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Heritage Management Learning Module

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  • 1. Heritage management trainingThe aim of this training is to provide you with an understandingof the skills needed to help you develop cultural heritage The heritage management trainingmanagement in your enterprise. You will learn why skills in should take you approximately 2 – 2.5cultural heritage management are required by enterprises in hours.order to gain more benefits from the optimisation of yourEnterprise Cultural Heritage (ECH). This training material will This material was last updated on 14thhelp you to: December 2011.• Understand the meaning and importance of culturalheritage management in enterprises• Develop creativity and quality in your product and servicesthrough optimisation of your heritage assets• Implement Enterprise Cultural Heritage management inyour organisation This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 2. Before you start… You can maximise each of the presentations to full screen view by clicking the arrows at the bottom right hand corner of the slide. 2
  • 3. What is Enterprise Cultural Heritage (ECH)?The term used to describe your organisation’s history and its creations, whichhave the potential to uniquely innovate and differentiate your products andservices, is Enterprise Cultural Heritage (ECH).Would you like to learn more about the theory behind ECH?Academic paper:Aaltonen, S, de Tommaso, D, Ielpa, G, Heinze, A, Kalantaridis, C, Vasilieva, Eand Zygiaris , S (2010) Power of the past and SME competitiveness: AEuropean study, in: ICSB 2010, June 24-27, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA 45202.Available online http://usir.salford.ac.uk/12488/Wikipedia:Open resources about Enterprise Cultural Heritage at Wikipediapage: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterprise_Cultural_HeritageOpen community: Join our ECH Open Community on LinkedIn:www.linkedin.com/groups?about=&gid=3743528&trk=anet_ug_grppro 3
  • 4. The ECH management approachThe aim of the ECH management approach is to help you to differentiate yourenterprise from others and innovate your products and services, thereby givingyou a competitive advantage!The ECH management is based on• Recognition,• Evaluation,• Implementation and• Re-evaluation of these activities…ECH management is integrated with four aspects of existing enterpriseactivities:• Brand management,• Change management,• Heritage management and• Intellectual Property management. 4
  • 5. The four pillars of ECH managementBrand Management Change Management Heritage Management Intellectual Property ManagementDevelop and Improve your ability to Optimise your tangible Protect and exploitimplement processes develop and implement and intangible heritage your intellectualto track customers‟ routine processes, tools assets by developing property rightsvalue judgements and techniques which routines and policies for highlighting theabout your product or help to innovate and their preservation, heritage assets whichservice that help you to thus continuously adapt organisation and can have commercialbetter differentiate your to changing customer stimulation of present value for the presententerprise from others needs. and future enterprise and future of yourby highlighting your activities. enterprise.heritage assets whereappropriate. 5
  • 6. What is cultural heritage?The term “cultural heritage” is used by the MNEMOS projectteam to describe both “tangible cultural heritage” and the“intangible cultural heritage” assets, which can be defined in The definition of “culturalturn as: heritage” used by MNEMOS isTangible cultural heritage assets are things that you can touch different from that offered by- these include buildings, tools, machinery, products, works of UNESCO World Heritagemonumental sculpture and paintings which have an outstanding Convention, see UNESCOuniversal value to the organisation from a commercial, historic, definition on their website:aesthetic, artistic or scientific point of view. http://whc.unesco.org/en/conven tiontextIntangible cultural heritage assets are social customs whichare held by people and shared orally (enterprise owners,employees, customers, and suppliers etc) and include: services,crafts, oral histories, traditions, recipes, old designs and arerecognised for their outstanding universal value to theorganisation from a commercial, historic, aesthetic, artistic orscientific point of view. 6
  • 7. Are you aware of your tangible and intangible heritageassets? Thinking about your organisation, can you identify any of My organisation’s tangible cultural heritage assets these heritage are: assets… and the intangible cultural heritage assets are: 7
  • 8. Tangible and intangible – what is the difference?Your heritage assets would have been identified through Intangible heritage could be alsoyour brand management processes and are characterised associated with the physicalfor their exceptional value to your business from the location of the enterprise, its-commercial, historic, aesthetic, artistic or scientific point relation to a historic town, city,of view. region or country. For example,Tangible cultural heritage is illustrated by the old woollen sparkling wine producers from themill factory buildings of Lanificio Leo. Lanificio Leo moved Champagne region can refer toto its current premises in Calabria, Southern Italy in 1930 their region and communicateand have had to re-invent their premises as an enterprise their heritage of wine making inmuseum in order to carry on the business. that region.Intangible cultural heritage is illustrated by the recipe for“Macedonian Halva” used by Haitoglou Bros SA inThessaloniki, Greece. Since 1924, and now in the 3rdgeneration, the craft of halva making has beendeliberately passed from successive halva masters totheir apprentices. 8
  • 9. Tangible and intangible heritage – Lanificio Leo exampleIn his interview in 2010 Emilio Leo said that“In the 60s the textile market in Italy had a significantbreakdown. When the old workers retired, the previousmanagement of the factory discussed changingprocesses by building a new factory to provide continuityof production. This option risked losing both thetangible and intangible assets of the old factory. Myfather decided to keep the old factory alive and tomaintain the vintage machinery. We had the factory, wehad the machines operating, but we had no marketnetwork, no workers…”.Today the old woollen mill is re-invented as a liveoperating factory and an enterprise museum visited bystudents, professionals, tourists, and is a think-tank fornew product development ideas. Emilio Leo – Lanificio Leo owner managerLearn more about this case study on http://goo.gl/G4LGc www.lanificioleo.it 9
  • 10. Why do you need to learn about heritage management?As we can learn from the Lanificio Leo example, heritagemanagement is concerned with implementing processes for If you haven‟t yet read the brandpreserving both tangible and intangible heritage assets which could management or changebe used to inspire innovation and thus increased your management training material – consider doing so after finishingcompetitiveness. heritage management see:Heritage management combines knowledge of the Enterprise www.enterpriseculturalheritage.orgCultural Heritage (ECH) and transformation of heritage assets forboth creation of new products or development of existing products(ECH change management training). Thus heritage managementcan help you to:• Build up customer loyalty by documenting their values over time and help you to understand their shopping habits• Enhance knowledge transfer from older workers to the younger for preserving the company‟s heritage• Increase employees‟ commitment to the company‟s values and goals and therefore their loyalty 10
  • 11. How do you manage your heritage assets?Thinking about your current management practices, what steps areyou taking to protect your tangible cultural heritage… Now that you are more aware what heritage assets you have, what do you do to manage them?And the intangible cultural heritage … 11
  • 12. Can Enterprise Cultural Heritage have commercial benefits?The tradition of heritage management has been developed by Using principles frommuseums and heritage organisations. Therefore the language museum management in aused does tend to focus on “visitors” and not “customers” since commercial setting canmuseums tend to be not-for-profit organisations. present challenges but long term decisions have toHowever, the ulterior motive of most for-profit organisations is generate a return onfinancial gain and the sustainability of their enterprise. This is the investment unless it can bereason why the same terminology cannot be used in enterprises. run as a loss leader.Heritage management has a cost associated with it and this needsto be planned carefully when decisions on preservation are taken,since not all companies can afford to run a free museum to simplygenerate awareness of their Enterprise Cultural Heritage.So, for example if someone visits an artisan pottery that producesa certain type of artefacts, the visit will only generate a return oninvestment if a purchase of an artefact is made. This is because acommercially run pottery cannot be sustained without sales of itsproducts, unlike museums – which are often supported by a State. 12
  • 13. Can Enterprise Cultural Heritage have commercialbenefits for you?Thinking about your cultural heritage… Think about your- What is different about it? enterprise, are there any- How could a visitor see or interact with it? opportunities for commercial exploitation of- Could it help you to develop your current business process? your cultural heritage?- Can it help the visitor to understand the quality of your products better?- Has it got educational value for children/ schools/ universities?- Would tourists coming to your area benefit from learning about your assets as part of their understanding of the local culture?- Would those interested in your craft benefit from seeing you using this heritage to prepare products or services for them? 13
  • 14. Key issues of the heritage management process However, “heritage management” in enterprises is a process that moves from identification of tangible and intangible heritage assets to their commercial optimisation. We will look at each of these steps in due course. 1. Identify 2. Preserve 3. Organise 4. Optimise 14
  • 15. 1. How can you identify your Enterprise Cultural Heritage? To help you with identification of your heritage these are the two main reasons for doing it – Differentiate an Creating differentiation and competitiveness. This enterprise from its competitive means that the questions you could ask in competitors advantage heritage identification process are; a) Does this help to differentiate me from others? b) Can it make me more competitive? Organise heritage Maintain product management quality and system authenticity 15
  • 16. 1. Heritage identification: example The current owners of J. Atkinson & Co. found an advert from Think about this example of the October 1837 in the archive of the Lancaster Guardian that old advert and the two questions: displayed a slogan of the company - “The grasshopper eats only a) Does this help them to the finest of leaves”. See image below. differentiate their enterprise from others? b) Can it make them more competitive? 16
  • 17. 1. How can you identify your enterprise cultural heritage? Not surprising, the find Not only does the grasshopper image of the old slogan and provide an example of the intangible reference to a cultural heritage of J. Atkinson & Co but grasshopper inspired it also provides a short story to attract the current owners in any curious visitor. the design of the new logo. The story surrounding the grasshopper is emotionally charged for those who like to think of themselves as liking high quality food. Like a grasshopper that “only eats the finest of leaves” a visitor to J. Atkinson & Co can sample the finest of tea leaves or coffee beans. This means that the discovery of the slogan also provides a competitive advantage and gives authenticity to the establishment. 17
  • 18. 1. Do you want to share all your identified heritage? As you can imagine, not all heritage assets should be shared with the rest of the world. Those assets which provide you with a competitive advantage such as recipes, designs, trade secrets and others need identifying but their content preserved and kept secret – you will learn in the Intellectual Property management module how you can do so.An example of a coffee roast logbook from J. Atkinson & Co 18
  • 19. 1. Recipes and their role in innovation Re-employing information from the archives allows companies to develop new ideas or to use old principles in Old recipes and their role new products. Talking about the benefits of his records, Ian in innovation and Steel (Master Roaster & Proprietor) of J. Atkinson & Co differentiation cannot be says: underestimated. “I have taken the principles that I learnt from the old recipes, about how they are put together, and used contemporary thinking about what goes together.” You can read more about the use of heritage at J. Atkinsons & Co through our case study http://goo.gl/g84kA 19
  • 20. 1. How can you identify tangible cultural heritage assets? J. Atkinson & Co example provides us with a number of Each enterprise will recognise tangible heritage assets: heritage in their own way and it is important to take time in making - The walls in their shop are painted in the same vintage these strategic decisions. Using colour as they were hundreds of years ago… brand management techniques can help you with this see: - The vintage machinery – installed in the 1930‟s is still www.enterpriseculturalheritage.org being used to roast the coffee and purposefully not replaced but carefully mended to replicate the original smells and tastes. “[the vintage machines are]…the very thing that makes this product so unique and so much loved by its loyal customers.” Excerpt from the case study http://goo.gl/g84kA 20
  • 21. 1. Identifying more of your tangible and intangibleheritage assets? Thinking about your Learning from the J . Atkinson & Co. example of enterprise, can you think using local records can I find more information on how you could identify any my company? Think about your family, employees, more of your heritage customers, suppliers etc.? assets… Are there any machines which are no longer used but could be re-visited because of certain qualities that they bring to the production of goods? Think of these two questions when considering the above: a) Does this help me to differentiate my enterprise from others? b) Can it make me more competitive/ innovative? 21
  • 22. 2. Preserving your cultural heritageDepending on what type of heritage you identified, the Think about the cost ofpreservation process would obviously vary. preservation and consider if there are anyGenerally speaking if the tangible heritage involves machinery other local resourcesor buildings your costs will be greater compared to intangible which you could use –assets such as old adverts – which you could potentially library? university? Arephotograph and upload to your website or any social network there any heritageservice without major costs incurred. bodies which could help with raising funds orIf you have specialist equipment as in the case of Lanificio Leo volunteers?alternative funding source might be a solution to locatingfunding to preserve the craft associated with the factory.Buildings and machinery do tend to benefit from being used tomaximise their preservation. Consider special events,educational courses or entertainment for your customerswhich could help to preserve your heritage. 22
  • 23. 2. Preserving your cultural heritageThe photograph shows you Intangible cultural heritage couldtwo tools – a digital camera be preserved by transferring theand a dictaphone. These stories, knowledge and informationcould help you to record onto digital media. In the sameand preserve your way that you can take photographsheritage. You might already and video of buildings andhave one in your pocket – machinery you could photographuse it! and record people and their stories. You will never know everything that people know about your enterprise unless you give them a chance to speak about it. Observe and record your heritage assets when you become aware of them. 23
  • 24. 2. Using meta data to preserve your information Meta data is essentially notes When you take a digital photograph, sound or video recording it about notes, like in a photo is important to get into a routine of noting down the “meta data” to album where you can‟t make the image more useful. always remember what the image is and when it was Meta data is information which helps you to find your data in the taken – the meta data helps future. An example of meta data could be a simple note on the you to remind you of the back of a paper photograph detailing when the photo was taken significance of the photo. and what is depicted on it. In digital pictures meta data could be the file name of the image. For example “IMAG02342.jpg” is a common file name produced by the camera but renaming it to “1930s-whitmee-roaster.jpg” is better since it gives you the information needed to find it easier in the future. 24
  • 25. 2. Using software to help your heritage preservation Depending on the scale of There are some dedicated archiving and heritage management your archives and the level software tools which you can use to document your enterprise of detail that you use there cultural heritage assets. are some software tools that can help you. Also, Most countries have have an organisation which could help you to there might be funding find the most appropriate tools and methods to preserve your available to implement this heritage assets. For example in the UK the Association of too. Independent Museums could be a good source of ideas and guidance – see their website: www.aim-museums.co.uk or the Archives and Records Association - www.archives.org.uk Not only do they provide advice but they also share knowledge of the grant giving bodies where funding might be obtained for your cultural heritage preservation projects. 25
  • 26. 2. Developing meta data for a web page: exampleOne way to preserve your heritage is to have a website and Search for “meta datadedicate a web page to each machine or element of heritage that generator” in your searchyou have. Typical meta data using the standards for web page engine for more help onmeta data are: Title, Author, Keywords, Description, Date and tools to help you to recordResource type as illustrated by the following example: meta data. Or visit Dublin CoreTitle – 1930s Whitmee Roaster Metadata for more on metaAuthor – J. Atkinson & Co data www.dublincore.orgKeywords – vintage roaster, coffee roaster, Whitmee RoasterDescription – 1930s Whitmee Roaster machine for coffeeroasting installed at J. Atkinson & Co. premises in Lancaster, UK.Date – 2011-08-01Resource type – imageThe process of filling out and remembering meta data can besimplified by filling out an online meta data generator form. Forexample you can use this link to Virginia Tech http://goo.gl/s4UJe 26
  • 27. 2. Your meta data exercise Think of one of your heritage examples, and Title – document it with the following meta data… Author – Keywords – Description – Date - Resource type- 27
  • 28. 2. Controlled vocabulary: create your definitions ofterms The use of a standardised terminology is very important to make it possible for you to get reliable answers when information is searched for in the future. Names Types Places Emilio Leo Statuette San Francisco Leo Emilio Figurine -synonym of Cisco Leo, Emilio & Peppino Sculpture -Broader term California - California, CA, USA 28
  • 29. 2. Benefits of preserving your heritage on the internet If you already have a website and have your contact details Social media platforms and perhaps an overview of your products and services on it such as Flicker – (image that is very good. It serves a very practical purpose. sharing), YouTube (video sharing) and SoundCloud However, in order to stand out on the internet as well as in the (sound sharing) are free to commercial world you need a website that is rich in original use and help you to content giving your website visitors as well as your physical reduce preservation costs visitors the opportunity to learn more about you and your and publicise your enterprise. heritage. By preserving your heritage online you are creating a unique record of your heritage which differentiates your website from others. One of the main ways that visitors might find you is by using online search engines (e.g. Google, Yahoo etc) and by developing original meta data rich web pages your business has more chances of being found by those interested in your products and services. 29
  • 30. 3. Organising your heritage assets Now that you have identified and preserved your assets, it is In the case of tangible heritage involving a large factory site or a important to think how you are dedicated heritage room these might benefit from providing your going to use them. Think about visitors with a map or signs for to those who want to explore your your visitors or customers – premises. what is the best way for them to access your asset? Think of a good museum you have been to recently – what made it so interesting for you? When talking about built heritage management Gianna Moscardo suggests that when organising your assets: “the visitor experience should be placed at the centre of any heritage management process” Moscardo (1996) 30
  • 31. 3. Records security: Clear desk policyA clear desk policy is one of the most simple ways to helpyour enterprise to develop better records management aswell as increase security levels. It is simple - at the end ofthe working day the desk has to be cleared ready for thenext day of work. This gets staff into a routine of filing allrecords all the time. Failure to implement this can risk ininformation security compromises. A clear desk policy isone of the tools used to implement information securitymanagement standard as defined in ISO 27001.Statistics from IDC – a global market intelligence firm -suggest that on average an employee in an informationfocused role spends over 2.5 hours a day searching forinformation. Whilst this figure might be lower in craft sectorSMEs, the potential of time wastage increases with the This desk would not pass the clear deskamounts of heritage information to be stored and retrieved. policy check at the end of the working day. 31
  • 32. 3. Records security: are your records safe?Physical records (order books, customer details etc) The more intangible– do you use fire proof cabinets? heritage assets you accumulate the greater will be theAre hard copies stored in different physical locations? impact of its loss. What steps have you taken or do you needDigital records – (emails, customer orders, business to take to preserve your records.letters, your website etc)Do you have a back-up mechanism for your digitalrecords?What would happen to the records if there was a fireor your computer broke down? 32
  • 33. 3. “Placing the visitor experience at the centre” One of the problems that some tourist destinations face is that tourists can also cause damage to the environment they are visiting. Risk management is Despite your best attempts at asking visitors not to touch delicate important for your surfaces - chances are they will still do so. Other dangers include physical heritage vandalism, over-crowding, congestion and littering. assets – do some visitors potentially need Using the example of a factory, if you have a physical site to visit supervision etc? and everyone was coming to explore your factory, how will it impact on your neighbours? Planning the visitor experience could help you to identify opportunities to link up with other local heritage sights where visitors could go after visiting your factory and likewise their visitors could come and visit your site. A s a substitute for a physical visit to your factory you might find it more appropriate to offer virtual tours with online galleries of assets which would still help your visitors to understand your heritage. 33
  • 34. 3. Principles of visitor behaviour Visitor studies provide us with some indication of good practice for managing physical heritage sites to help visitors to learn about or interpret the site. These are detailed in the work of Moscardo (1996) These principles for and some of the main principles include: visitor behaviour could help you to re- • Larger objects for study encourages better remembering and design your physical longer viewing times. premises to improve • Animation of objects attracts more attention. the visitor • Visitor participation is related to better remembering. experience. • Sensory experience produces more attention. • Repetition of content is related to increased visitor fatigue. • Novel/ Rare objects which are different and stand out tend to be more popular. • Interactive objects provide more interest and attention from visitors. • Realistic experiences offer better understanding and engagement from the visitors. 34
  • 35. 3. Managing physical visitor behaviour: example J. Atkinson & Co Let‟s see how some of these Larger objects - visitors are principles apply to presented with the large J. Atkinson & Co historic coffee containers. and the set up of their physical premises: The picture on the right is from J. Atkinson & Co showing the coffee containers and the spice drawers underneath. 35
  • 36. 3. Managing physical visitor behaviour: example J. Atkinson & Co Let‟s see how some Animation – the vintage of these principles roasters can be brought to the apply to J. Atkinson shop entrance to entertain the & Co and the set up visitors with the roasting of their physical process. premises: In the picture on the right Ian Steel from J. Atkinson & Co uses the vintage coffee roaster the 1930s Whitmee. 36
  • 37. 3. Managing physical visitor behaviour: example J. Atkinson & Co Let‟s see how some Visitor participation - they offer an Academy for those of these principles who are interested in learning about tea and coffee apply to J. Atkinson tasting. & Co and the set up of their physical Sensory - smelling the coffee aroma being roasted and premises: seeing it being roasted offers a good sensory experience. Interactive - visitors have the opportunity to purchase tea and coffee and hence interact with the history of shop. 37
  • 38. 3. Managing online visitor behaviour: example J. Atkinson & Co Let‟s see how some Larger objects - the home page of their website uses the coffee wall as the of these principles main image www.atkinsonsteaandcoffee.co.uk apply to J. Atkinson & Co and the set up Visitor participation - Using the Twitter micro blogging site J. Atkinson & Co of their online are always talking to their customers see http://twitter.com/#!/coffeehopper premises: and updating them on the latest developments. Interactive - visitors have the opportunity to purchase tea and coffee online and hence interact with the history of the shop. As you can see there are a number of parallels between the physical and online visitor‟s experience. The coffee sales and visits to the training courses in the academy are two elements of the business which help to preserve the heritage of the place and to generate a return on the investment in preservation. 38
  • 39. 3. Evaluate your current physical and online premises Using the following five principles, think Physical premises Online about your premises and see how you Larger objects currently use them to facilitate visitor behaviour in your physical premises Animation and online … Visitor participation Sensory Interactive 39
  • 40. 3. Plan potential future physical and online premises If you find that not many of these Physical premises Online options have been addressed consider Larger objects learning from the examples we used from J. Atkinson & Co., what could you Animation do? Visitor participation Sensory Interactive 40
  • 41. 4. Optimise your heritage management process The visitor is at the centre of the heritage management Step 1: Quality and process. As illustrated by this authenticity diagram optimisation of heritage management is a process which requires regular reviewing. Step 4: Strategic Step 2: Uniqueness planning and differentiation Step 3: Optimisation of historical archives 41
  • 42. 4. Step 1: Quality and authenticity Quality in products or services could be defined as “fitness for purpose”. Whilst basic this definition captures the need to understand the customer and the desires which they wish to satisfy. To achieve a Do you emphasise quality satisfactory quality in products and services customers‟ feedback and authenticity in your should always be collected and all employees involved in its heritage related products interpretation and addressing standards. This means constant customer and services? feedback and staff development through education and training are a necessity. Everyone‟s views should be taken on board when it comes to the development of quality improvement ideas. Authenticity of products and services relates to the consistency with which a product matches the expected standards of quality, composition and production. Consumers who prefer to consume authentic and hence high quality products do appreciate the product„s authentic attributes. Therefore being authentic and maintaining high quality can reinforce the status of an enterprise which adheres to production and service informed by cultural heritage. 42
  • 43. 4. Step 1: Quality communication and developmentDeveloping a high level ofquality and associating it with Productsyour brand name helps you todifferentiate yourself fromothers, especially if you candraw on the heritage of yourcompany. A brand‟s longevity Production Servicesis a sign of quality. processes Quality Brand Marketing identity strategies 43
  • 44. 4. Step 1: Versions of authenticity As suggested by Howard (2006), the word authenticity usually Creator Material used by building heritage conservators refers to the original purpose when it was built. This interpretation can provide you with some themes to explore when identifying the authenticity Function of your products and services. Style Authenticity Ensemble Experience Content 44
  • 45. 4. Step 1: Versions of authenticityAuthenticity Description Heritage example [adopted]Creator “Hand of the master” It can be proven to be by a specific architect or product designerMaterial “The original material” It is formed of the original stone, metal, ingredients, etc.Function “The original purpose” It is still used as e.g. a wool factory or machine to roast coffeeConcept “The idea of the creator” It is what the original enterprise owners created even if restored It is of the correct period and all changes to the enterprise areHistory “The history of the artefact” properly documented It comes complete with all its outbuildings, gardens, machinery,Ensemble “The integrity of the whole” tools, equipment etc.Content “The integrity of the location” The business is still on its original site The customer still has the same experience as that originallyExperience “The original emotion” intendedStyle “It looks right” 45 It reproduces the original appearance
  • 46. 4. Step 1: Authenticity in your enterprise Consider each element of authenticity in your enterprise… can you identify some of these: Are your products or services authentic? • Creator • Material • Function • Concept • History • Ensemble • Content • Experience • Style 46
  • 47. 4. Step 1: Quality and authenticity: example Grossmith We are increasingly living in a fast Visit the Grossmith website moving world where not all consumers to see an example of an appreciate authentic products and authentic and high quality services. product. For example if someone is buying a www.grossmithlondon.com garment, jewellery or a perfume they can only differentiate between these on the basis of the expectations they have formed from past purchases. Is it possible that some companies are able to charge their customers £7,000 for a bottle of fragrance where others are having difficulties selling theirs at £60? The example of Grossmith - one of the oldest perfume houses, founded in 1835 - shows us how it can be done. 47
  • 48. 4. Step 1: Example Grossmith – Baccarat crystal Prices of Grossmiths By using the finest materials and Baccarat crystal adapting original formulae for modern flacon are £7000 for markets and new EU regulations the top a single flacons and of the range presentation of Grossmith £21000 for the triple fragrances is in Baccarat crystal flacons presentation. blown from the original 1919 moulds. The presentation is the ultimate in luxury and quality. Prices of the Grossmith Baccarat crystal presentation are £7,000 for a single flacon and £21,000 for the triple coffret. Arguably no mass production perfume house can compete with such authenticity and quality. 48
  • 49. 4. Step 1: Example Grossmith – branding Grossmith are also good at developing their branding - see images of packaging and flacon...Do you remember the brand management training material? 49
  • 50. 4. Step 1: Quality in your enterprise Are you communicating your heritage elements to your prospects in the best possible way? For example, if you have a machine which is operating in the background – could you move it nearer where your visitors could see it or? Are your products of high quality? 50
  • 51. 4. Step 2: Uniqueness and differentiation of productsA product or service is unique when its features are unusual or special in some way that makes itdifferent from similar alternatives and there is no other like it. The uniqueness of your products is agood differentiating factor – for example if you are the only company that produces certain productsin certain ways your direct competition is non-existent but you need to keep track of substitute items.Most profitable enterprises are built on uniqueness and differentiation: offering customerssomething they value that competitors dont have. Differentiation can happen on many levels ofproduct and service. These differentiating factors need to integrate several elements that are bothrecognizable and valued by consumers.As mentioned in brand management training, the most important element in the process ofdeveloping unique products and services is appealling to consumers emotional reactions. Theway an individual customer perceives the value of a product is the key to the development of auniqueness and differentiation strategy. Heritage assets can help to develop this emotional link byoffering an emotional link to the past. 51
  • 52. 4. Step 2: Uniqueness and differentiation Identify those heritage assets that appeal to your consumers emotional reactions and optimise perceptions their use in all your communications at every stage of your interaction with them. preferences uniqueness 52
  • 53. 4. Step 2: Uniqueness and differentiation: exampleFor example sparkling wine growers from Champagne region ofFrance are only competing amongst themselves and other sparking Region specificwine producers but only those from the region can use the name differentiation is aChampagne. good way of making yourThe consumer when purchasing a bottle of champagne is buying into products unique.the emotional link to the region and the assumption that it is worthpaying a premium to consume an authentic product.To reinforce this a bottle of wine from Champagne wouldcommunicate emotional elements by using high quality labels.However, price is often used as the only indicator of high qualityespecially by those who don‟t understand the product they arepurchasing. 53
  • 54. 4. Step 2: Uniqueness and differentiation in your enterprise What makes your enterprise What makes your enterprise unique? unique? Does this evoke emotional reactions in your customers? Does this evoke emotional reactions in your customers? How is this emotional link integrated into your communication strategies? 54
  • 55. 4. Step 3: Optimisation of historical archives If you have created a historical archive think about the way that this could be optimised for your enterprise and your visitors. How can the visitors benefit from the knowledge that you have accumulated about a certain product or a service? Physical archive optimisation could be in the form of making it accessible to your visitors by simply placing it on your walls where your visitors are likely to walk past. The second aspect of optimisation is emphasising some salient features of the product, service or process to produce these. These salient features could be anything that users of the product/service have never thought about. E.g. in brewing beer the importance of water and the emphasis of brewery‟s location on the top of spring water become salient. 55
  • 56. 4. Step 3: Optimisation of Historical Archives The example of J. Atkinson and Co highlights their artisan coffee roasting processes using the old open fire roasters – this is a salient What are the point and is clearly emphasised by the enterprise. salient points of your enterprise? 56
  • 57. 4. Step 3: Digital optimisation of historical archives SEO skills are a good If you are optimising a digital archive a technique which you could communication technique use is called search engine optimisation (SEO). which could benefit your business in many ways. This principle is based on the assumption that if your data is easily findable by a search engine your visitors can benefit from it too. The more people find you through search engines the larger are your chances of building your brand and converting these visitors to your customers. Optimisation of historic archives can take time and here you might need to experiment with different techniques and therefore a long term commitment of resources would be required for this. 57
  • 58. 4. Step 4: Strategic planning for long term commitments Building on your heritage assets understanding develops long term commitments to maintenance and integration of these assets. 58
  • 59. Application of heritage management • Identify those tangible and intangible cultural heritage assetsHere are some basic that could help you to differentiate and innovate.activities that anyenterprise should be able • Develop and implement your heritage management strategyto consider and adapt totheir own use on a and practices to identify, collect, preserve and optimise theregular basis … potential of your cultural heritage assets. • Consider investment in staff training and in the use of information communication technology (ICT) tools to optimise internal and external use of your heritage assets. • Consider going through the four steps of the heritage management process at least once a year to identify salient points for optimisation of your heritage assets. 59
  • 60. Heritage management training summary The aim of this training is to provide you with an understanding of the skills needed to help you • Understand the meaning and importance of develop cultural heritage cultural heritage management in enterprises management in your enterprise. You should now be able to… • Develop creativity and quality in your product and services through optimisation of your heritage assets • Implement Enterprise Cultural Heritage management in your organisation
  • 61. AcknowledgementsThe development of this training material is a result of a collaborative project; MNEMOS, whichresearched this area of Quality and Innovation in Vocational Training for Enterprise CulturalHeritage.We would like to thank the following individuals who provided feedback to improve this trainingmaterial: Alex Avramenko, Alice Martzopoulou, Alison Kennedy, Anna Catalani, Carmela Gallo,Carolyn Downs, Costantino Landino, Eeva Laaksonen, Elisa Akola, Fiona Cheetham, GrazynaRembielak-Vitchev, Joe Telles, Josef Svec, Niko Havupalo, Pawel Zolnierczyk, Peter Reeves, SoňaGullová, Thomas Lemström, Tomas Lehotsky and Tony Conway.To learn more about ECH management you can visit www.enterpriseculturalheritage.org or join theECH open community on LinkedIn: http://goo.gl/NXtFrThis project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects only the view ofthe author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the informationcontained therein. 61
  • 62. References and further relevant readingsHoward, Peter (2003). Heritage: Management, Interpretation, Identity; Continuum International Publishing Group Ltd.Blockley, Marion and Hems, Alison. (2005) Heritage Interpretation: Theory and Practice; Routledge.http://whc.unesco.org/en/conventiontextMoscardo, G. (1996). Mindful Visitors - Heritage and Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 23(2): 376-397MNEMOS (2010) J. Atkinson & Co: A successful case of Enterprise Cultural Heritage in the UKAvailable online from http://goo.gl/gzKfCMNEMOS (2010) Lanificio Leo: A successful case of Enterprise Cultural Heritage in Italy. Available online http://goo.gl/tEw1mMNEMOS (2010) HAITOGLOU BROS. SA: fusion of craft and technology. Available onlinehttp://goo.gl/WptEJSmith, L., Akagawa, N., (2009) Intangible Heritage (Key Issues in Cultural Heritage), Routlede, New York /LondonGrant, A and Sussums, C. (2010) London Museum Hub Information Policy Toolkit. Available online http://www.museuminfo-records.org.uk/toolkits/InformationPolicy.pdf 62
  • 63. DisclaimerThe content included in this training material has been compiled by the MNEMOS project teamfrom a variety of sources. The MNEMOS project team reserves the right to change the terms andconditions of use of this training material without notice and any time. The training material isproduced for educational purposes only and does not offer legally binding advice. The trainingmaterial as well as the www.enterpriseculturalheritage.org website are made available “as is” and“as available”.MNEMOS project team makes no representation and does not warrant:a) That the information selected for the training material and the website is comprehensive,complete, verified, organised and accurate;b) That it is licensed by the copyright or database right owner of any third party content to includeor reproduce such content in this training material and the website;c) That the training material and the website will be uninterrupted and error-free; andd) That the server from which the training material and the website is available is free of virusesor bugs.This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.
  • 64. End of Heritage Management trainingTo leave the maximised screen press the ESC button on your keyboard.What would you like to do now?You can take a quiz to check your understanding of Heritage Management (to do this youneed to be registered on the learning platform at http://training.enterpriseculturalheritage.org)orYou can take the next module which is Brand Management 64