This show has many animations from the “animationlibrary.com” and from PowerPoint.These won’t be viewable until the show is downloaded. When just viewing some pageswill seem to have information stacked on top of other information. ENERGY Upper elementary or middle school level By Moira Whitehouse PhD
In science the word Energy means theability to move or change matter.We cannot directly see energy. We onlyobserve the effect it has on matter. Ifmatter moves or changes, we will learn thatenergy was used to make it to happen.
Everything we do involves energy. Getting up,going to school, figuring out our math problemsand doing chores at home.
When we walk or run, drive a car, cook on astove, heat our food in a microwave oven, orswitch on a light, we are using energy.Matter of fact, everything that happens in theuniverse, from the eruption of volcanoes, tothe sprouting of seed takes energy.Sometimes it happens slowly.Sometimes very fast.
A world without energy is difficult toimagine but it would be a dark placewithout sound or light or any movement.
There are several different forms of energy.Each one however either causes or cancause matter to move or change.MechanicalSoundThermal (heat)ElectricalChemicalElectromagnetic (light)Nuclear
We will talk about each kind of energy, starting withMechanical
Every moving object has mechanical energy,whether it is a hammer driving a nail, a leaffalling from a tree, or a rocket flying inspace. Any object that is moving can causeanother object to move. Mechanical energypulls, pushes, twists, turns and throws. A moving hammer has mechanical energy. When it hits the nail, it causes the nail to move.
When you hit a ball with a bat, the ball flies.What causes the ball to move when it hitsthe bat?What about when you kick a ball. Whatcauses the ball to move? Both the bat and the kicking feet have mechanical energy; they caused the balls to move.
Sound energy involves vibrating objects. When you strike a tuning fork, it vibrates back and forth and makes a sound.
When a boom box produces sound, the speakersvibrate.
When something vibrates it causes the airaround it to vibrate as well. These vibrationsmay travel to our ear. Our brain interprets thevibrations of a violin string as music.
It works like this: the vibrations travel throughthe air to our ear, are sensed by our ear drumwhich moves little bones, causing fluid in acanal to move tiny sensor hairs. Our brainsenses the motion of these hairs as sound.
Thermal energy exists because objects have heat.Heat is caused by the motion of the tiny particlesthat make up everything. Just as TV pictures aremade up of tiny pixels, everything is made up ofatoms and molecules. These tiny particles are alwaysin motion but we can’t see them or the motionbecause they are so small. But we know the fasterthey move, the hotter they get.When an object absorbsthermal energy, the moleculesand atoms that make up thatobject move faster and itstemperature rises.
Rub your hands together. What did you notice?Yes, they got warmer. Why do you think thatmight happen?When you rub your hands together, you createfriction which causes heat between your hands.This heat that you feel is there because the frictioncaused the molecules that make up your skin tomove faster. As a result, you increased theamount of thermal energy in your hands and theyfeel warmer.
We use thermal energy to cook our food,to heat our homes, to generate electricityand many other things.
Aren’t you glad thatsomeone discoveredthat thermal energychanges matter. Lookwhat changes occurwhen we bake a cake.
ICE WATER VAPOR ICE WATER VAPORAdding and subtracting thermal energy canalso change matter from one form to anotherby making molecules move faster or slower.
Electricity is the energy of electrons moving in anelectrical conductor, like wire. Electrons,remember, are one of the three particles of whichevery atom is made. All matter consists of atoms, and every atom contains one or more of these electrons, which are always moving. When electrons are forced along a path in a conducting substance, the result is a current of energy called electricity.
This is a diagram of anelectric current ofelectrons moving in aclosed circuit. What doyou notice happens whenthe circuit is open?.
Many things that are very useful to usrun on electrical energy.
Energy stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules iscalled chemical energy. When some substancesreact with one another, chemical energy is released.Probably the most familiar example of chemicalenergy is the dry cell battery that you use so often. metal cap (+) When these different carbon rod (positive substances react with electrode) zinc case (negative each other, electric electrode) manganese (IV) oxide energy is released providing power for moist paste of ammonium chloride your flashlight, radio, metal bottom (-) or whatever.
Photosynthesis is perhaps a more importantexample of chemical energy. Plants absorb lightenergy from the sun which causes a reactionbetween the carbon dioxide and water in plantleaves creating a sugar called glucose. Plants canchange glucose into carbohydrates and fats,storing chemical energy for later use.
This “stored for later use” covers a lot ofterritory. It could be: •Used by the plant itself for growth and survival.
This “stored for later use” covers a lot ofterritory. It could also be: •Plant parts could be eaten by animals, starting a food chain for feeding earth’s creatures.
Plant absorbs light energy and transforms it into Energy transfer in food chains chemical energy The grass is eaten by the _________is eaten by the _____is eaten by the ______is eaten by the ______.Stored _________ energy in the plants is transferredfrom the __________to the_____, to the _____tothe ________enabling each to live and reproduce.Where did the plant get the energy to make food withstored chemical energy?
Just as animals, we humans must eat and digestsubstances (like fruit, vegetables, and even meat ofanimals that had eaten plants). In the process, thechemical bonds between the atoms and molecules inthe food are broken down, releasing chemicalenergy. This is the energy we use to walk, run, jump,grow and live.
This “stored for later use” covers a lot ofterritory. Finally, it could mean: •plant parts buried underground for a long time, decaying and turning into the energy resources of oil, gas or coal, our three fossil fuels.
Natural gas andcrude oil(petroleum) wereformed from theremains of plantsand animals thatdied millions andmillions of yearsago.
Crude oil and natural gas have a lot of stored chemical energy from those plants and animals that died millions of years ago.Both oil and natural gas are pumped out oftheir reservoirs found under layers of rock.
After natural gas is removed, it is stored in tanks above ground.Some of this gas is then piped to our houses wherethat stored chemical energy is changed to heat tocook our food and heat our homes and water.
Crude oil, on the other hand,is sent to a refinery where itis separated into its variousparts. One of these parts,gasoline, when burned in ourcars releases stored chemicalenergy.
Coal, our third fossil fuel, is a black shiny rock also found underground.We dig it up and burn it togenerate electricity.
Coal also was formed from the remains ofplants that died millions and millions of yearsago.
Natural gas, crude oil and coal have vast amountsof chemical energy stored in the bonds that holdtheir atoms together. When they are burned, thischemical energy is released.
Light (one type of electromagnetic energy) is aform of energy that allows us to see.Electromagnetic radiation which comes from thesun has parts other than light such asx-rays and radio waves, but it is light that thehuman eye sees. This picture shows the same place in day and at night. What do you see in this scene during the day that you can’t at night? Why?
Think of several ways that you use lightenergy. Note them on your paper.Did any of these pop up in your head?
The brightest light you can probablythink of is the sun. Because of solarpanels, sunlight can now be used tomake electricity, which we learnedearlier, can be used to do many things.
In these pictures light from the sun is being changed into electrical energy. Can you label each picture with the kind of energy the electricity produced? ________________ energy________________energy ________________ energy
In areas of the world where there is lots ofsunshine, solar panels can be used toprovide the electricity needs of peopleshomes and many other things.
Nuclear energy is the last form of energy that wewill talk about. nucleus
Here a large nucleus is breaking into smaller nuclei. Releasing a great amount of nuclear energy.Here small nuclei are joining to form a larger nucleus. This reaction releases even more nuclear energy.
Nuclear energy isreleased on theSun......and in nuclearpower plants whereelectricity isgenerated.
About 300for nuclear energy, figuredSo much years ago, scientists now anout an amazing fact about energy: itimportant fact that is true of allcannot be created nor destroyed, it canenergy.only be changed from one kind toanother.Here we seechemical energybeing changed toelectrical, thenlight and heatenergy.
For the rest of this presentation, you will beshown examples of energy being changed formone form to another. You will be asked toidentify the type of energy in each part of theexamples.
Electricity can be changed into many other formsof energy. In a boom box, electrical energy is changed to ______________ energy.
With an electrical motor, electric energy ischanged to ________________ energy. electricity coming into motor
We use a blender to mix different fruits andvegetables to make juice or smoothies. To mixthese drinks, it has an electrical motor that spinsvery fast and makes a whirring noise. In this example, ___________ energy changes to ___________ and _________ energy. The sound is of no use to us, but the blended makes it anyways.
Here the person made a switch that turns on anoven. The red lightning bolt stands for electricitycoming from outside the home and is connectedto the oven. What happens when the personcloses the switch so that electricity can flow tothe element in the oven? In this example, electrical energy changes to __________ and _________ energy.
A child blows a whistle. When he blows into the whistle he moves air through it and the whistle makes a noise.In this example, ______________energy changesto ___________energy.
Here a solar panel is being used to power a school zone light.In this example, ______________energy from theSun changes to ___________energy which thenchanges back to ________ energy.
With an electrical fan, electric energy is changedto ________________ energy.
In this example the toast turnsbrown. This change happenswhen ______________energy changes to ___________.A spring pops the toast up whenit’s done (_________energy)If you look inside the toaster, you would see redglowing coils. This change is the results of__________ energy changing to __________energy.
A cat is strumming a guitar.In this example, ______________energy changesto __________ energy.
Here we see wood burning. Do you remember what kind of stored energy is in wood?In this example, ______________energy changesto __________ and __________energy.
In this example, ______________energy changesto __________ energy.
Here we see a young man, moving his legs to make the bike move. Pedaling is ________energy which causes the bike to move. The moving bike is also _________energy.If we were to trace this energy back further, wewould see the man got his energy from his food.When food is digested ___________ energy isreleased. Following this path all the way back tophotosynthesis, what was the source of this energyand almost all energy on Earth?
This light bulb contains a tiny wire called a filament. When electricity flows through the filament, it gets hot and glows.In this example, ______________energychanges to ___________ and __________energy.
In this example, the electricity is provided by a battery. Do you remember what kind of energy is stored in a battery?In this example, ______________energychanges to _________ energy and then to____________ and __________ energy.
In this example, naturalgas is being burned toheat water . Do youremember what kind ofenergy is stored innatural gas? In this example, ______________energy changes to ___________ and __________ energy.
We put gasoline in our cars so that they can move. This gasoline is burned inside the engine. The engine also gets hot though this heat is not wanted .In this example, __________ energy is changedto ___________ and _________ energy.
This finishes ourlesson on energy.Is your personal energy strong enough toremember some of this exciting stuff? Thanks to http://www.animationlibrary.com for their free animations.