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# PHYSICAL PROPERTIES... (teach)

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Focuses on some of the physical properties mentioned in the Texas TEKS for 5th grade understanding.

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### PHYSICAL PROPERTIES... (teach)

1. 1. Physical Properties(some examples)By Moira Whitehouse PhD
2. 2. •Some material floats in water and that is aphysical property. Other material doesn’t.
3. 3. •Some substances are pulled by a magnet.•Some material floats in water and that is aphysical property. Other material doesn’t.
4. 4. •Some substances are conductors ofelectricity (it can pass through them).•Some substances are pulled by a magnet.•Some material floats in water and that is aphysical property. Other material doesn’t.
5. 5. •Some substances are conductors of heatand others are not.•Some substances are conductors ofelectricity (it can pass through them).•Some substances are pulled by a magnet.•A physical property of some material is thatit floats in water. Other material doesn’t.
6. 6. •Some substances are conductors of heatand others are not.•Some substances are conductors ofelectricity (it can pass through them).•Some substances are pulled by a magnet.•Physical properties can be used to separatemixtures of substances.•Some material floats in water and that is aphysical property. Other material doesn’t.
7. 7. First, lt’s think aboutthings that float on water
8. 8. If we gaze into a swimming pool wenotice that there are “floaters” and theirare “sinkers”.
9. 9. We will start out with a cork and a rock.
10. 10. What about cork?One physical property of cork is that it floats inwater.Likewise, a physical property of this rock is that itsinks to the bottom in water.
11. 11. If floating is a physical property of asubstance, would changing the size andshape of the substance make it not float?
12. 12. Cut the cork into little pieces....
13. 13. The cork floats...
14. 14. And so do the smallpieces...
15. 15. What about other substances, would thesize and shape of the substance make adifference?
16. 16. How about pine wood pieces and sawdustfrom pine wood?
17. 17. These tiny pieces of wood (saw dust) float too, untilthey soak up too much water and become heavy.
18. 18. Could a liquid also havea physical property offloating on water?
19. 19. We can clearly see that the cookingoil is floating on top of the water.
20. 20. When oil tankers spring leaks and spill theircargo of oil, it is difficult to clean up the mess.Because oil floats on water, however, the oilcan sometime be skimmed off of the water.
21. 21. Floating stuff on top of the water can beskimmed off....
22. 22. And removed from the water.
23. 23. Next, let’s look at some objects to see if theyhave the physical property of being pulled by amagnet. Such objects are called magnetic.
24. 24. Next, let’s look at some objects to see if theyhave the physical property of being pulled by amagnet.This is a bar magnet. It is almost touching alolly-pop stick. The lolly-pop stick does notmove because wood is not magnetic.
25. 25. nickel.......magnetic
26. 26. silver solder....... not magnetic
27. 27. steel paper clips....... magnetic
28. 28. steel drill bit....... magnetic
29. 29. iron bolt....... magnetic
30. 30. cardboard....... not magnetic
31. 31. copper....... not magnetic
32. 32. rubber....... not magnetic
33. 33. zinc....... not magnetic
34. 34. tin....... not magnetic
35. 35. brass....... not magnetic
36. 36. steel washers....... magnetic
37. 37. steel spoon....... magnetic
38. 38. Aluminum foil......non magnetic
39. 39. Knitting yarn......non magnetic
40. 40. “tin can” actually made of steel......magnetic
41. 41. Interesting fact: only the things made ofiron/steel, nickel and cobalt are magnetic.However, nickel and cobalt are rare andexpensive metals so we see very few thingsmade of these substances.
42. 42. The next physical property we willexamine is the ability of a substance toconduct or pass an electric current.Those things that conduct electricity arecalled conductors and if they don’tconduct, they are called insulators.
43. 43. To find out if a substance is a conductor wewill use this device.It sends battery power to the light bulbwhen there is a connection between the redand black wires.
44. 44. This magnet is made of iron so it is aconductor and lets electricity pass through.Would the light on the tester be lit?
45. 45. We will start with thesilver solder.It lets the current passfrom the red to theblack wire, and thelight lights.
46. 46. The current does not travel through wood. No light.
47. 47. The current doesnot travelthrough rubber.No light.
48. 48. The currentpasses throughthe nickel andlights the light.
49. 49. The currentpasses throughthe zinc andlights the light.
50. 50. The currentdoes not travelthrough paper.No light.
51. 51. The current doesnot travel throughplastic. No light.
52. 52. The currentpasses throughthe steel andlights the light.
53. 53. The currentpasses throughthe tin and lightthe light.
54. 54. The currentpasses throughthe steel paperclips and lightsthe light.
55. 55. The current passes through thealuminum foil and lights the light.
56. 56. The currentpasses throughthe copper andlights the light.
57. 57. The current doesnot pass throughthe knittingyarn. No light.
58. 58. The currentpasses throughthe brasswashers andlights the light.
59. 59. We found that the following substancesare conductors of electricity—thatelectrons go through them easily:•tin•aluminum•copper•brass•zinc•iron•silverWhat do you notice about all items onthis list of substances?
60. 60. All theseconductorsare metals.
61. 61. Next we will examine some substancesthat conduct something else, heat. Youcan probably think of some things used inthe kitchen that need to be goodconductors.
62. 62. Sure, saucepans and other pans that weuse to heat food have to be goodconductors of heat in order for heat totravel from the stovetop or oven to thefood.
63. 63. aluminumstainless steelCopper lined with tincast ironAll these substances, aluminum, copper, tin andsteel conduct heat. They are all____________.
64. 64. With many modern saucepans you cannotsee the metal the pan is made out of becausethey have a inner coating covering the metalthat helps prevent food from sticking or ahard outer surface.
65. 65. In addition to the metals, here are someother good conductors of heat?
66. 66. Things that do not conduct heat are calledinsulators of heat—substances that do notallow heat to travel through them easily.
67. 67. What substances do we use tostop heat from traveling to ourhands when we cook?
68. 68. Yes, cloth, plastic and wood are all poorconductors of heat. They are heat insulators.
69. 69. Yes, cloth, plastic and wood are all poorconductors of heat. They are heat insulators.What things do we wear or what doanimals have to keep the heat fromescaping from their bodies. These areall poor conductors of heat?
70. 70. ebbiesonnberg at www.flickr.comnikonjim’s at www.flickr.comdavewinthrow at www.flickr.comWhat insulates theseanimals—helps keepthe heat inside theirbodies?
71. 71. We wear things like this to insulateour bodies from the cold?
72. 72. A carpenter had dropped iron nails he wasusing to build a house into the sawdust,sand and small sticks around the building.How could he separate these substances?To show how physical properties can beused to organize or separate things wewill use the following:
73. 73. Here is the mess he wants toseparate..The first thing he will do is get the nailsout of the pile. How could he do that?
74. 74. OK for the nails,, now he needs toseparate the sand from the gravel andsticks. Any thoughts?
75. 75. He used a sieve to separatethe bigger stuff from thesand.
76. 76. How can he separate the sticks fromthe gravel?
77. 77. He poured the contents into abowl of water.
78. 78. The sticks floated to the top and thestones fell to the bottom.
79. 79. Skim off the sticks.
80. 80. Pour off the water andremaining is the clean gravel .
81. 81. Isn’t it amazing what can bedone with just a little knowledgeabout physical properties.