices
    • Keyboards and pointing devices
    • OCR / MICR
    • Voice recognition
    • Digital camera
  • 26. Storage Devices
    • Paper and micrographics
    • Magnetic tapes and disks
    • Optical disks
    • Flash memory
  • 27. Output Devices
    • Screen outputs
    • Paper outputs
    • Audio outputs

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