Animal protection (adapations teach)

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For teaching elementary students some ways that animals have to protect themselves from predators.

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  • Living in the wild isn’t easy. Most wild animals
    Have to be constantly searching for food or water or shelter.
    And if you are a prey, you have an additional problem and is a BIG one.
    You do not want to land on the menu of your predator: that is, you do not
    want to be eaten. Animals have many ways to protect themselves fro their
    predators. These adaptations may be different for different animals but often
    they are similar. Regardless, they share one purpose—to keep an animal
    from being eaten.
  • Adaptations to protect oneself might be body parts (structures) or behaviors. The body
    Parts are inherited. The behaviors often are instincts but may be learned.
    Many animals have special body parts that may help to protect them from enemies.
    These body parts can be hard outer shells or hard ekoskeletons.
  • Animal protection (adapations teach)

    1. 1. How Animals Protect Themselves By Moira Whitehouse PhD
    2. 2. Unlike your pet, wild animals need to protect themselves from many threats, like:
    3. 3. Unlike your pet, wild animals need to protect themselves from many threats, like: •predators that want to eat them
    4. 4. Unlike your pet, wild animals need to protect themselves from many threats, like: •predators that want to eat them • animals in the same species that want to fight with them
    5. 5. Unlike your pet, wild animals need to protect themselves from many threats, like: •predators that want to eat them • animals in the same species that want to fight with them • weather and
    6. 6. Unlike your pet, wild animals need to protect themselves from many threats, like: •predators that want to eat them • animals in the same species that want to fight with them • weather and •other threats in their environment such drought, flooding, freezing etc.
    7. 7. Unlike your pet, wild animals need to protect themselves from from many threats, like: This presentation is about the adaptations that animals have to protect themselves from predators. •predators that want to eat them • animals in the same species that want to fight with them • weather and •other threats in their environment such drought, flooding, freezing etc.
    8. 8. Animals have a natural instinct to survive so they try to protect themselves from predators. Their many “tools” to help them do this include: •Camouflage •Body structure including covering •Use of chemicals/poisons •Protective behavior
    9. 9. Camouflage…An animal’s natural coloring or form that 1)provides protection from predators by blending in with surroundings through color or pattern. 2)can also help predators get close enough to unsuspecting prey to catch them. Wikipedia Commons Wikipedia Commons
    10. 10. U S Fish and Wildlife These two pictures could be of the same bird at two different times of the year. The Alaskan Ptarmigan changes color to white during the snowy winter months and to brown in the summer so that it blends in with its surroundings. SEASONAL CAMOUFLAGE
    11. 11. U S Fish and Wildlife This weasel gives us another example of an animal changing the color of its fur for the seasons of the year. This is his summer coat.
    12. 12. This could be the same animal with his winter coat on. Weasels sometimes live in rocky areas where there is snow and having white fur allows them to blend in. This helps protect themselves from predators and also helps them get in close to prey before being seen. Bill Schmoker <bill.schmoker@gmail.com>
    13. 13. Wikipedia Commons U S Fish and Wildlife Here we have a Arctic hare wearing summer and winter coats. •Can you think of any problem with the hare keeping the dark coat for the winter months? •The fox would probably like for the rabbit to stay white in the summer. Why?
    14. 14. Most camouflage, however, isn’t concerned with just changing to white in the winter. Many animals are regularly able to “hide” in their environment because their body covering blends in with both the color and patterns of their surroundings.
    15. 15. http://photography.nationalgeographic.com This camouflaged toad is a bit safer because he is hard to find by those who would eat him. Not only is he the color of his surroundings but the pattern of his body is also similar to the bark of this tree. A small shrimp hides among the stinging tentacles of a sea anemone. Can you see it? NONSEASONAL CAMOUFLAGE
    16. 16. This frog would be pretty hard for a predator to pick out from the leaves on which it is perched. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:LeafInsect.jpg Take a close look. This isn’t a small leaf on a larger one. The small leaf is actually an insect that looks almost exactly like a leaf.
    17. 17. This walking stick insect is hiding on a blade a grass so some hungry bird or lizard won’t get it for lunch. Notice its body is the same color, shape and pattern as the blade of grass. Can you find it? Clue: it is upside down. http://photography.nationalgeographic.com
    18. 18. • You can see that the camouflage does make it more difficult to spot this antelope. •Look at the picture by squinting and then unsquinting your eyes and imagining that you are a lion looking for something to eat. This African grass eater is colored with shades and hues that are very similar to the tall grasses in which it lives. This camouflage and the fact that it can run very fast is about the only protection this animal has from predators. US Fish and Wildlife
    19. 19. http://www.wildlife-pictures-online.com/zebra_kgr-0447.html This photograph is copyright-protected and may only be downloaded for personal, educational and other strictly non-commercial use These zebras, with their stripes, don’t look very camouflaged, but they are. Lions, who like to eat zebras, are color blind, and this striped pattern in among the shadows of the trees, particularly at dusk, is very hard for the lion distinguish.
    20. 20. Camouflage helps protect prey, but it can also help the predator get close to its possible dinner. •This lion in tall grass is barely visible. •This boreal owl looks so much like the tree that a hapless bird might well chose that branch as a resting place. http://photography.nationalgeographic.com
    21. 21. Uroplatus fimbriatus geckohttp://rainforests.mongabay.com/0306.htm This gecko uses its camouflage for both purposes. It lies here waiting on a tree ready to jump out and catch an unsuspecting insect. At the same time, it is well enough hidden on this bark so that it will not become the dinner for some hungry snake or bird.
    22. 22. Animals have a natural instinct to survive so they try to protect themselves from predators. Their many “tools” to help them do this include: •Camouflage •Body structure including covering •Use of chemicals/poisons •Protective behavior
    23. 23. Next we will look at how an animal’s body structure including body covering might help protect it from its enemies.
    24. 24. First there are parts of its body that an animal may use in a fight with a predator to protect itself. Like: Hooves http://www.pdphoto.org/PictureDetail.php?mat=pdef&pg=6376 Next we will look at how an animal’s body structure can help protect it.
    25. 25. Next we will look at how an animal’s body structure can help protect it. First there are those things that an animal may use in a fight to protect himself. Like: Beaks http://www.copyright-free-photos.org.uk
    26. 26. Next we will look at how an animal’s body structure can help protect it. First there are those things that an animal may use in a fight to protect himself. Like: Claws http://www.copyright-free-photos.org.uk
    27. 27. Next we will look at how an animal’s body structure can help protect it. First there are those things that an animal may use in a fight to protect himself. Like: Horns http://www.naturephoto-cz.com/
    28. 28. In the following video you will see a buffalo protecting its baby from a lion using its horns and hooves.
    29. 29. http://www.arkive.org/african-buffalo/syncerus-caffer/video-10.html# alo-fighting-off-a-lion-attacking-her-calf.jpg" alt="ARKive video - Fem Select this URL to open a video of a female African buffalo fighting off a lion attacking her calf. Then select full screen. This somewhat cumbersome step is necessary because I am placing this slide show on SlideShare. For classroom use Arkive gives permission to download the video clip and place it directly in your slide show.
    30. 30. Many animals also have body coverings that are specialized to help protect them from enemies. These body coverings can be hard outer shells. http://www.naturephoto-cz.com/ http://www.freedigitalphotos.net
    31. 31. Picture courtesy of the University of Lincoln-Nebraska Entomolpgy If you have ever had the unhappy experience of stepping on a cock roach and heard the loud pop, you probably got the idea that they also have hard shells.
    32. 32. The tough scales of fish and reptiles are a protective body covering that acts like a knight’s suit of armor. These hard plates are difficult for their enemies to pierce no matter how sharp their teeth.
    33. 33. Fish scales J & J Buzzard http://www.flickr.com/
    34. 34. Lizard by Pandiyan http://www.flickr.com/ Snake by xopheriance http://www.flickr.com/ Lizards and snakes use their scales to protect them from their enemies such as birds of prey. They also use their scales to prevent water from escaping from their bodies.
    35. 35. But what about those whose armor doesn’t cover all of their bodies? What are they to do? •Some retreat into their shells, •some dig into the ground with claws and •some curl up in a ball to protect their soft bellies.
    36. 36. To find out what is going on, the turtle must open up. Photos by Roger Louie In his shell, this box turtle has complete protection, but he doesn’t know what’s going on around him and can’t move. In order to move about, the turtle must extend feet, legs and head. A shell that covers completely may be the best protection, but it has some disadvantages. .http://www.geocities.com/Heartland/Acres/9831/
    37. 37. Other animals have shells that are flexible and can take different shapes. This gives the animal more ability to move about and still be protected. •The African Pangolin will draw in his feet and wedge the surrounding armor firmly into the ground. This ruse is effective against birds and some mammals, but not coyotes who can pierce their armor. See ARKive terms of use
    38. 38. The three-banded armadillo is more effectively protected by completely rolling up. It is a good defense but large predators like the jaguar can crack its protective shell. See ARKive terms of use
    39. 39. http://www.flowers. Another creature, a bug, that we are familiar with rolls up and uses its hard shell for protection. This is a roly poly. Wikipedia Commons
    40. 40. Porcupines have a body covering with sharp quills. These quills are a good defense against those that would like to eat it. How many encounters like this would it take for you to learn not to mess with a porcupine?
    41. 41. Then, there are some animals with few other defenses that actually scare away predators with the ugly look of their body covering and parts.
    42. 42. http://www.californiaherps.com/info/photouse.html •This fellow is so ugly and scary that hardly any predators are interested in him.
    43. 43. http://www.naturephoto-cz.com/ •Likewise, this scary fellow seems to be left alone by predators in his area.
    44. 44. http://photography.nationalgeographic.com . Or this ocean dweller. It isn’t puffed up like this all the time. But when threatened it blows itself up into a spiked ball that looks scary and is too big for most of its predators to swallow.
    45. 45. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net •These butterflies have “Eye Spots” that to a predator may look like something “big and scary” and perhaps cause it to call off his attack or delay it long enough for the butterfly to escape.
    46. 46. http://www.flowers •This bunny’s big ears help it hear an enemy that is approaching looking for a meal. Animals that are not fortunate enough to be that ugly or scary, usually have some highly developed sense that they use to detect the presence of enemies.
    47. 47. tarsier loris http://www.schools.net.au/edu/ These little fellows have been provided with great big eyes that work especially well in the dark because that’s when they are awake and moving about. Hopefully, they will be able to see approaching predators at night.
    48. 48. Some animals have bodies that are adapted for speed. The animal can swim or run like the wind—fleeing at top speeds when a enemy approaches.
    49. 49. http://photography.nationalgeographic.com A penguin is pretty slow and almost clumsy on land, but in water, where it hunts and is hunted, it moves with great skill and speed. With its powerful fins and streamlined body, it is a speedy traveler often able to evade killer whales.
    50. 50. http://www.arkive.org/african- penguin/spheniscus-demersus/video- 06a.html#src=portletV3web" title="ARKive video - African penguins swimming and porpoising" ><img src="http://cdn2.arkive.org/media/D3/D3C4 331F-B69B-4791-BEA3- EDC774011F54/Presentation.Portlet/Africa n-penguins-swimming-and-porpoising.jpg" alt="ARKive video - African penguins swimming and porpoising" title="ARKive video - African penguins swimming and porpoising" border="0"/></a> Select this URL to open a video of fast streamlined african-penquins in motion.. Then select full screen. This somewhat cumbersome step is necessary because I am placing this slide show on SlideShare. For classroom use Arkive gives permission to download the video clip and place it directly in your slide show.
    51. 51. http://animalphotos.info/a/topics/animals/ •Kangaroos and Wallabies are close cousins that live in Australia. They have very large and well developed hind legs and feet. These are Next we will look at how an animal’s body structure can help protect it. used for long jumps that allow it to escape from predators but can also deliver a mean kick to attackers.
    52. 52. See ARKive terms of use The Wildebeest must sometime outrun a lion or leopard, or die. Strong legs for fast running and great endurance are part of this animal’s protection.
    53. 53. Perhaps, just the ability to get out of the predator’s sight could save an animal’s life. Having a den or hole to run into may just do the trick. Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document, but changing it is not allowed. Wikipedia:Text of the GNU Free Documentation License
    54. 54. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net Wise animals who are prey and expect to grow old seldom get very far away from their shelter or den.
    55. 55. Animals have a natural instinct to survive so they try to protect themselves from predators. Their many “tools” to help them do this include: •Camouflage •Body structure including covering •Use of chemicals/poisons •Protective behavior
    56. 56. •Some animals have chemicals in their body that make them taste bitter and predators soon avoid eating them. •Others have poisonous chemicals in their skin that cause animals that eat them to vomit. •Still others sting their enemies, injecting a poison into their bodies.
    57. 57. http://picturethis.pnl.gov Fireflies taste bitter to frogs so they will spit them out and very soon learn not to eat them. That, of course, works out very well for the fireflies.
    58. 58. Yellow-Banded Poisonous Frog Mantella aurantiaca frog Blue poisonous dart frog These brightly colored frogs are all poisonous. Their bright colors protect them because predators, who have gotten sick after “trying” one, learn to stay away from all brightly colored frogs.
    59. 59. To protect themselves, some animals even “copy cat” or imitate other animals that are poisonous by matching their looks and coloration. Why do you think that might be a smart thing to do?
    60. 60. Monarch butterfly on the left, viceroy butterfly on the right (Photo by R. Butler) These two butterflies are different species that look remarkably alike. The Monarch is poisonous and even hungry predators have learned to stay away from it. By looking almost exactly like the Monarch, would be predators of the Viceroy are also reluctant to try a “bite.”
    61. 61. http://www.naturephoto-cz.com/ As some of you may know, the wasp can deliver a very painful sting to anyone who is intruding on his space and they learn to stay away.
    62. 62. http://www.getfreephotos.com/main.php The skunk can protect himself because he is equipped with a system to project a very strong and vile smelling liquid at an attacker. Predators only have to be “sprayed” once to get the idea that skunks should be left alone.
    63. 63. Animals have a natural instinct to survive so they try to protect themselves from predators. Their many “tools” to help them do this include: •Camouflage •Body structure including covering •Use of chemicals/poisons •Protective behavior
    64. 64. Finally, we will look at how an animal’s behavior can help protect it. •Let’s start with the animals that live in groups or herds. •We will finish with some rather unusual behavior that individual animals can use to protect themselves.
    65. 65. Many animals that live in groups or herds use “look outs” and signals between animals to warn of danger.
    66. 66. http://www.freedigitalphotos.net http://animalphotos.info/a/topics/animals/ These “sentinels” keep watch and warn the others if there is danger.
    67. 67. Wikimedia Commons Here the male wildebeest in the middle of this herd is watching out for enemies while the females safely eat grass. He will sound the alarm to flee if he notices a predator.
    68. 68. http://images.fws.gov/ http://images.fws.gov/ An example of signaling is this buck deer using his white tail to warn others of danger.
    69. 69. Animals that live in herds such as bison, elephants and musk-ox will group together to fight off predators such as lions or wolves.
    70. 70. Us fish and wildlife Here is a great shot of musk-ox encircling their young, horns pointed outward ready take on a pack of attacking wolves
    71. 71. In the next video you will see a herd of wildebeest protecting their young when a cheetah attacks.
    72. 72. Select this URL to open a video of a group of adult wildebeest stopping a cheetah from attacking a young one. Then select full screen. This somewhat cumbersome step is necessary because I am placing this slide show on SlideShare. For classroom use Arkive gives permission to download the video clip and place it directly in your slide show. http://www.arkive.org/cheetah/acinonyx- jubatus/video-08b.html#src=portletV3web" title="ARKive video - Adult wildebeest stops cheetah from chasing young wildebeest" ><img src="http://cdn1.arkive.org/media/5C/5CE2 5926-2291-425F-B462- 9A643D4C5F93/Presentation.Portlet/Adult- wildebeest-stops-cheetah-from-chasing- young-wildebeest.jpg" alt="ARKive video - Adult wildebeest stops cheetah from chasing young wildebeest" title="ARKive video - Adult wildebeest stops cheetah from chasing young wildebeest" border="0"/></a>
    73. 73. Another example of staying close together in groups for protection is shown in this photo of a tight “school” of ocean fish. http://www.naturephoto-cz.com/
    74. 74. Wikimedia Commons. One behavior that an individual animal might use for protection is the “bluff,” where it make a scary face or noise.
    75. 75. And if all else fails, some animals will play dead when they are in danger. Grass snake playing dead. Possum playing dead. Wikipedia commons http://animalphotos.info/a/2008/01/07/possum-playing-dead/#more-1108
    76. 76. We have studied some ways that animals have adapted to protect themselves and talked about them in four areas: •Camouflage
    77. 77. We have studied some ways that animals have adapted to protect themselves and talked about them in four areas: •Camouflage •Body structure and covering.
    78. 78. We have studied some ways that animals have adapted to protect themselves and talked about them in four areas: •Camouflage •Body structure and covering. •Use of chemicals/poisons
    79. 79. We have studied some ways that animals have adapted to protect themselves and talked about them in four areas: •Camouflage •Body structure and covering. •Use of chemicals/poisons •Protective behavior
    80. 80. Movies and all pictures marked with Arkive courtesy of Arkive Education @ http://www.arkiveeducation. All pictures and movies are available for educational use. Thanks for Arkive Education for permission to use them in this presentation.

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