Solubility (a physical property) (Teach)

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For classroom instruction on solubility, mixtures and solutions at the elementary grade levels.

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Solubility (a physical property) (Teach)

  1. 1. The Physical Property of Solubility MUST BE DOWNLOADED TO GET THE CUSTOM ANIMATIONS
  2. 2. The Physical Property of SolubilityBy Moira Whitehouse, PhD
  3. 3. Solubility is the physical propertywhich describes how easily asubstance dissolves (breaks down,become liquid), or if it dissolves at allin another substance. For thispresentation, we will observe somesubstances that dissolve in waterand some that don’t.
  4. 4. We will also discuss:Mixtures where some of theingredients keep their physicalproperties ANDMixtures in which the ingredientslose some of their physical properties
  5. 5. •When some substances are placedtogether in a mixture, they maintain(keep) their physical properties.•When other substances are mixed,one or maybe both substances losesome of their physical properties.•When one of the two substancesthat are mixed together dissolves,one, or maybe both substances, willlose some of their properties.
  6. 6. When a substance dissolves inwater, the mixture that is formed iscalled a solution. In a solution: • the two substances mix evenly •and, as stated before, one or both of the substances lose some of their physical properties.
  7. 7. In a previous presentation, we discussed thesolubility of sugar, sand and salt in water.Circle the substance (s) that dissolved in water.Check the substances that did not dissolve inwater.
  8. 8. Yes, sugar and salt dissolved in waterforming sugar and salt solutions. Sand, onthe other hand, did not dissolve in water..
  9. 9. Circle the substance(s) that mixed evenly.Check the substance(s) that did not mixevenly.
  10. 10. Sugar and salt break into molecules and theirmolecules mix evenly with the watermolecules. Since molecules are invisible, wecan no longer see the sugar or salt. If the molecules were greatly magnified, this is how molecules of sugar and water or molecules of salt and water might look.
  11. 11. The molecules of sand do not break apart nordo they mix evenly with the water molecules.When you stop stirring the mixture, thegrains of sand sink to the bottom of thecontainer. This is how the molecules of water and sand might look after the sand settles to the bottom of the container.
  12. 12. When a solidsuch as sugar orsalt dissolves inwater, theyseems todisappear.What propertiesdo sugar andsalt lose whenthey dissolve inwater?
  13. 13. Yes, they losetheir color, theirtexture and theirstate of matter.
  14. 14. However, we know that a substance such assugar or salt is still there because we cantaste it—that is a property it does not lose. Sugar—yummy, tastes sweet Salt—yucky, tastes salty.
  15. 15. Also, if you leave a solution of sugar andwater or salt and water out on the counterfor several days, what happens? a. The sugar or salt disappear.b. The sugar or salt water take on a different taste.c. The water evaporates and sugar or salt crystals form.d. The sugar and salt evaporate along with the water.
  16. 16. When the water evaporates, crystals of sugar or saltform—the sugar and salt is still there. Only the waterchanges to a gas. The salt or sugar is left behind as solidcrystals. crystals of salt crystals of sugarhttp://www.bigfoto.com/miscellaneous/photos-16/index.htm Pawel C http://www.flickr.com/
  17. 17. What about sand?Did sand lose anyof its physicalproperties when itwas mixed withwater?
  18. 18. When we stopped shaking themixture of sand and water, thesand settled to the bottom of theflask. It did not lose any of itsphysical properties when it wasmixed with water. It still was asolid, a tan color, and felt gritty.You can separate a substance thatsettles by pouring off the water orpumping it through a filter.
  19. 19. Animals live in water. They defecate and urinate in the water. They die and decay in the water. You can imagine the different substances that are dissolved in lake water. http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/But water cleans itself. When water mixed withother substances evaporates, the other substancesare left behind. As a result, the liquid water dropletsthat condense as clouds is clean pure water. So isthe rain water that falls from these clouds.
  20. 20. Let’s look at some other substances andsee if they dissolve in water.What about cloves—a spice we put in ourfood? Does it dissolve in water? What doyou think. Let’s look and see.
  21. 21. No, cloves do not dissolve in water. Theyfloat on top of the water.Did the cloves loseany physicalproperties whenmixed with water?Circle Yes or No How could you separate water and a substance that floats such as cloves?
  22. 22. Yes, you could skim the cloves off the topof the water.
  23. 23. What about Epsom Salts, a substance usedin bath salts? Do you think it will dissolvein water? Yes or No
  24. 24. After putting the Epsom salts in the water, thisis what you see. Did Epsom salts dissolve inwater? Yes or NoExplain your answer.
  25. 25. What about Borax, a substance often used indetergents and cosmetics?Do you think it will dissolve in water? Yes or NoExplain the reason for your answer.
  26. 26. Yes, Borax doesdissolve in water.What physicalproperties did it losewhen it was mixedwith water?
  27. 27. As you saw, borax is a substance thatdissolves in water. The liquid that resultsfrom mixing water and Borax is called a. a molecule b. a solution c. a mixture d. both b and c
  28. 28. You can separate borax and water afterthe borax has dissolved by:a. Pouring the borax solution through a filterb. Letting the borax settlec. Letting the water evaporated. Skimming the borax off the water
  29. 29. Yes, you could leave the borax solutionout for several days and let the waterevaporate. What would be left behind?
  30. 30. Yes, you could leave the solution out andlet the water evaporateCrystals of Borax would be left behind.
  31. 31. Yes, you could leave the solution out andlet the water evaporateCrystals of Borax would be left behind.Sometimes people bend pipe cleaners intothe shape of a snowflake. Then, they dip itin a solution of Borax. Look and see whathappens after the water evaporates.
  32. 32. A pipe cleaner in the shape of a snowflake dipped in a borax solution. Water evaporated leaving behind crystals of solid borax.TheDamnMushroom http://www.flickr.com/
  33. 33. What if we mix Cherry Kool-Aid mix whichcontains food coloring and cherry flavoring andwater?Will the foodcoloring andcherry flavoringdissolve inwater? Yes or No
  34. 34. Yes, the Kool-Aid mix doesdissolve in water—itmixes evenly with thewater.What physical propertyor properties does theKool-Aid mix lose?What physical propertyor properties does it notlose?
  35. 35. What if we mix another liquid with water?For instance lemon juice.•Will they mix evenly? Yes or No•Does lemon juice dissolveIn water? Yes or No
  36. 36. Yes, lemon juice and water mix evenly andform a solution.What physical property or properties of lemonjuice change when it is dissolved in water?
  37. 37. Now let’s think about mixing anotherliquid with water? This time we mix oiland water?•Does oil dissolve in water? Yes or No•Do oil and water mix evenly? Yes or No
  38. 38. No, oil does not dissolve in water.Oil and water do not mix evenly. As soonas you stop shaking the mixture, the oilrises and floats on top of the water.
  39. 39. White table vinegar is mixture acetic acidof water and acetic acid(about 5% acetic acid,95% water).
  40. 40. •Does acetic acid dissolve in water?• Table vinegara. is a solution b. is not a solution•Explain your answer.
  41. 41. Crude oil is a mixture ofmany different liquidsubstances that aremixed together evenly. http://commons.wikimedia.org
  42. 42. Liquid petroleum gas chemicals Some substances gasoline for cars found in jet fuel paraffin wax crude oil diesel fuel lubricating fuel waxes, polishes ship fuel oil for heating homes tar for roads and roofs
  43. 43. The different substances in crude oil are separated by heating the crude oil. Since different substances have different boiling points, each substances boils off at different temperature andhttp://commons.wikimedia.org thee gas is captured.
  44. 44. Gases can also dissolve in water. Carbondioxide is dissolved in all our sodas alongwith sugar, color and flavoring. It is thebubbles of carbon dioxide in sodas thatgive the drink its fizz. You cannot see thecarbon dioxide in the drink.
  45. 45. However, shake the soda, hit it with a bat or,better yet add some Mentos. The bubbles ofcarbon dioxide are released as foam.magician13134 Jason Pratt www.flickr.com
  46. 46. Solutions of solids dissolved in water
  47. 47. Solutions of liquidsdissolved in water
  48. 48. Solutions of gasesdissolved inwater. Carbon dioxide and oxygen dissolved in lakes and oceansCarbon dioxidedissolved in thewater in soda pop
  49. 49. In summary:
  50. 50. •When certain substances mix withwater they dissolve.
  51. 51. •When certain substances mix withwater they dissolve.•When a substance dissolves in waterthe resulting liquid is called a solution..
  52. 52. •When certain substances mix withwater they dissolve.•When a substance dissolves in waterthe resulting liquid is called a solution.•When a substance dissolves in water,that substance loses some of its physicalproperties.

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