Develop an awareness of the diversity and the range of provision in mainstream schools
Develop an understanding of the SEN Code of Practice for pupils with SEN
Develop an awareness of what we mean by “Inclusion”
Objectives for the session
Brief history of SEN/Inclusion
19 th century: idiots, imbeciles and feeble minded kept in hospitals
1970: Education (Handicapped Children) Act took severely subnormal children from health care into education
1978: The Warnock Report – change vocabulary – special educational ‘need’ not ‘handicap’
1981: Education Act - ‘integration’ and ‘statements’
1994: Salamanca Statement on the rights of children with SEN to a mainstream school place. Also first SEN Code of Practice
Brief history of SEN/Inclusion
1995: Disability Code of Practice set out the rights of disabled pupils
2000: National Curriculum inclusion statement
2001: SEN Code of Practice set out procedures for assessing the needs and providing for pupils with SEN
2001: Inclusive Schooling’s framework for inclusion
2004: Removing Barriers to Learning – embedding inclusive practice into every school setting
* Also refer to Handout 1: A brief history of inclusion
What does “Special Educational Needs” mean to you? Personal Reflection What do you recollect about SEN from your own childhood/schooling? Do any images stand out? Can you recall any of the terms/expressions which you have come across in respect of SEN?
A child has special educational needs if he or she has a learning difficulty which calls for special educational provision to be made for him or her The Education Act 1996
The Education Act 1996 (a) has a significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of children of the same age ; A child has a learning difficulty if he or she ... (b) has a disability which either prevents or hinders the child from making use of educational facilities of a kind provided for children of the same age in schools within the area of the local education authority;
For a child over two, provision which is additional to , or different from , the educational provision made generally for children of the child’s age in local schools
Special Educational Provision means … The Education Act 1996
Definition of disability from SEN and Disability Act 2001 (SENDA)
Disabled pupils are those who ‘have a physical or mental impairment which has a substantial and long term adverse effect on the ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities’
Range and Diversity of S.E.N.
Average classroom - 20% Statemented pupils – 2% Range of difficulties/disabilities The pupils with Special Educational Needs Inclusion means more pupils with SEN in mainstream schools!!
“ Effective teaching for children with SEN shares most of the characteristics of effective learning for all children.
But as schools become more inclusive, so teachers must be able to respond to a wider range of needs in the classroom.”
DfES Removing Barriers to Achievement 2004
The S.E.N. Code of Practice 2001
The SEN Code of Practice-2001
A child with SEN should have their needs met.
The SEN of children will normally be met in mainstream schools or settings.
The views of the child should be sought and taken into account.
Parents have a vital role to play in supporting their child’s education.
Children with SEN should be offered full access to a broad, balanced and relevant education.
Special Educational Needs Code of Practice November 2001 Fundamental Principles
The SEN Code of Practice 2001 “ Each child is unique” “ There is a wide spectrum of special educational needs that are frequently inter-related.” “ Children will have needs and requirements which may fall into at least one of 4 areas and many children will have inter-related needs.” “ The impact of these combinations on the child’s ability to function, learn and succeed should be taken into account.”
The SEN Code of Practice 2001 Categories of need 1. Communication and Interaction 2. Cognition and Learning 3. Behavioural, Emotional and Social Development 4. Sensory and/or physical
Categories of need from SEN code of practice 2001 Cognition and Learning Needs includes: Specific Learning Difficulty (SpLD) Moderate Learning Difficulty (MLD) Severe Learning Difficulty (SLD) Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulty (PMLD) Behaviour, Emotional and Social Development Needs includes: Behaviour, Emotional and Social Difficulty (BESD) Communication and Interaction Needs includes: Speech, Language and Communication Needs (SLCN) Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC) Sensory and/or Physical Needs includes: Visual Impairment (VI) Hearing Impairment (HI) Multi-Sensory Impairment (MSI) Physical Disability (PD) Pupils with medical needs are usually included in the final section.
Able, enabled or disabled?
1. Read very small print?
2. Hear what they are saying in the room next door?
3. Find a street you don’t know, in an unfamiliar area, when driving or being driven in a car?
4. Fly to the moon!
5. Assemble a complicated piece of flat-pack furniture?
6. Write or type a long assignment with no spelling mistakes?
If you think you cannot do any of these activities – what would enable you to do so?
Images of disability…
Would a pupil who uses a wheelchair be disabled if
the local school had ramps and lifts as well as steps?
Will dyslexic pupils be disabled readers and writers once the technology that can transform speech to print and vice versa becomes universally available and will they still have SEN? Personal Reflection
The ‘Medical’ Model of disability
Sees SEN as a “within child” problem
Locates the disability in the child
Focuses on the child’s difficulties and asks, “What is wrong with the child?”
Child seen as having a deficiency
Deficiency needs to be remedied
Outside experts need to ‘cure’ the child
The ‘Social’ Model of disability
Sees Education as inclusive with children having a range of needs
Locates the impairment in the person, but the disabling factors in the environment
Focuses on the child’s needs and asks, “What does the child need?”
Recognises the traditional curriculum does not always provide for all children’s needs
Specific needs may require specific provision – curriculum may need to be adapted
PGCE Session 1 A final thought…. Impairments are always very real but they may be disabling only to the extent that the external environment fails to provide the relevant supports… Medical and Social Models of disability
What do we mean by “Inclusion?”
Features of an Inclusive Environment
Feeling welcomed as individuals
Inclusion – Principles (1)
A process by which schools and LEAs develop their culture, policies and practices to include pupils
Nearly all pupils with SEN can be successfully included in mainstream schools
Schools and LEAs should actively seek to remove barriers to learning and participation
All pupils should have access to an appropriate education that gives them the opportunity to achieve their personal potential
Inclusion – Principles (2)
Mainstream education will not always be right for every child all of the time – equally it should be possible for the child to be successfully included at a later stage
“ Inclusive Schooling: Children with SEN”
DfES Guidance November 2001
There is a clear expectation that many pupils with SEN will be included in mainstream schools
Schools may not refuse to admit a child because they feel unable to cater for their special educational needs
Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (SENDA) 2001
Effective Inclusion Inclusive schools have: An inclusive ethos A broad and balanced curriculum for all pupils Systems for early identification of barriers to learning High expectations and suitable targets for all pupils
Inclusion The National Curriculum “ Inclusion Statement ” 3 principles: 1. Setting suitable learning challenges 2. Responding to pupils’ diverse learning needs 3. Overcoming potential barriers to learning
Inclusion Principles Responding to pupils’ diverse learning needs
Creating effective learning environments
Securing pupils’ motivation & concentration
Awareness of different learning styles
Setting appropriate targets for learning (SMART)
Inclusion Principles Overcoming potential barriers to learning
Awareness of SEN – type and extent – learning difficulties/physical disabilities…
Use of human resources
Use special arrangements during end of key stage assessments
Inclusion Pupils with SEN in Social Sciences - independent learners? 1. Independent tasks – clearly explained & modelled 2. Clear guidelines and well-defined parameters 3. Time limits and updates 4. Prompts, both verbal and visual 5. Scaffolded support in pairs or small groups 6. Adult guidance before ‘having a go’ themselves Maximising Progress: ensuring the attainment of pupils with SEN. KS3 National Strategy 2005 (DfES 0105-2005)
PGCE Session 1 Inclusion “ Inclusion is not a matter of where you are geographically, but of where you feel you belong.” (Warnock, 2005) “ There are many children, and especially adolescents, identified as having special educational needs, who can never feel they belong in a large mainstream school.” (Warnock, 2005)
The S.E.N. Code of Practice 2001
The SEN Code of Practice Special Educational Needs Code of Practice November 2001 A 3 Stage (Graduated) Approach School Action School Action Plus Statemented provision
School Action: When a class teacher identifies that a pupil has SEN they provide interventions that are additional to or different from those provided as part of the school’s usual differentiated curriculum. An IEP is usually devised. Special Educational Needs Code of Practice November 2001 School Action Plus: When outside agencies are brought in to help with provision for the pupil. A new IEP is usually devised. Statement of SEN: A document issued by the LEA to show what provision should be made for a child with SEN.
Individual Education Plan: A planning, teaching and reviewing tool which should: Raise achievement for pupils with SEN Be a working document - simple format, jargon free Detail provision additional to or different from those generally available for all pupils Detail targets (max 3 or 4) which are extra or different from those for most pupils Should result in… Good planning and intervention by staff Achievement of specific learning goals for pupils with SEN
Role of the SENCO
Oversees the day-to-day operation of the school’s SEN policy
Co-ordinates provision for pupils with SEN
Liaises with teachers
Manages teaching assistants
Oversees the records of pupils with SEN
Liaises with parents/carers
Contributes to in-service training
Liaises with outside agencies
PGCE Session 1 Protection from discrimination Two key duties: responsible bodies: * must not treat disabled pupils less favourably *must make reasonable adjustments for disabled pupils SEN and Disability Act 2001
PGCE Session 1 Less favourable treatment Disability discrimination is less favourable treatment than that received by someone else - for a reason related to the pupil’s disability - when it cannot be justified
PGCE Session 1 Reasonable adjustments
The steps taken by responsible bodies
The term ‘reasonable’ allows flexibility in interpretation
The duty to make reasonable adjustments is an anticipatory duty
PGCE Session 1 Personal Reflection Which of the following might be a reasonable adjustment? a) choosing an accessible venue for a school trip b) playing football with a sounding ball c) swapping round classroom accommodation d) setting up a buddy system e) planning lessons so that all pupils make progress f) demolishing the school and rebuilding it as single storey building
“ Ensuring that children are all working on something at which they can succeed and move forward at their own level.” Teacher (2008) Differentiation “ Matching teaching methods to an individual’s learning strategy.” John Visser (1993) “ A planned process of intervention in the classroom to maximise potential based on individual needs.” NCET (1993)
Links to special educational needs information www.teachernet.gov.uk/sen Go to: Removing Barriers to Achievement Useful SEN Links SEN Glossary of terms www.everychildmatters.gov.uk Go to: Aims and outcomes
Talk to the class teacher and the SENCO about the needs of the pupils with SEN in your classes During your placement Seek out any IEPs and use them when planning the content and delivery of your lessons Provide the pupils with SEN with work that challenges them, without being discouragingly difficult If you are not sure about anything to do with a pupil with SEN – ASK!
Pupil profiles: Is information on pupils with SEN in your classrooms readily available? During your placement - consider these SEN issues… IEPs: How effective are they in guiding your teaching? Eg’s? Differentiation: How are you using this in your teaching? Examples? Inclusion: Is it an “Inclusive School?” Evidence?