Attitudes to Mental Illness -2011 survey report  Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Righ...
AcknowledgementsThis document was published by the NHS Information Centre. The data collection andanalysis were carried ou...
The NHS Information Centreis England’s central, authoritative sourceof health and social care information.Acting as a ‘hub...
ContentsContents                                                                                       4Executive Summary ...
Executive SummaryIn the past this report was published by the Department of Health. The 2011 survey report wasproduced by ...
IntroductionThis report includes the findings of a survey into attitudes to mental illness conducted early in2011. This is...
usually rounded, but the significance tests have been carried out on the true percentage.This means that a difference in t...
Attitudes to mental illnessGrouping the statementsThe 27 attitude statements are grouped into four categories for analysis...
should be hospitalized’ (21%). The percentage of people saying that locating mental healthfacilities in a residential area...
Figure 2 Fear and exclusion of people with mental illness by age, 2011             % agreeing                 50          ...
Figure 3 Fear and exclusion of people with mental illness by sex, 2011        % agreeing            50            45      ...
Trends over timeLevels of understanding and tolerance of mental illness were generally high. The percentageof respondents ...
mental health services should be provided through community-based facilities’ fell from 79%in 2010 to 74% in 2011.Differen...
There were differences between men and women in their attitudes to three statements in thissection, shown in Figure 6, wit...
With the exception of ‘People with mental health problems should have the same rights to ajob as anyone else’, which was f...
Figure 7 Integrating people with mental illness into the community, 1994-2011% agreeing                     1994   1995   ...
Agreement that ‘People with mental health problems have the same rights to a job asanyone else’ increased from 66% in 2003...
any other; that the best therapy for people with mental illness is to be part of a normalcommunity; and that mental hospit...
Analysis is based on the level of agreement with these statements, which have been included in all surveys since 1994. Tre...
Differences by age and sexDifferences in agreement by age group are shown in Figure 11.Figure 11 Causes of mental illness ...
Women again held more positive views towards people with mental illness, being less likelythan men to agree with these thr...
The description most likely to be selected was ‘someone who is suffering fromschizophrenia’ – 58% in 2011.The next most of...
Figure 14 Types of mental illness, 2009-2011                                                                             T...
Figure 15 Attitudes towards treatment for people with mental health problems, 2009-2011         p         % agreeing      ...
Figure 16 Attitudes towards treatment for people with mental health problems bysex, 2011         % agreeing            100...
Personal experience of mental illnessRelationships with people with mental health problemsRespondents were asked about the...
Around eight out of ten respondents (82%) agreed that in future they would be willing tocontinue a relationship with a fri...
Percentage of people who might have a mental health problemRespondents were asked what percentage of people in the UK they...
Respondents were far less likely to say they would feel comfortable talking to an employerthan to friends and family – 42%...
Figure 20 Changes in mental health-related stigma and discrimination in the pastyear, 2010-2011           100            9...
List of supporting data tablesTable         TitleTable 1       Trends in attitudes towards fear and exclusion of people wi...
Published by The NHS Information Centre for health and social carePart of the Government Statistical ServiceISBN 978-1-846...
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Mental illness report

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Mental illness report

  1. 1. Attitudes to Mental Illness -2011 survey report Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 1
  2. 2. AcknowledgementsThis document was published by the NHS Information Centre. The data collection andanalysis were carried out by TNS-BMRB and the commentary was written by Gillian Prior(Director, TNS-BMRB). 2 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  3. 3. The NHS Information Centreis England’s central, authoritative sourceof health and social care information.Acting as a ‘hub’ for high quality, national,comparative data, we deliver information for localdecision makers, to improve the quality andefficiency of care.www.ic.nhs.ukAuthor: The NHS Information Centre, Mental Health and CommunityResponsible Statistician: Phil Cooke, Section HeadVersion: 1Date of Publication: 8 June 2011 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 3
  4. 4. ContentsContents 4Executive Summary 5Introduction 6Attitudes to mental illness 8 Grouping the statements 8 Fear and exclusion of people with mental illness 8 Understanding and tolerance of mental illness 11 Integrating people with mental illness into the community 14 Causes of mental illness and the need for special services 18Ways of describing someone who is mentally ill and types of mentalillness 21Attitudes to people with mental health problems 23Personal experience of mental illness 26 Relationships with people with mental health problems 26 Friends and family who have had mental illness 27 Percentage of people who might have a mental health problem 28 Consulting a GP about a mental health problem 28 Talking to friends and family about mental health 28 Talking to an employer about mental health 28Mental health-related stigma and discrimination 29List of supporting data tables 31 4 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  5. 5. Executive SummaryIn the past this report was published by the Department of Health. The 2011 survey report wasproduced by TNS BMRB and managed and published by the NHS Information Centre for Health andSocial Care. Arrangements for 2012 and beyond are being discussed between DH and the NHS IC.This report presents the findings of a survey of attitudes towards mental illness among adults inEngland. Questions on this topic have been asked since 1994, with questions added and removedover time. Surveys were initially carried out annually, then every three years from 1997-2003.Surveys have again been carried out annually since 2007. The aim of these surveys is to monitorchanges in public attitudes towards mental illness over time. For this survey 1,741 adults (aged 16+)were interviewed in England in February/March 2011.The survey questionnaire included a number of statements about mental illness. Respondents wereasked to indicate how much they agreed or disagreed with each statement. Other questions covereda range of other topics including descriptions of people with mental illness, relationships with peoplewith mental health problems, personal experience of mental illness, and perceptions of mentalhealth-related stigma and discrimination.It should be noted that, in common with results of other surveys, small fluctuations are likely to bedue to statistical sampling variation rather than reflecting true change.Main findingsThe report highlighted some significant changes over time. Some key changes include: • The percentage of people agreeing that ‘Mental illness is an illness like any other’ increased from 71% in 1994 (the first year this question was asked) to 77% in 2011. • The percentage saying they would be comfortable talking to a friend or family member about their mental health, for example telling them they had a mental health diagnosis and how it affects them, rose from 66% in 2009 (the first year the question was asked) to 70% in 2011. • The percentage saying they would feel uncomfortable talking their employer about their mental health was 43%, compared to 50% in 2010 (the first year this question was asked).In addition, other results for 2011 include: • 25% of respondents agreed that ‘Most women who were once patients in a mental hospital can be trusted as babysitters’. • Agreement that one of the main causes of mental illness is a lack of self-discipline and will- power stands at 16%. • The percentage of people saying that locating mental health facilities in a residential area downgrades the neighbourhood stood at 17%. Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 5
  6. 6. IntroductionThis report includes the findings of a survey into attitudes to mental illness conducted early in2011. This is the eleventh such survey commissioned by the Department of Health.Since March 1994 the Department of Health has placed a set of questions on TNS’s face-to-face Omnibus1. From 1994 to 1997 the questions were asked annually, then every third yearuntil 2003. The survey was been repeated annually from 2007 to 2010, under managementof ‘Shift’, an initiative to tackle stigma and discrimination surrounding mental health issues inEngland, which was part of the National Mental Health Development Unit (NMHDU), fundedby the Department of Health and the NHS. Shift and the NMHDU closed at the end of March2011. The 2011 survey was managed by the NHS Information Centre for Health and SocialCare. These surveys act as a tracking mechanism and in this report the most recent resultsare compared with those from previous years.The sample size for each survey was approximately 1,700 adults, selected to berepresentative of adults in England, using a random location sampling methodology. The1996 and 1997 surveys had larger samples of approximately 5,000 adults in each. For the2011 survey, 1,741 adults in England were interviewed.Interviews were carried out face-to-face by 150 fully trained interviewers using Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI), and were carried out in respondents’ homes.Interviewing took place between February 25th and March 1st 2011 inclusive.Data were weighted to be representative of the target population by age, gender and workingstatus.Respondents in these surveys were presented with a number of statements about mentalillness. They covered a wide range of issues from attitudes towards people with mentalillness, to opinions on services provided for people with mental health problems. The core ofthe questionnaire has remained the same for all surveys in this series. Over time a numberof other questions have been added, including questions about personal experience ofmental illness and descriptions of people with mental illness. Some new questions wereadded in 2009 to tie in with the evaluation of the ‘Time to Change’ anti-discriminationcampaign, by the Institute of Psychiatry. Some additional questions, on perceptions ofstigma and discrimination, were added in 2010. The 2011 questionnaire was the same asthat used in 2010.Where findings are reported as ‘significant’ in the following chapters in this report this alwaysmeans that the findings were statistically significant at the 5% significance level.Commentary is made only on differences which were statistically significant. All thedifferences reported in the Summary were statistically significant at the 5% significance level.If a finding is statistically significant we can be 95% confident that differences reported arereal rather than occurring just by chance. The whole percentages shown in the report are1 An Omnibus survey combines questions on a variety of topics into a single survey. 6 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  7. 7. usually rounded, but the significance tests have been carried out on the true percentage.This means that a difference in the report of say 3 percentage points may be significant insome cases but not in others, depending on the effect of rounding.In addition to this commentary the Attitudes to Mental Illness 2011 release includes 21reference data tables, a machine readable data file and appendices supporting that explainthe methodology of the survey. These are available on the publication page available here:www.ic.nhs.uk/pubs/attitudestomi11 . Full details of the survey methodology and a copy ofthe questionnaire are included in the Methodology Annexes which are available on thepublication page. Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 7
  8. 8. Attitudes to mental illnessGrouping the statementsThe 27 attitude statements are grouped into four categories for analysis purposes:1. Fear and exclusion of people with mental illness2. Understanding and tolerance of mental illness3. Integrating people with mental illness into the community4. Causes of mental illness and the need for special services.Fear and exclusion of people with mental illnessIntroductionThis section explores fear and exclusion of people with mental illness.These statements have all been included in each wave of the survey since 1994.The statements covered in this section are:• ‘Locating mental health facilities in a residential area downgrades the neighbourhood’• ‘It is frightening to think of people with mental problems living in residential neighbourhoods’• ‘I would not want to live next door to someone who has been mentally ill’• ‘A woman would be foolish to marry a man who has suffered from mental illness, even though he seems fully recovered’• ‘Anyone with a history of mental problems should be excluded from taking public office’• ‘People with mental illness should not be given any responsibility’• ‘People with mental illness are a burden on society’• ‘As soon as a person shows signs of mental disturbance, he should be hospitalized’The statements in this section all portray less favourable or ‘negative’ attitudes towardspeople with mental illness. Analysis in this section focuses on the percentage of respondentsagreeing with each of these statements (that is, displaying a negative attitude).Trends over timeFigure 1 shows the levels of agreement with these statements from 1994 to 2011.Overall, the levels of agreement with these negative statements about people with mentalillness were low, ranging in 2011 from 6% to 21%. The highest levels of agreement in 2011were with the statements ‘Anyone with a history of mental illness should be excluded fromtaking public office’ (21%) and ‘As soon as a person shows signs of mental disturbance, he 8 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  9. 9. should be hospitalized’ (21%). The percentage of people saying that locating mental healthfacilities in a residential area downgrades the neighbourhood stood at 17% in 2011. (Figure1).Figure 1 Fear and exclusion of people with mental illness, 1994-2011% agreeing 1994 1995 1996 1997 2000 2003 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Locating mental healthfacilities in a residentialarea downgrades theneighbourhood 22 24 24 29 26 24 21 20 21 18 17It is frightening to think ofpeople with mentalproblems living inresidential neighbourhoods 15 19 19 26 19 20 17 16 15 13 12I would not want to live nextdoor to someone who hasbeen mentally ill 8 12 10 11 9 13 11 12 11 9 11A woman would be foolishto marry a man who hassuffered from mentalillness, even though heseems fully recovered 12 15 14 13 14 13 13 12 14 12 13Anyone with a history ofmental problems should beexcluded from taking publicoffice 29 32 28 33 24 25 21 21 22 20 21People with mental illnessshould not be given anyresponsibility 17 21 16 18 14 16 14 15 13 12 13People with mental illnessare a burden on society 10 11 10 9 7 10 7 7 7 8 6As soon as a person showssigns of mental disturbance,he should be hospitalized 19 23 21 23 20 22 19 18 20 20 21Data source: Table 1Levels of agreement with several of these statements have fallen since 1994. Acceptance ofpeople with mental illness taking public office and being give responsibility has grown – thepercentage agreeing that ‘Anyone with a history of mental problems should be excluded fromtaking public office’ decreased from 29% in 1994 to 21% in 2011, while the percentageagreeing that ‘People with mental illness should not be given any responsibility’ decreasedfrom 17% to 13% over the same period.There were no significant changes in levels of agreement with these statements between2010 and 2011.Differences by age and sexLooking at the three age groups 16-34, 35-54 and 55+, there were significant differences byage group in agreement with several of these statements in 2011 (Figure 2). Statementsfrom this section where there were no significant differences by age group are not shown onthe chart. Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 9
  10. 10. Figure 2 Fear and exclusion of people with mental illness by age, 2011 % agreeing 50 45 40 35 30 16-34 25 25 % 25 21 35-54 20 20 17 17 55+ 16 15 11 9 10 5 0 A woman would be foolish Anyone with a history of As soon as a person shows to marry a man who has mental illness should be signs of mental illness, he suffered from mental excluded from taking public should be hospitalized illness, even though he office seems fully recoveredData source: Table 2In general the oldest group (age 55+) had the most negative attitudes towards people withmental illness, being significantly more likely than younger groups to agree that a womanwould be foolish to marry a man who has suffered from mental illness. Those aged 55+ and35-54 were more likely than the youngest group to agree that anyone with a history of mentalillness should be excluded from public office.Those aged 16-34 were more likely than the older groups to agree that as soon as a personshows signs of mental disturbance, he should be hospitalised.Statements in this section where there was a significant difference in 2011 between men andwomen in the percentage agreeing are shown in Figure 3. 10 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  11. 11. Figure 3 Fear and exclusion of people with mental illness by sex, 2011 % agreeing 50 45 40 35 30 23 23 Men % 25 20 Women 20 18 18 15 15 13 13 9 10 10 8 5 5 0 Locating mental I would not want Anyone with a People with People with As soon as a health facilities to live next door history of mental mental illness mental illness person shows in a residential to someone who problems should should not be are a burden on signs of mental area has been be excluded given any society disturbance he downgrades the mentally ill from taking responsibility should be neighbourhood public office hospitalizedData source: Table 2Where there was a difference between men and women, women were less negative towardspeople with mental illness.Understanding and tolerance of mental illnessIntroductionThis section explores understanding and tolerance of mental illness. These statements haveall been included in each survey since 1994.Analysis in this section focuses on the understanding/tolerance dimension of eachstatement. For some statements this is the percentage agreeing, for others it is thepercentage disagreeing. This is indicated for each statement in the list below.The statements included are:• ‘We have a responsibility to provide the best possible care for people with mental illness’ (% agreeing)• ‘Virtually anyone can become mentally ill’ (% agreeing)• ‘Increased spending on mental health services is a waste of money’ (% disagreeing)• ‘People with mental illness dont deserve our sympathy’ (% disagreeing)• ‘We need to adopt a far more tolerant attitude toward people with mental illness in our society’ (% agreeing)• ‘People with mental illness have for too long been the subject of ridicule’ (% agreeing)• ‘As far as possible, mental health services should be provided through community based facilities’ (% agreeing) Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 11
  12. 12. Trends over timeLevels of understanding and tolerance of mental illness were generally high. The percentageof respondents with understanding attitudes on these statements ranged in 2011 from 74%for ‘As far as possible, mental health services should be provided through community-basedfacilities’ to 91% for ‘We have a responsibility to provide the best possible care’ and ‘Virtuallyanyone can become mentally ill’ (Figure 4).Figure 4 Understanding and tolerance of mental illness, 1994-2011% agreeing/disagreeing 1994 1995 1996 1997 2000 2003 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011We have a responsibilityto provide the bestpossible care for peoplewith mental illness (%agreeing) 95 94 95 95 95 88 90 89 92 93 91Virtually anyone canbecome mentally ill (%agreeing) 91 89 91 93 92 88 89 89 91 93 91Increased spending onmental health services isa waste of money (%disagreeing) 89 89 91 91 90 84 84 83 83 87 82People with mental illnessdont deserve oursympathy (% disagreeing) 92 90 91 91 90 85 87 85 86 86 88We need to adopt a farmore tolerant attitudetoward people withmental illness in oursociety (% agreeing) 92 91 89 90 90 83 84 83 85 87 86People with mental illnesshave for too long beenthe subject of ridicule (%agreeing) 82 81 83 86 85 78 72 75 76 78 77As far as possible, mentalhealth services should beprovided throughcommunity basedfacilities (% agreeing) 75 76 72 72 76 73 74 72 79 79 74Data source: Table 3Since 1994, the percentage of respondents voicing more tolerant opinions on several ofthese statements has decreased. For example, the percentage disagreeing that ‘Increasedspending on mental health services is a waste of money’ also fell, from 89% in 1994 to 82%in 2011. Agreement that ‘We need to adopt a more tolerant attitude towards people withmental illness’ fell from 92% in 1994 to 86% in 2011.There has been a significant change in attitudes between 2010 and 2011 in two statementsin this section – the percentage disagreeing with ‘Increased spending on mental healthservices is a waste of money’ fell from 87% in 2010 to 82% in 2011 (reversing a similarincrease between 2009 and 2010), and the percentage agreeing that ‘As far as possible, 12 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  13. 13. mental health services should be provided through community-based facilities’ fell from 79%in 2010 to 74% in 2011.Differences by age and sexThere were significant differences by age group in 2011 for all of the statements in thissection (Figure 5).Figure 5 Understanding and tolerance of mental illness by age, 2011 % agreeing/disagreeing 100 94 92 94 94 90 89 90 86 86 84 86 84 80 77 70 60 16-3 4 % 50 35-5 4 40 55+ 30 20 10 0 W e hav e a responsibility Virtually anyone c an Increas ed spending on People with mental to prov ide the best become mentally ill (% mental health s ervic es is illness dont deserve our possible care for people agreeing) a waste of money (% sympat hy (% with mental illnes s (% disagreeing) dis agreeing) agreeing) 100 90 88 88 81 83 81 80 76 74 70 70 66 60 16-3 4 % 50 35-5 4 40 55+ 30 20 10 0 W e need to adopt a far People with mental Mental health serv ices more tolerant at titude illness have for too long should be provided towards people with been the s ubject of through community mental illness (% ridicule (% agreeing) based facilit ies (% agreeing) agreeing)Data source: Table 4As Figure 5 shows, the youngest age group (16-34) were significantly less likely than the 35-54 and 55+ groups to have understanding/tolerant attitudes on these seven statements. Thisis in contrast to the findings in Figure 2 above, that young people were less likely to holdnegative attitudes around fear and exclusion than those aged 55+. There were no significantdifferences between the 34-54 and 55+ age groups. Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 13
  14. 14. There were differences between men and women in their attitudes to three statements in thissection, shown in Figure 6, with women again displaying more tolerant attitudes (Figure 6).Figure 6 Understanding and tolerance of mental illness by sex, 2011 % agreeing/disagreeing 100 90 85 88 83 79 79 80 75 70 60 Men % 50 Women 40 30 20 10 0 Increased s pending on ment al We need to adopt a far more People wit h mental illnes s have health services is a waste of tolerant attitude t owards people for too long been the subject of money (% disagreeing) with mental illness (% agreeing) ridicule (% agreeing)Data source: Table 4Integrating people with mental illness into the communityIntroductionThis section explores the theme of integrating people with mental illness into the community.The statements included are:• ‘People with mental illness are far less of a danger than most people suppose’• ‘Less emphasis should be placed on protecting the public from people with mental illness’• ‘The best therapy for many people with mental illness is to be part of a normal community’• ‘Residents have nothing to fear from people coming into their neighbourhood to obtain mental health services’• ‘People with mental health problems should have the same rights to a job as anyone else’• ‘Most women who were once patients in a mental hospital can be trusted as babysitters’• ‘Mental illness is an illness like any other’• ‘No-one has the right to exclude people with mental illness from their neighbourhood’• ‘Mental hospitals are an outdated means of treating people with mental illnesses.Analysis of these statements is based on the percentage of respondents agreeing with each. 14 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  15. 15. With the exception of ‘People with mental health problems should have the same rights to ajob as anyone else’, which was first asked in 2003, the statements have been included in allyears of the survey.Trends over timeFigure 7 shows the percentage of respondents agreeing with these statements since 1994.Opinions on integrating people with mental illness into the community were mixed. Levels ofagreement with several of the statements in this section were high, for example in 2011 81%agreed that ‘No-one has the right to exclude people with mental illness from theirneighbourhood’ and 79% that ‘The best therapy for many people with mental illness is to bepart of a normal community’; 77% agreed that ‘Mental illness is an illness like any other’;72% agreed that ‘People with mental health problems should have the same rights to a jobas anyone else’.However respondents were far less likely to agree that ‘Most women who were once patientsin a mental hospital can be trusted as babysitters’ (25% agree), ‘Less emphasis should beplaced on protecting the public from people with mental illness’ (36% agree) and ‘Mentalhospitals are an outdated means of treating people with mental illness’ (34% agree).The other two statements in this section fell between these two extremes, with 64% ofrespondents agreeing that ‘Residents have nothing to fear from people coming into theirneighbourhood to obtain mental health services’ and 62% that ‘People with mental illnessare far less of a danger than most people suppose’.Attitudes towards mental illness were significantly less positive in 2011 than in 2010 for twostatements in this section:• ‘Residents have nothing to fear from people coming into their neighbourhood to obtain mental health services’ - % agreeing decreased from 66% in 2010 to 64% in 2011 (partially reversing an increase from 62% in 2009)• ‘No-one has the right to exclude people with mental illness from their neighbourhood’ - % agreeing decreased from 84% in 2010 to 81% in 2011 (although this was still higher than the 2009 level of 79%). Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 15
  16. 16. Figure 7 Integrating people with mental illness into the community, 1994-2011% agreeing 1994 1995 1996 1997 2000 2003 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011People with mental illnessare far less of a dangerthan most peoplesuppose 62 62 59 60 64 59 58 57 61 59 62Less emphasis should beplaced on protecting thepublic from people withmental illness 32 38 28 32 34 31 30 29 33 34 36The best therapy formany people with mentalillness is to be part of anormal community 76 77 73 71 74 72 73 70 78 80 79Residents have nothing tofear from people cominginto their neighbourhoodto obtain mental healthservices 62 62 60 56 61 56 57 59 62 66 64People with mental healthproblems should have thesame rights to a job asanyone else n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 66 68 66 73 75 72Most women who wereonce patients in a mentalhospital can be trusted asbabysitters 21 20 19 17 19 21 22 23 23 26 25Mental illness is an illnesslike any other 71 70 72 76 76 74 72 74 77 78 77No-one has the right toexclude people withmental illness from theirneighbourhood 76 69 73 72 71 72 75 74 79 84 81Mental hospitals are anoutdated means oftreating people withmental illness 42 37 33 35 40 38 33 31 37 33 34 Data source: Table 5 Looking at changes since 1994, attitudes to several of the statements in this section are significantly more positive in 2011 than they were in 1994: • ‘The best therapy for many people with mental illness is to be part of a normal community’ – agreement has increased from 76% in 1994 to 79% in 2011 • ‘Most women who were once patients in a mental hospital can be trusted as babysitters’ – agreement has increased from 21% in 1994 to 25% in 2011 • ‘Mental illness is an illness like any other’ – agreement has increased from 71% in 1994 to 77% in 2011 • ‘No-one has the right to exclude people with mental illness from their neighbourhood’ – agreement increased from 76% in 1994 to 81% in 2011. 16 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  17. 17. Agreement that ‘People with mental health problems have the same rights to a job asanyone else’ increased from 66% in 2003 (when this questions was first asked) to 72% in2011.On one statement, ‘Mental hospitals are an outdated means of treating people with mentalillness’ – agreement decreased from 42% in 1994 to 34% in 2011.Differences by age and sexThe statements in this section for which there were significant differences by age group in2011 are shown in Figure 8.Figure 8 Integrating people with mental illness into the community by age, 2011 % agreeing 100 90 82 81 80 74 75 70 69 72 70 65 60 51 16-3 4 % 50 35-5 4 40 55+ 30 20 10 0 People with mental il lness are far T he best therapy f or many people People with mental healt h less of a danger than most people with mental illness is to be part of problems should have the s ame suppose a normal communit y right to a job as anyone else 100 90 82 82 80 70 67 60 16-3 4 % 50 35-5 4 40 40 36 55+ 29 27 30 23 22 20 10 0 Most women who were onc e Mental illness is an illness li ke any Mental hospitals are an outdated patients in a mental hos pi tal can other means of treating peopl e with be trust ed as babysitters ment al illnes sData source: Table 6In general the youngest age group (16-34s) held less positive attitudes than the oldergroups, being less likely than the 35-54 and 55+ groups to agree that people with mentalillness are less of a danger than most people suppose; that mental illness is an illness like Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 17
  18. 18. any other; that the best therapy for people with mental illness is to be part of a normalcommunity; and that mental hospitals are an outdated means of treating people with mentalillness.Respondents aged 35-54 were more likely than those aged 16-34 to agree that people withmental health problems should have the same rights to a job as anyone else. The middleage group were also more likely than both the younger and older age groups to agree thatmost women who were once patients in a mental hospital can be trusted as babysitters.Looking at differences by gender, women were more likely than men to agree that the besttherapy for people with mental illness is to be part of a normal community, most women whowere once patients in a mental hospital can be trusted as babysitters, and that mental illnessis an illness like any other (Figure 9).Figure 9 Integrating people with mental illness into the community by sex, 2011 % agreeing 90 81 79 80 77 75 70 60 50 Men % Women 40 30 27 22 20 10 0 T he best t herapy f or many people Most women who were once Mental illness is an illness like any wit h mental i llness is to be part of patients in a ment al hospital can other a normal community be t rust ed as babysi ttersData source: Table 6Causes of mental illness and the need for special servicesIntroductionThis section reports on statements about the causes of mental illness and the need forspecial services.The statements reported here are:• ‘There are sufficient existing services for people with mental illness’• ‘One of the main causes of mental illness is a lack of self-discipline and will-power’• ‘There is something about people with mental illness that makes it easy to tell them from normal people’. 18 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  19. 19. Analysis is based on the level of agreement with these statements, which have been included in all surveys since 1994. Trends over time Figure 10 shows levels of agreement with these statements since 1994. Figure 10 Causes of mental illness and the need for special services, 1994-2011% agreeing 1994 1995 1996 1997 2000 2003 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011There are sufficientexisting services forpeople with mental illness 11 11 9 8 12 20 19 20 24 23 24One of the main causesof mental illness is a lackof self- discipline andwill-power 15 14 14 14 14 16 14 14 18 15 16There is something aboutpeople with mental illnessthat makes it easy to tellthem from normal people 29 30 26 21 20 21 21 17 21 19 22 Data source: Table 7 Since 1994, the percentage agreeing that there are sufficient existing services for people with mental illness has increased from 11% in 1994 to 24% in 2011, although there has been no significant change since 2009. The percentage agreeing that ‘there is something about people with mental illness that makes it easy to tell them from normal people’ decreased from 29% in 1994 to 22% in 2011, although again there has been no significant change since 2009. Agreement that one of the main causes of mental illness is a lack of self-discipline and will- power stands at 16% in 2011, not significantly different from the 1994 figure of 15%, and again with no significant change since 2009. Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 19
  20. 20. Differences by age and sexDifferences in agreement by age group are shown in Figure 11.Figure 11 Causes of mental illness and the need for special services by age, 2011 % agreeing 50 45 40 35 32 30 25 16-3 4 % 25 21 21 35-5 4 20 19 19 55+ 15 10 5 0 There are suffic ient exis ting services for people with There is something about people with mental illness mental illness that mak es it easy to tell them from normal peopleData source: Table 8The youngest age group (16-34s) had the most negative attitudes towards mental illness,being more likely than the 35-54 and 55+ groups to agree that there are sufficient existingservices, and more likely than the 35-54s to agree that there is something about people withmental illness that makes it easy to tell them from normal people.Significant differences by gender are shown in Figure 12.Figure 12 Causes of mental illness and the need for special services by sex, 2011 % agreeing 50 45 40 35 30 27 24 Men % 25 21 Women 20 18 19 15 13 10 5 0 There are suffic ient exis ting One of t he main causes of mental There is something about people serv ices for people with mental illnes s is a lack of self -disc ipli ne wit h mental ill ness t hat mak es it illnes s and will-power easy t o tell them from normal peopleData source: Table 8 20 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  21. 21. Women again held more positive views towards people with mental illness, being less likelythan men to agree with these three statements.Ways of describing someone who is mentally illand types of mental illnessWays of describing someone who is mentally illRespondents were presented with a list of descriptions and were asked to indicate whichthey felt usually describes a person who is mentally ill.The format of this question has changed since it was first asked in 1997, so comparisons areonly possible from the 2003 survey onwards (see Figure 13) (data for 2008 is not shown toimprove clarity).Figure 13 Statements that usually describe a person who is mentally ill, 2003-2011 y % 57 Suffering from 63 schizophrenia 61 64 58 55 54Serious bouts of depression 54 58 54 46Has to be kept in psychiatric 56 or mental hospital 52 57 54 53 55 Split personality 54 57 51 48 Born with abnormality 47 affecting how the brain 48 works 48 47 45 Cannot be held responsible 44 for own actions 45 48 45 32 Incapable of making simple 31 decisions about own life 32 38 34 2003 29 2007 34 2009 Prone to violenc e 33 36 2010 33 2011Data source: Table 9 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 21
  22. 22. The description most likely to be selected was ‘someone who is suffering fromschizophrenia’ – 58% in 2011.The next most often selected were ‘someone who has serious bouts of depression’ and‘someone who has to be kept in a psychiatric hospital’, both of which were selected by 54%.The descriptions least likely to be selected were ‘someone who is prone to violence’ at 33%and ‘someone who is incapable of making simple decisions about his or her own life’ at 34%.There was a significant increase from 2003 to 2011 in the percentage of respondents whochose the following two measures:• ‘Someone who has to be kept in a psychiatric or mental hospital’ – from 46% to 54%• ‘Someone prone to violence’ – from 29% to 33%.There was a significant decrease from 2010 to 2011 in the percentage of respondents whochose the following measures:• ‘Someone who has serious bouts of depression’ – from 58% to 54% (reversing an increase seen between 2009 and 2010)• ‘Someone with a split personality’ – from 57% to 51%• ‘Someone who is incapable of making simple decisions about his or her own life’ – from 38% to 34% (back towards the 2009 level).Types of mental illnessRespondents were asked to say to what extent they agreed or disagreed that each of thefollowing conditions is a type of mental illness:• Depression• Stress• Schizophrenia• Bipolar disorder (manic depression)• Drug addiction• GriefThese questions, which form part of the Mental Health Knowledge Schedule (MAKS), wereasked for the first time in 2009. 22 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  23. 23. Figure 14 Types of mental illness, 2009-2011 Total Total Total agreeing agreeing agreeing 2011 % 2009 2011 2010 Schizophrenia 71 17 88% 89% 88% Bipolar disorder 62 21 83% 83% 82% (manic depression) Depression 45 36 81% 82% 82% Stress 24 35 59% 58% 57% Grief 18 29 46% 48% 49% Drug addiction 20 23 43% 44% 45% Agree strongly Agree slightlyData source: Table 10Respondents were most likely to agree that schizophrenia was a type of mental illness –71% agreed strongly, with nearly nine out of ten agreeing in total. The pattern was similar forbipolar disorder, with 62% agreeing strongly and 83% agreeing overall (Figure 21).The percentage agreeing that depression was a type of mental illness was 81%, howeverthe percentage strongly agreeing was lower (45%) and slightly agree higher (36%) than forbipolar disorder and schizophrenia.The lowest percentage was for drug addiction, although more than two out of fiverespondents (43%) agreed that this was a type of mental illness.There were no significant differences between 2010 and 2011 in responses to thesequestions.Attitudes to people with mental health problemsIntroductionA new set of questions in 2009 covered attitudes towards people with mental healthproblems – ‘that is, conditions for which an individual would be seen by healthcare staff’. Thequestions covered employment, getting professional help, medication, treatment andrecovery, and were repeated in 2010 and 2011. These items form part of the Mental HealthKnowledge Schedule (MAKS).Trends over timeFigure 15 shows agreement with statements relating to treatment for mental healthproblems. Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 23
  24. 24. Figure 15 Attitudes towards treatment for people with mental health problems, 2009-2011 p % agreeing % 79 Psy chotherapy (e.g. t alk ing therapy or counselling) can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems 80 81 79 Medication can be an effective t reatment for people with mental health problems 77 79 69 Most people with mental health problems want to hav e paid 69 employ ment 2009 66 2010 63 If a friend had a ment al health problem, I k now what advice to 2011 gi ve them to get professional help 61 63 60 People with s ev ere mental health problems can fully rec ov er 60 58 54 Most people wi th mental healt h problems go to a heal thcare profess ional to get help 54 55Data source: Table 11There was a high level of agreement that mental health problems can be treated, witharound eight out of ten respondents agreeing that psychotherapy (81%) and medication(79%) can be effective treatments for people with mental health problems.Opinion on whether people with severe mental health problems can fully recover was moremixed - 58% agreed, while 18% said they neither agreed nor disagreed, 13% disagreed and12% did not know. Similarly, 55% agreed that most people with mental health problems go toa healthcare professional to get help, while 16% neither agreed nor disagreed, 20%disagreed and 9% did not know.There were no significant differences between 2010 and 2011 in responses to thesestatements.Differences by age and sexThere were differences between men and women in responses to some of these items.Significant differences are shown in Figure 16. 24 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  25. 25. Figure 16 Attitudes towards treatment for people with mental health problems bysex, 2011 % agreeing 100 90 83 79 80 70 66 61 59 60 56 Men % 50 Women 40 30 20 10 0 Ps ychotherapy c an be an effective People with s evere mental health I know what advic e to give to get treatment f or people wit h mental problems c an fully rec ov er prof es sional help health problemsData source: Table 12Women were more likely than men to agree that psychotherapy can be an effectivetreatment for people with mental health problems. Women were also more likely than men tosay that, if a friend had a mental health problem, they would know what advice to give to getprofessional help. However, women were less likely than men to agree that people withsevere mental health problems can fully recover.There were some differences by age group:• Respondents aged 16-34 were less likely than those aged 35-54 to agree that psychotherapy can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems (16- 34: 77%, 35-54: 85%), and that most people with mental health problems want to have paid employment (16-34: 62%, 35-54: 69%)• Respondents aged 16-34 (74%) were less likely than those aged 35-54 (81%) and 55+ (83%) to agree that medication can be an effective treatment for people with mental health problems• Respondents aged 16-34 (58%) were also less likely than those aged 35-54 (66%) and 55+ (64%) to agree that if a friend had a mental health problem, they would know what advice to give them to get professional help• Respondents aged 55+ (52%) were less likely than those aged 16-34 (61%) and 35-54 (62%) to agree that people with severe mental health problems can fully recover. Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 25
  26. 26. Personal experience of mental illnessRelationships with people with mental health problemsRespondents were asked about their experiences of people who have mental healthproblems, that is, ‘people who have been seen by healthcare staff for a mental healthproblem’. Respondents were asked whether they currently, or ever had:• lived with someone with a mental health problem;• worked with someone with a mental health problem;• had a neighbour with a mental health problem;• or had a close friend with a mental health problem.They were then asked to agree or disagree (on a 5-point scale) with the following statements– ‘In the future, I would be willing to…’• … live with someone with a mental health problem• … work with someone with a mental health problem• … live nearby to someone with a mental health problem• … continue a relationship with a friend who developed a mental health problem.These questions, which form the Reported and Intended Behaviour Scale (RIBS), wereasked for the first time in 2009 and repeated in 2010 and 2011. Results are shown in Figure17.Figure 17 Relationships with people with mental health problems, 2009-2011 p 2010 2009 2011 % 16% 20% Live with someone 19 with a mental health problem 56 58% 57% Work with someone 26 25% 27% with a mental health problem 68 71% 69% Have a neighbour 18 20% 19% with a mental health problem 72 74% 72% Have a close friend 33 34% 35% with a mental health problem 82 85% 82% Currently are or ever have Willing to in future (% agreeing)Data source: Table 13, 14The most common experience of someone with a mental health problem was with a closefriend – 33% of respondents said they currently or ever had a close friend with a mentalhealth problem. 26 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  27. 27. Around eight out of ten respondents (82%) agreed that in future they would be willing tocontinue a relationship with a friend who developed a mental health problem. Around sevenout of ten would be willing either to live nearby to (72%) or work with (68%) someone with amental health problem. Future willingness to live with someone with a mental health problemwas lower at 56%.There were no significant changes on these measures between 2010 and 2011.Friends and family who have had mental illnessRespondents were asked who, if anyone, close to them has had some kind of mental illness.These questions have been asked in this format since 2009 (Figure 18).Figure 18 Person closest to respondent who has had some kind of mental illness,2009-2011 % 58 Anyone mentioned 56 57 16 Immediate family / live in partner 15 17 17 Friend / partner (not live in) 17 16 8 Other family 9 2009 9 2010 6 Work colleague 5 2011 5 5 Self 4 5 5 Acquaintance 4 3 1 Other 2 3Data source: Table 15Note: ‘Immediate family/live in partner’ combines the categories ‘Immediate family(spouse/child/sister/brother/parent etc)’ and ‘Partner (living with you)’; ‘Friend/partner (not live in)’ combines thecategories ‘Friend’ and ‘Partner (not living with you)’.The majority of respondents reported that someone close to them had some kind of mentalillness (57% in 2011).The most commonly selected answer in 2011 was immediate family/live-in partner, with 17%of respondents selecting this. Next most common was a friend/partner (not living with you)(16%). 9% of respondents mentioned other family. 5% of respondents said that theythemselves had experienced some kind of mental illness.There were no significant differences in responses to this question between 2010 and 2011. Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 27
  28. 28. Percentage of people who might have a mental health problemRespondents were asked what percentage of people in the UK they think might have amental health problem at some point in their lives, and were given a list of options to choosefrom, ranging from 1 in 3 to 1 in 1000. This question has been included in the survey since2003.The largest group of respondents in 2011 (28%) thought the percentage of people whowould have a mental health problem at some point in their lives was 1 in 10, with 36% ofrespondents thinking it was less than this. 14% thought it was 1 in 4, and 6% that it was 1 in3. It is worth noting that 16% of respondents said that they did not know (Table 16).Consulting a GP about a mental health problemRespondents were asked how likely they would be to go to their GP for help, if they felt thatthey had a mental health problem. This question was asked for the first time in 2009, andrepeated in 2010 and 2011.The vast majority of respondents in 2011 (85%) said they would be likely to go to their GP forhelp (Table 17). These figures have not changed significantly since 2010.Talking to friends and family about mental healthRespondents were asked in general how comfortable they would feel talking to a friend orfamily member about their mental health, for example, telling them they had a mental healthdiagnosis and how it affects them. This question was first asked in 2009, and repeated in2010 and 2011.The majority of respondents in 2011 would be comfortable with this, with over two-thirds ofrespondents (70%) saying they would be comfortable, and around a fifth (19%)uncomfortable, with the rest saying ‘neither’ or ‘don’t know’ (Table 18).The percentage of respondents saying they would be comfortable talking to a friend or familymember about their mental health, for example telling them they had a mental healthdiagnosis and how it affects them, rose from 66% in 2009 to 70% in 2011 (Table 18).Talking to an employer about mental healthA new question in 2010 asked respondents how comfortable they would feel talking to acurrent or prospective employer about their mental health, for example telling them theyhave a mental health diagnosis and how it affects them. This was repeated in 2011.Responses are included in Table 19, percentages are calculated excluding the 11%-13% ofrespondents who said this was not applicable to them. 28 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  29. 29. Respondents were far less likely to say they would feel comfortable talking to an employerthan to friends and family – 42% in 2011 would feel comfortable talking to an employer,compared with 70% who would feel comfortable talking to friends and family (Table 19).The percentage saying they would feel uncomfortable talking their employer about theirmental health was 43%, compared to 50% in 2010 (Table 19).Mental health-related stigma and discriminationTwo new questions around stigma and discrimination were asked in 2010: whether peoplewith mental illness experience stigma and discrimination nowadays, because of their mentalhealth problems; and whether mental health-related stigma and discrimination has changedin the past year. These were repeated in 2011. Responses are shown in Figures 19 and 20.Figure 19 Mental health-related stigma and discrimination, 2010-2011 100 5 6 90 8 9 80 70 36 35 60 Dont know No % 50 Yes - a little Yes 87% Yes 85% 40 Yes - a lot 30 51 50 20 10 0 2010 2011Data source: Table 20Overall, 85% respondents in 2011 said that people with mental illness experience stigmaand discrimination. Half (50%) said they experience a lot of discrimination, and a further 35%that they experience a little discrimination. There was no significant change in responses tothis question from 2010 to 2011. Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 29
  30. 30. Figure 20 Changes in mental health-related stigma and discrimination in the pastyear, 2010-2011 100 90 20 20 80 70 60 Dont know 48 48 No % 50 Yes - decreased 40 Yes - increased 30 17 17 20 Changed 32% Changed 32% 10 15 14 0 2010 2011Data source: Table 21Around a half of respondents (48%) in 2011 said that mental health-related stigma anddiscrimination has not changed in the past year. Again there were no significant changes inresponses to this question between 2010 and 2011. 30 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.
  31. 31. List of supporting data tablesTable TitleTable 1 Trends in attitudes towards fear and exclusion of people with mental illness, 1994-2011Table 2 Fear and exclusion of people with mental illness 2011, by sex, age and social classTable 3 Trends in attitudes towards understanding and tolerance of mental illness, 1994-2011Table 4 Understanding and tolerance of mental illness 2011, by sex, age and social classTable 5 Trends in attitudes towards integrating people with mental illness into the community, 1994-2011Table 6 Integrating people with mental illness into the community 2011, by sex, age and social classTable 7 Trends in attitudes towards causes of mental illness and the need for special services, 1994-2011Table 8 Integrating people with mental illness into the community 2011, by sex, age and social classTable 9 Trends in ways of describing a person who is mentally ill, 2003-2011Table 10 Trends in types of mental illness, 2009-2011Table 11 Trends in attitudes towards treatment for people with mental health problems, 2009-2011Table 12 Attitudes towards people with mental health problems 2011, by sex, age and social classTable 13 Trends in relationships with people with mental health problems, 2009-2011Table 14 Trends in future relationships with people with mental health problems, 2009- 2011Table 15 Trends in person closest to respondent who has had some kind of mental illness, 2009-2011Table 16 Trends in percentage of people who might have a mental health problem, 2003-2011Table 17 Trends in likelihood to consult a GP about a mental health problem, 2009-2011Table 18 Trends in talking to friends and family about mental health, 2009-2011Table 19 Trends in talking to an employer about mental health, 2010-2011Table 20 Trends in perceptions of mental health-related stigma and discrimination, 2010- 2011Table 21 Trends in perceptions of change in mental health-related stigma and discrimination, 2010-2011These tables together with a machine readable data file can be downloaded here:www.ic.nhs.uk/pubs/attitudestomi11 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved. 31
  32. 32. Published by The NHS Information Centre for health and social carePart of the Government Statistical ServiceISBN 978-1-84636-553-9This publication may be requested in large print or other formats.Responsible StatisticianPhil Cooke, Section HeadFor further information:www.ic.nhs.uk0845 300 6016enquiries@ic.nhs.ukCopyright © 2011 The Health and Social Care Information Centre, Mental Health andCommunity.All rights reserved.This work remains the sole and exclusive property of the Health and Social Care InformationCentre and may only be reproduced where there is explicit reference to the ownership of theHealth and Social Care Information Centre.This work may be re-used by NHS and government organisations without permission.This work is subject to the Re-Use of Public Sector Information Regulations and permissionfor commercial use must be obtained from the copyright holder. 32 Copyright © 2011, The Health and Social Care Information Centre. All Rights Reserved.

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