Animal adaptions.. introduction (teach)

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Introduction to animal adaptions that allow for survival in a changing environment. For teaching elementary students.

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Animal adaptions.. introduction (teach)

  1. 1. Adaptation: MUST BE DOWNLOADED TO GET THE CUSTOM ANIMATIONS By Moira Whitehouse PhD •A physical trait or a behavior •that helps an animal or plant survive by meeting its needs.
  2. 2. Adaptation: •A physical trait or behavior that helps an animal or plant survive by meeting its needs. •Sometimes the environment changes. Plants and animals must change or adapt to the new environment in order meet their needs and survive.
  3. 3. The dinosaurs lived in warm swampy areas. For some reason the dinosaurs’ environment changed and the dinosaurs were not able to adapt to the changes.
  4. 4. GONE
  5. 5. There are many possible reasons why dinosaurs became extinct—a meteor, an asteroid that killed plants, global climate change, etc.
  6. 6. For whatever reason, the dinosaurs were not able to meet their needs for food or for the right temperature and were not able to survive.
  7. 7. They did not make the adaptations needed to survive in their new environment.
  8. 8. They did not make the adaptations needed to survive in their new environment. As a result they became extinct.
  9. 9. An adaptation is a physical trait or a behavior that helps a living thing survive in its environment. • A physical trait or an inherited behavior usually takes a long time to develop or change. •Whereas individuals learn many new behaviors in a lifetime.
  10. 10. http://www.freegiraffepictures.com/ A giraffe’s long legs and neck are physical traits that are good examples of adaptations.
  11. 11. The leaves of the acacia tree are the giraffes’ favorite food. Over thousands, perhaps millions of years, giraffe necks and legs have become longer and longer.What might have been happening in the giraffes’ environment that resulted in that adaptation? Maybe the trees were growing taller and taller.
  12. 12. Scientists believe that at one time giraffes had short necks and legs
  13. 13. Scientists believe that at one time giraffes had short necks and legs They think that each generation of trees in the areas where giraffes lived, over millions and millions of years grew taller and taller.
  14. 14. Scientists believe that at one time giraffes had short necks and legs They think that each generation of trees in the areas where giraffes lived, over millions and millions of years grew taller and taller. Over this long period of time giraffes that happened to be born taller had a better chance of survival and produced offspring that would also be taller.
  15. 15. http://www.freeelephantpictures.com The elephant species probably lived in the same areas during the same time that the giraffe was adapting to the taller trees.
  16. 16. http://www.freeelephantpictures.com The elephant species probably lived in the same areas during the same time that the giraffe was adapting to the taller trees. What adaptation resulted in the elephant being able to reach those juicy leaves high up in the trees?
  17. 17. http://www.freeelephantpictures.com The elephant species probably lived in the same areas during the same time that the giraffe was adapting to the taller trees. What adaptation did the elephant come up with to reach those juicy leaves high up in the trees? Right, his long trunk allowed reaching the tops of the trees.
  18. 18. http://www.freeeaglepictures.com/ bald eagle Our national bird is the bald eagle. Eagles depend upon their hunting skills for food. Over the years this species has acquired several adaptations that made eagles great hunters. What do you think these adaptations might be?
  19. 19. http://www.freeeaglepictures.com/ Our national bird is the bald eagle. Eagles depend upon their hunting skills for food. Over the years this species has acquired several adaptations that made eagles great hunters. What do you think these adaptations might be? Sharp eye sight, four times stronger than man’s, sharp hooked beak and talons, very strong wings, ability to fly carrying heavy prey long distances back to the nest.
  20. 20. http://www.freenaturepictures. com/ kangaroo Now take a look at this fellow. What are some obvious adaptations that you can spot from this picture.
  21. 21. What are some obvious adaptations that you can spot from this picture? (A kangaroo is an herbivore.) http://www.freenaturepictures. com/ kangaroo Anything interesting about the tail? See any special uses for it?
  22. 22. What are some obvious adaptations that you can spot from this picture? (A kangaroo is an herbivore.) http://www.freenaturepictures. com/ kangaroo What do you notice about the back legs and feet?
  23. 23. Here is another kangaroo picture. What adaption do you notice is this picture? Kangaroos live in a grassland that has a very harsh climate. Sometimes they must travel far to get to the next drink of water or meal of grass. Why would this adaption be necessary for the kangaroo species survival? Wikipedia commons
  24. 24. Next we will look at the beaks of two different kinds of birds. We want to see how the development of their beaks help them survive in their environment. The birds are: •the hummingbird •the pelican
  25. 25. Notice the hummingbird’s bill is very long and straight, similar to a drinking straw. http://www.freerhinopictures.com/ How does this adaptation help it get along in life?
  26. 26. FlavioCruvinelBrandao http://www.flickr.com/ That long straw-like bill reaches to the bottom of deep flower blossoms where the nectar is located.
  27. 27. mikebaird http://www.flickr.com The pelican has adapted to life around the ocean. The pliable lower part of his bill can stretch to almost basket size. How does this help him survive? A remarkable bird is the pelican. His beak can hold more than his belly can.
  28. 28. Plants also need adaptations in order to survive.
  29. 29. •An obvious example would be plants that have developed sharp thorns that stick out in all directions. Plants also need adaptations in order to survive.
  30. 30. •An obvious example would be plants that have developed sharp thorns that stick out in all directions. •Can you think of some plants that have thorns? Plants also need adaptations in order to survive.
  31. 31. •Of course, the rose bush and cactus.
  32. 32. •Why would plants have sharp, sticky thorns?
  33. 33. Another example would be the kind of leaves that plants use to meet their needs.
  34. 34. Another example would be the kind of leaves that plants use to meet their needs. •Evergreen trees which grow in very dry climates have thin needle shaped leaves covered with a waxy substance to reduce water loss. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net
  35. 35. Another example would be the kind of leaves that plants use to meet their needs. •Evergreen trees which grow in very dry climates have thin needle shaped leaves covered with a waxy substance to reduce water loss. •Trees that live in wetter areas have wide broad shaped leaves to capture as much sunlight as possible. maytevidri http://www.flickr.com/
  36. 36. Many of the structural traits that we have studied have taken a very long time to develop, perhaps thousands or even millions of years.
  37. 37. Many of the structural traits that we have studied have taken a very long time to develop, perhaps thousands or even millions of years. Now we will look at an adaptation that took place with the peppered moth in England in less than 100 years.
  38. 38. In England before the Industrial Revolution, most of the peppered moth in the north were light grey with little black spots. The light- colored moths blended in with the light-colored lichens and tree bark on which they lived.
  39. 39. There were also a few black-colored peppered moths at that time. However, the birds were able to see them easily and they were more likely to be eaten by birds than the light colored moths. Red circle is the white moth.
  40. 40. During the Industrial Revolution, th e trees and lichen became covered with black soot from the new coal-burning factories. http://www.flickr.comchapstickaddict
  41. 41. As a result the light colored moth’s stood out on all the dark soot covered surfaces. They no longer blended in and the birds were more likely to see and eat them. As a result, fewer white moths babies were being produced.
  42. 42. At the same time, the dark moths were becoming more and more camouflaged, blending in on the blackened trees. Birds couldn’t find them as well. More dark moth babies were therefore being produced. white moth black moth
  43. 43. As a result, over the course of many generations, more black moths lived than light-colored moths. By the mid-19th century, the number of dark-colored moths has risen dramatically and by 1895, the percentage of dark-colored moths in the peppered moth population was reported at 98%. In modern times, because of cleaner air standards in Europe, the dark-bodied moth is becoming less frequent.
  44. 44. So far, we have discussed adaptations that are physical traits or behaviors that animals have inherited from their parents. But what about learning? Can an animal learn new behaviors that help them survive in its environment?
  45. 45. • Paragon falcons nesting on high rise buildings in New York. Even in the short run, there are many examples of animals meeting their needs by learning behaviors that adapt to their changing environment. • Raccoon taking the lid off of a metal trash can. • Opossum moving to northern climates.
  46. 46. This picture shows a raccoon removing the elastic strap securing the lid on the trash can. He has learned to meet his need for food by eating from the garbage can. When man strapped the lid on This is an example of an animal adapting to his changing environment. http://www.flickr.com/ the can, he had to learn how to remove it.
  47. 47. Paragon falcons historically nest on high cliffs. Their numbers decreased due to use of pesticides and became extinct in eastern United States.
  48. 48. http://www.lauraerickson.com by Laura Erickson Here we see paragon falcons that learned to nest on a New York high rise building-- a prime example of an animal’s behavior adapting to changing conditions in the environment. To increase their numbers peregrine falcons were introduced into cities such as New York City.
  49. 49. The opossum learned to eat man’s garbage. As a result, the opossum has been moving farther north each year following humans even though it is ill equipped for cold climates. It does not dig its own burrow so to make it through the cold winters it uses abandoned skunk or groundhog dens. To make the den warm, the opossum gathers leaves into a tight bundle and then wraps its tail around them and drags them to the den. http://www.enaturalist.org/unit/44/qr Electronic Naturalist
  50. 50. •The opossums moving north following food resulted in a changed environment for them. To survive in this changed environment, the animal learned to adapt.
  51. 51. The main point of this lesson is that animals and plants that are successful (continue to survive) are those that can make the necessary adaptations to meet their needs. Those that don’t become extinct.

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