The aim of this brand management training is to develop your understanding of the importance of brand management, in particular from the perspective of Enterprise Cultural Heritage (ECH). The three learning objectives are to:
Understand what a brand is and the importance of brand management in organisations
Identify the key elements of your brand
Develop a plan for managing your brand
The brand management training should take approximately 2 – 2.5 hours. This material was last updated on 14 th December 2011. This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License .
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The term used to describe your organisation ’ s history and its creations , which have the potential to uniquely innovate and differentiate your products and services, is Enterprise Cultural Heritage (ECH). Would you like to learn more about the theory behind ECH? Academic paper: Aaltonen, S, de Tommaso, D, Ielpa, G, Heinze, A, Kalantaridis, C, Vasilieva, E and Zygiaris , S ( 2010) Power of the past and SME competitiveness: A European study , in: ICSB 2010, June 24-27, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA 45202. Available online http://usir.salford.ac.uk/12488/ Wikipedia : Open resources about Enterprise Cultural Heritage at Wikipedia page: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterprise_Cultural_Heritage Open community : Join our ECH Open Community on LinkedIn: www.linkedin.com/groups?about=&gid=3743528&trk=anet_ug_grppro What is Enterprise Cultural Heritage (ECH)?
The aim of the ECH management approach is to help you to differentiate your enterprise from others and innovate your products and services, thereby giving you a competitive advantage!
The ECH management is based on
Re-evaluation of these activities…
ECH management is integrated with four aspects of existing enterprise activities:
Heritage management and
Intellectual Property management .
The ECH management approach
The four pillars of ECH management Intellectual Property Management Protect and exploit your intellectual property rights highlighting the heritage assets which can have commercial value for the present and future of your enterprise. Change Management Improve your ability to develop and implement routine processes, tools and techniques which help to innovate and thus continuously adapt to changing customer needs. Heritage Management Optimise your tangible and intangible heritage assets by developing routines and policies for their preservation, organisation and stimulation of present and future enterprise activities. Brand Management Develop and implement processes to track customers’ value judgements about your product or service that help you to better differentiate your enterprise from others by highlighting your heritage assets where appropriate.
Why do you need to learn brand management?
There are a number of indicators suggesting that organisations that proactively build, acquire, and use branded products and services are much more likely to see positive gains in their performance according to Australian researchers Berthon and others (2008).
Although brand management activity is usually associated with multinational organizations, similar principles can also be applied by small and medium sized enterprises (SME).
Moreover, it can be argued that SMEs are more able to really get to know their customers, understand their needs and design products and services that suit them best.
What is a brand?
A brand is more than just a logo or a name, although it includes these elements too. One popular brand definition as proposed by Kotler and other American professors (2009) is:
“ A brand is a name, term [slogan], sign, symbol, or design or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one company or a group of companies and to differentiate them from those of competitors”.
In other words, “brand” is a term that is used to describe customers’ value judgements associated with a particular product or service or a range of products or services.
What is a brand? Activity
Think about your own company and identify these elements of your brand…
What is a brand? The example of J. Atkinson & Co
Name: J. Atkinson & Co
Slogan: “ The Grasshopper only eats the finest of leaves ”
Sign: Image of a grasshopper eating leaves – see image
Design: Preserving their heritage, J. Atkinson & Co use colours and where possible original tools and processes of the original brand created in 1837
Here is an example from a coffee shop in Lancaster, UK: Sign outside the shop
What is a brand? The example of J. Atkinson & Co: décor The décor of the coffee room has changed little with 1840’s dark green walls, dark mahogany shelving and tea & coffee canisters still holding the precious contents as they did decades ago. The owners recognise the importance of preserving the heritage of their business, always trying to mend existing tools which create the artisan atmosphere. J. Atkinson & Co owners Sue and Ian Steel www.atkinsonsteaandcoffee.co.uk
Selling vs. Marketing
According to Theodore Levitt [emphasis added]; “Selling focuses on the needs of the seller ; marketing on the needs of the buyer . Selling is preoccupied with the seller ’ s need to convert their product into cash ; marketing with the idea of satisfying the needs of the consumer by means of the product and the whole cluster of things associated with the creating, delivering and finally consuming it ” , Kotler and Keller (2009).
Marketing is therefore focused on how you can make selling easier using the marketing mix. The core marketing mix is concerned with four elements, commonly referred to as the 4Ps:
a) Product (features, quality, branding etc)
b) Price (psychological, loss leader etc)
c) Place (where do your customers look for products and are happy to buy)
d) Promotion (advertising, Public Relations, selling).
Brand management is part of your marketing activities. Marketing itself is an often misunderstood subject often confused with selling. The difference between selling and marketing can be explained as:
What can you use a brand for?
Ownership – legally protecting aspects of the brand for example, trademarks, copyright etc.
Differentiation – making sure that your customers can differentiate themselves from those of your competitors.
Image – the perception of the brand by the consumer.
Identity – the organisation’s perspective on its brand.
Added value – brand is often an intangible, you can’t always touch or see it, it is something that is perceived in the minds of your consumers, perhaps by giving them increased self-confidence/self-esteem.
Relationship – the ability to relate to a company or other consumers who “buy into” a particular brand.
You can learn more about Ownership in the Intellectual Property (IP) management training module.
Key issues of brand management relevant to SMEs Broadly speaking “ brand management ” is a process that bridges the gap between “ brand image ” and “ brand reputation ” .
Differentiation: Brand image vs. brand reputation
Brand image is a set of beliefs about your products and services as perceived in the “short term” by your customers. For example, if a survey is conducted on one particular day and people are asked about their views of a service alone then this would provide us with a view of a “brand image”.
Brand reputation on the other hand is something that is established over a long period of time. The issue of longevity is particularly important for companies trying to capitalise on ECH value. Reputation is the views that customers build up over a number of interactions, whether these are positive or negative and how the brand reacts if there are positive or negative comments from consumers.
OK, so “Brand image” – is a short term impression and “Brand reputation” is the long term impression of your brand by your prospects.
Do you do any brand management activities?
Brand image -
Brand reputation -
Brand management activities -
Think about your organisation and consider what these terms mean for you…
Brand management activities: Example
If you are managing a brand for a cheese manufacturer and there is a problem with a batch of their cheese leading to a customer posting a negative comment about your product on an online forum, this inevitably creates a negative image of the cheese.
In order to maintain a good brand reputation, you as an organisation have to actively monitor your brand and how it is perceived and reported by your consumers.
In the last century this might have meant that you needed to listen to your customers when they came to your market stall or your cheese shop, however now you need to listen to your customers online too.
Online brand management tools
A number of simple and free services provided by online brand reputation management tools such as Google Alerts, allow you to automatically receive emails containing any comments or text found by Google containing the keyword of your brand whilst trawling the internet.
As your brand management step you will then need to try and understand what the comment means and if necessary act upon it. If it is a negative comment and you have rectified the problem then contact the customer, apologise and if possible offer a solution that will satisfy the customer.
Hopefully, your offer of a free cheese tasting or replacement cheese product will win your customer back and they will post a positive review of their experience.
Mistakes can happen in any organisation, but not all organisations are pro-active in managing these and hence are not able to sustain a good long-term reputation.
Try Google Alerts by following this link: www.google.com/alerts
The key aspect of the brand management process is that it works towards aligning the organisations’ internal vision of its products and services and the beliefs of its customers or consumers (the prospects) about the brand. Brand management description
Aspects of exploiting ECH management Enterprise Cultural Heritage (ECH) management is essentially an approach enabling you to re-use your company’s historic archives and knowledge to preserve and develop innovative products and services which your competitors find difficult to imitate. ECH management therefore fits into the development of your brand positioning. Five aspects associated with brand management and ECH are discussed in the following steps…
Aspects of exploiting ECH: Brand attributes
1. Brand attributes - provide a basic position for the brand based upon its features.
The features of your enterprise’s cultural heritage, which tend to emphasise longevity and dedication to a certain target market are important to many consumers who want to experience something that has been refined and matured over decades.
For example, if your products have a traditional and refined image or you have a certain way of producing your services which is valued by your prospects, it is important for you to be aware of these attributes and keep re-enforcing them to your prospects in all your communications – online, print or physical displays.
Aspects of exploiting ECH: Brand attributes activity
My brand attributes are….
What brand attributes does your company have?
Aspects of exploiting ECH: Benefits
2. Benefits - customers buy benefits not features. The attributes of your products and services have to be translated into functional and emotional benefits of ECH that are seen as important by your prospects.
The strength of a brand is determined by the organisation’s ability to build emotional connections with its consumers – hence the emotional attribute is very important in brand management. This is because brands enable consumers to communicate aspects of their own personality.
For example, when Linton Tweeds Ltd, draw attention to their high-quality products, they state that they: “ have been designers and manufacturers of innovative, high-quality fabrics for the women's-wear fashion industry since 1912 and are renowned as the original "Chanel" fabric makers” Through this statement Linton Tweeds Ltd are communicating their distinctive value and the appreciation of the high end fashion industry over a long period of time, hence making their products appealing to those prospects who appreciate high quality fabrics. See www.lintondirect.co.uk/about-us.html
Aspects of exploiting ECH: Benefits activity
2. My products/ services benefits are…
These benefits are communicated through…
Do you know how your products and services benefit your prospects? How are you communicating these benefits to them?
Aspects of exploiting ECH: Brand values
3. Values – a brand reflects the values of the organisation. ECH could be one of these values and therefore could be integrated into the brand. In the case of ECH, it has to be first of all established whether or not the buyers accept the relevance of ECH value since customers might be expected to pay a premium for experiencing heritage. At the same time, brands need to evolve to satisfy consumer needs and changes in societal values.
You don’t want to have a brand whose values are less appreciated with changing demographics, there is a danger if the numbers of your consumers are decreasing because it has no appeal to younger consumers. An example of heritage values is where J. Atkinson & Co. value the tools and machinery which were passed down through the generations to offer the same high quality authentic tea and coffee experience. However, J. Atkinson & Co have also evolved and integrated the ethical coffee sourcing value which was not uppermost in their minds when the company was established in 1837. See for more www.atkinsonsteaandcoffee.co.uk
Aspects of exploiting ECH: Brand values example
In 1985 after nearly 99 years of consistently producing the original Coca Cola formula, Coca Cola executives decided to change their formula to make the taste of their iconic drink more appealing to their customers in the form of new “ Coke ” .
But during their research a fatal mistake was made. They asked the focus groups whether they liked one taste or one formula of another and not whether their customers would like to change the “ original taste ” of Coca Cola to a new taste.
As a result the values and emotion attached to the original Coca Cola formula were ignored and the results of the test were misleading. As soon as the new Coke was put on the market the consumers protested against the taste change.
This resulted in a major change in the decision to introduce a new Coke, as the public were horrified that the new taste replaced their old favourite drink; executives listened and re-introduced the “ Coca Cola Classic ” . You can read more about this story in Slater (2000).
Aspects of exploiting ECH: Brand values activity
The values of my consumer are…
The values of my brand are…
The values of my brand’s Enterprise Cultural Heritage are…
What are these values?
Aspects of exploiting ECH: Culture
4. Culture - the brand represents the culture of the organisation and product. The concept of culture is multifaceted but largely describes the idea of how your organisation and the staff working for it behave and the values and beliefs they share.
The term “culture” can be simply defined as “ the way we do thing around here”… For example, If you have a family run business that has been passed on through generations, that has caring brand values and you communicate this, then your staff should be treated in the same way thus reinforcing the brand reputation. It is essential that the behaviour of management and employees is consistent with the expectations of your customers.
Aspects of exploiting ECH: Culture activity
My company’s culture is…
What is your company’ s culture? This question might be best answered by your employees…
Aspects of exploiting ECH: Personality
5. Personality . If people can identify themselves with the image projected by a brand they are more likely to be attracted to it. This means that if your brand had a personality – what person would it be? What “picture” would be associated with it in the minds of your prospects? This goes beyond the physical appearance of the company employees and their leaders.
Are you a dynamic and ever changing company or do you cherish traditional values? For example, when choosing print media or photographs associated with your brand try to consider what it is that your prospects see you as and what attracts them and communicate that personality. For example, if you show a caring side of your company by sponsoring local events, you need to keep that personality consistent with other aspects of your business. This will ensure that ECH designs and messages in marketing literature fit this brand personality and associated guidelines.
Aspects of exploiting ECH: Personality activity
My company’s brand personality is…
What is your brand’s personality?
Summary so far…
1. Brand attributes
These are the five Enterprise Cultural Heritage aspects of brand management. Can you remember what each of these aspects means? If not, please go back and revisit the previous steps since the next steps will be based on your understanding of these.
Five ECH brand management steps The following 5 ECH brand management steps are going to help you to develop a continuous process which could be integrated into your management practices.
Step 1: Knowing and understanding your customers’ wants and needs
Brand management starts with the internal establishment of values; that a product or a service is perceived to be valuable and has a market. In other words, your brand has to meet the demand of your potential customers.
If there is no demand this can be created, but then more effort is necessary to persuade your customers, so when creating internal brand visions, understanding external trends and existing customers’ views are essential to establish a brand that will have commercial viability.
How well do you know your customers and their needs?
Step 1: Knowing and understanding your customers’ wants and needs: Brand equity
So far we have been talking about a number of concepts which are difficult to measure to give you some quantifiable indication of how well your brands are doing.
However, in brand management there is a commonly used term which can help in adding some quantitative indicators to your brand – brand equity .
In basic terms brand equity is the positive or negative amount that your prospects would be willing to pay if the product or service was not branded by you.
This is the result of a belief that branded products and services can be sold at a higher value compared to those that are sold without a brand name. For example, you might have seen some supermarkets offering similar products which compete with major brands but at a lower price. However, consumers are prepared to pay more for products with which they have positive associations.
Can you measure your brand equity?
Step 1: Knowing and understanding your customers’ wants and needs: Measures
The following four themes can help in measuring your brand equity and could form part of the questionnaire or focus groups for your prospects:
1. Name awareness : You could ask your customers simply if they have heard of your brand name and what they think about it.
2. Perceived quality : You could establish here what their perceptions are in terms of the qualities that your products and services have, are they seen as a better/ best fit for them, do they trust your quality?
3. Brand loyalty : Would your customers come and purchase from you again and why?
4. Positive association : What do your customers associate your brand with?
Can you now see how to measure your brand equity? For example, have they seen your sponsorships, your corporate social responsibility, use of local produce and increasing use of sustainable production methods; citizenship, are they aware of your positive impact on the community? A common question asking about association is the question “If our company was a person what kind of a person would it be?”
Step 1: Brand equity: Examples
An example of a reminder of your heritage is stating the year of your establishment such as ‘Established in 1865’ or if you would like to highlight your national heritage, ‘France - 1925’ used by Le Creuset.
Or you could highlight your regional heritage: ‘the North West’s leading family owned and managed ice cream company since 1896’ might be used by Frederick’s Ice Cream in the UK.
This example shows how a simple strapline communicates a number of brand values that highlight the importance of the region, the family owned and managed credentials of the firm and dedication to the region over a long period of time. See:
Here are some more examples
Step 1: Brand equity: Activity
Which activities do you already do to measure brand equity?
What activities can you start doing?
Now, think about your own company…
Step 2: Creating appropriate and appreciated brands
The second step in brand management assumes that there is a written set of internal values and that the focus is on growing the brand. The managers are given the task of developing ways in which the brand could be more memorable to its customers.
As mentioned earlier in “What is a brand?”, the key elements of brand design are the brand name, logo or slogan. All these elements need to be individually decided to fit the requirements of your market and be consistent with one another.
Brand name – is essentially the name of your company or the individual product or service
Logo – a visual sign of your company
Slogan – a short message which communicates your brand’s identity
Is your brand memorable to your prospects?
Step 2: Creating appropriate and appreciated brands: example
For example, making your brand stand out from others by reinforcing the values that were identified in Step 1- a positive brand association built on its reputation, external endorsement, for example by winning industry awards, helping with good causes such as sponsoring events and any other activities that are perceived as relevant for your target market.
If you are a cheese maker and your target market is predominantly cheese connoisseurs who have regular cheese tasting meetings and share their recommendations by publishing an influential cheese recommendations guide, it is a good idea to invite these individuals to your focus groups and take their opinions about your cheese seriously.
Whether you have been in business for a week or a decade the chances are your consumers’ tastes and values are changing and unless your market is growing you will need to constantly adapt to the needs of your customers – learn from the mistakes of Coca Cola on how not to change your “winning formula”.
Even super brands such as Coca Cola make mistakes: there is nothing wrong with saying “Sorry we made a mistake” and making things right – your prospects will appreciate it and reward you with their loyalty.
Step 2: Creating appropriate and appreciated brands
With the advent of the internet, several free online survey packages are available which allow companies to create surveys and customer communities.
These communities, for example on a Facebook business page, could be used to gauge opinions and measure values for your brand. Recording these views and, if possible, carrying out customer satisfaction analysis on a regular basis allows you to monitor the development of your products/services and enables you to see how you could improve these in the future.
Have you heard about the Social Media Revolution? Well there are some benefits for SMEs and social media can help in listening to your prospects without having to spend a lot of cash – only time. Social Media services such as Facebook and Twitter allow you to develop a community associated with your company which would give you detailed feedback on current and future product developments. For example, by developing a Facebook business page you allow your prospects to talk to you and share their thoughts about your brand. It is your responsibility to monitor social media and learn from the discussions and feedback from your prospects.
Step 2: Creating appropriate and appreciated brands: Activity
My current activities on social media are….
I could investigate the following…
Have you heard about the Social Media Revolution? Think how you can take part in it…
Step 3: Maintaining the brand over time
Many markets experience temporary downturns in demand. To sustain the longevity of a brand it is important to support your service or product throughout the cycle. This has the benefit of maintaining awareness and recall with your consumers so that when it comes to making their decision, they feel an affinity with your brand although they did not need to engage with you in the past.
Is your market in a downturn or is it only your company? How do you know? Practical examples of this could be having a weekly advert in the local newspaper that communicates your brand values to your consumers. The use of online tools and social media enable you to interact with your consumers. For example, are you using Twitter? - tweeting about the latest developments or publishing short videos (for example on YouTube) and/or sound files and hence developing a “viral element” to your activities, allows your prospect to discover your content and share it with their friends. These could simply be interviews with your employees about their day at work in your company or with your customers…
Step 3: Maintaining the brand over time: Tools
In terms of ECH, if you have established a loyal following of customers, reward them for staying with you and remind them of your existence and why it is that they chose you in the first place!
Marketing campaigns in local newspapers and commitment of budget to other marketing tools such as websites, radio, leaflets etc. need to be monitored. Online tools such as Google Analytics that you can incorporate into your website can give you an insight into brand development over time.
Some of these tools sound more complicated than they are…
Step 3: Maintaining the brand over time: Activity
Customers’ demand for your products based on general trends can be studied using tools such as Google Trends. Simply specify the search term your customers are using and you can see how often it was used over a period of time and how to target your campaigns at those high peaks of demand by launching special event focused advertising campaigns.
1. Go to www.google.com/trends
2. Enter a keyword which would lead your customers to your product or service and see what demands are captured on search engines search volumes.
Try Google trends now – this tool can offer your free access to trends in your industry…
Step 4: Communicating your brand’s values internally and externally
Once you understand what it is that your customers like and dislike it is important that all internal stakeholders (in particular your employees) are aware of these values and efforts are made to maximise the positive brand values and minimize or eliminate the negatives.
The importance of your employees cannot be underestimated in this regard since when they interact with your customers they are shaping the brand by the way they look and treat the customers. By investing time and effort into employee training in relation to ECH and other values, you are increasing employee loyalty and hence increasing the chances of your brand value being shared consistently across the organisation.
Are you a good internal and external communicator?
Step 4: Communicating your brand’s values internally and externally: Examples
It is important that communication guidelines are developed which will consistently highlight your positive brand values. This could involve simple things such as the development of a standard letter template, website template, business cards and advertising campaigns.
The ECH values established over the years can be preserved with photographs and communicated to your internal staff in the first instance through some basic company history leaflets, books or museums in larger companies. Internal training videos could be a good way of sharing the brand values both internally and externally.
Employee loyalty is one of qualities that you can develop by communicating your ECH related brand values internally. This can make your company a better place to work. The use of social media networks such as YouTube allows companies to benefit from free and relatively easy to use ways to capture elements of enterprise cultural heritage as illustrated in the example from J. Atkinson and Co , see next page…
Step 4: J. Atkinson and Co video case study
J. Atkinson and Co are good at communicating their ECH values, and their passion for heritage brand values are reflected in many things they do and use…
Step 5: Developing a logical brand structure for all your products and services: Planning
Whilst this step might not apply to SMEs who are focusing on offering one product or service, it is important to keep it in mind since there are times when companies decide to offer new products and services. It is important that the development of one product does not impact negatively on the other products offered by the same company.
Is there some logic in your brand structure? For example, a cheese manufacturer offering a special edition of a cheese might damage the sales and the reputation of the established product it offers. If for example, a special flavour introduced for Christmas becomes more popular with customers and they prefer this to the taste of the main offering, the firm might need to change to accommodate these taste requirements.
Step 5: Developing a logical brand structure for all your products and services
However, if you have several brands managed by your company, it is important to know how these are different from one another and how you logically and consistently differentiate them in the eyes of your internal and external stakeholders.
If in doubt about your logical structure, consider asking your prospects – can they identify the products and services which are aimed at them? For example, if you are manufacturing pet food, you don’t want to offer a product that will be universally eaten by all pets since owners see their pets as different and special. You will have some products that are good for cats, others for dogs. Even within the cat segment you might have long haired and short haired cats therefore each one of your products has to have a logical structure and clear differentiation of the benefits they will bring to the prospects.
Step 5: Logical brand structure: Example Here is a an example of how you could graphically represent your brand items based on the products which target different pet foods
Step 5: Logical brand structure: Activity How would you structure your brand if you used a similar diagram?
Summary of the Five ECH brand management steps Here are the five brand management steps again. As you can see these could fit with your annual cycle of strategic business planning and reviewing since these are aligned to usual quality management such as: Plan – Do – Check – Act … plan…
Brand management in exploiting ECH Remember: brand management is about aligning the organisations’ Identity (internal vision) of its products and services and the Image about the brand.
Application of brand management in ECH
Develop marketing and communication guidelines f or your company .
Try to regularly measure your advertising activities against the communication guidelines and measure their effectiveness .
Offer basic training material for internal staff that highlights the values of the company, the positive and negative elements that are associated with your heritage and the brand.
Actively seek customer feedback on your brand and measure your brand equity / name awareness / perceived quality / brand loyalty/ positive associations.
Consider going through the five steps of the branding process (mentioned before) at least once a year when you plan your company’s long term direction
Here are some basic brand management activities that any enterprise should be able to consider
ECH brand management training: Summary
Understand what a brand is and the importance of brand management in organisations.
Identify the key elements of your brand
Develop a plan for managing your brand
The aim of this brand management training is to develop your understanding of the importance of brand management, particularly from the perspective of Enterprise Cultural Heritage (ECH). You should now be able to…
The development of this training material is a result of a collaborative project; MNEMOS, which researched this area of Quality and Innovation in Vocational Training for Enterprise Cultural Heritage. We would like to thank the following individuals who provided feedback and to improve this training material: Alex Avramenko, Alice Martzopoulou, Alison Kennedy, Anna Catalani, Carmela Gallo, Carolyn Downs, Costantino Landino, Eeva Laaksonen, Elisa Akola, Fiona Cheetham, Grazyna Rembielak-Vitchev, Joe Telles, Josef Svec, Niko Havupalo, Pawel Zolnierczyk, Peter Reeves, Soňa Gullová, Thomas Lemström, Tomas Lehotsky and Tony Conway. To learn more about ECH management you can visit www.enterpriseculturalheritage.org or join the ECH open community on LinkedIn: http://goo.gl/NXtFr This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects only the view of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. Acknowledgements
References – read these if you want to learn more…
Berthon, P., Ewing, M. T., & Napoli, J. (2008). Brand management in small to medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Small Business Management 46(1), 27-45.
Botero, I. C., & Blombäck, A. (2010). Leveraging the family brand: Using brand management to highlight the advantages of family firms. Paper presented at the 10th Annual World Family Business Research Conference, Lancaster, UK.
Kotler, P. H., Keller, K. L., Brady, M., Goodman, M. & Hansen, T. (2009). Marketing Management (European edition). Essex: England: Pearson Education Limited.
Slater, J. S. (2000), "Collecting the real thing: A case study exploration of brand loyalty enhancement among Coca-Cola brand collectors", in Advances in Consumer Research Volume 27, eds. Stephen J. Hoch and Robert J. Meyer, Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 202-208. available online http://goo.gl/rTZl8
Spence, M., & Essoussi, L. H. (2010). SME brand building and management: an exploratory study. European Journal of Marketing, 44(7/8), 1037-1054.
Brand Management on Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brand_management
World Intellectual Property Organisation The Power of Brands - I.L.A.R.
Enterprise Cultural Heritage - Case Study of J Atkinson & Co for MNEMOS available online http://goo.gl/9XDtC
Google Trends (2011) www.google.com/trends
Google Alerts (2011) www.google.com/alerts
The content included in this training material has been compiled by the MNEMOS project team from a variety of sources. The MNEMOS project team reserves the right to change the terms and conditions of use of this training material without notice and any time. The training material is produced for educational purposes only and does not offer legally binding advice. The training material as well as the www.enterpriseculturalheritage.org website are made available “as is” and “as available”. MNEMOS project team makes no representation and does not warrant: a) That the information selected for the training material and the website is comprehensive, complete, verified, organised and accurate; b) That it is licensed by the copyright or database right owner of any third party content to include or reproduce such content in this training material and the website; c) That the training material and the website will be uninterrupted and error-free; and d) That the server from which the training material and the website is available is free of viruses or bugs. Disclaimer This work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License .
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