2007 jpnwrksp bestpracticesfinalversionmmf
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This paper focuses on the ways in which policymakers can improve policy-performance and decision-making for Co-Benefits by using as Systems Analytical Decision-Making Model. ...

This paper focuses on the ways in which policymakers can improve policy-performance and decision-making for Co-Benefits by using as Systems Analytical Decision-Making Model.

The paper, which is yet tp be officially unpublished, was first delivered at the U.S. - Japan Workshop on Climate Actins and Developmental Co-Benefits, in March, 5-6, 2007, in Washington, DC held at the World Resources Institute.

The correspoding presentation is attached to the profile in the presentation section of my profile. The paper and presentation were subsequently adapted and was included in the Society of Learning, (SoL), Sustainability Consortium Newsletter Summer, 2008, that focuses on othe ways in which Best Practices can be used to improve policy performance in dynamic political situations. The newsletter version of the paper is aslo attached to this profile.

Note: This is an unpublished paper, if you wish to use it in part or in whole, please contact me at myrafrazier68@aol.com.

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2007 jpnwrksp bestpracticesfinalversionmmf 2007 jpnwrksp bestpracticesfinalversionmmf Document Transcript

  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes Only Identifying Best Practices for Co-Benefits: Improving Decision-Making for PolicymakersSince its inception in 1998, the Integrated Environmental Strategies (IES) program hasengaged developing countries to promote integrated, strategic planning for environmentalmanagement that will achieve co-benefits.1 The IES program is a part of a larger U.S.government strategy to foster long-term engagement and increased capacity indeveloping countries as they seek economic growth opportunities that will achievegreater environmental sustainability. The IES approach utilizes a customizable suite ofmodeling and assessment tools. Its analysis enables local researchers to quantify the co-benefits that can be derived from implementing specific policy, technology, andinfrastructure measures to reduce air pollutants and GHG emissions. IES analysisquantifies the effects of air emissions in order to bring research on co-benefits into thepublic decision-making process and provide a solid foundation upon which to buildenvironmental and public health policy.An important outcome of the program is that it has positively improved institutionaldecision-making, policy analysis, and technical capacity in several of the participatingcountries. To date, the IES Program has conducted successful studies in Argentina,Brazil, Chile, China, India, Mexico, the Philippines and the Republic of South Korea thatfocused on at least one of the following sectors: (1) Industrial /manufacturing; (2) PowerGeneration; and (3) Transportation.As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency launched its co-benefits analysis program,the international public health community also began to assess the health costs associatedwith increasing air pollution in many of the world’s megacities. Public health expertsfrom leading institutions such the World Health Organization, World Bank and theOECD have undertaken their own efforts to conduct a series of studies that examinedlinkage between the health benefits of reduced air pollution and associated GHGreductions. Examining the relative effectiveness of certain mitigation measures andpolicies, in a systematic way, when compared to others offers the research and policycommunities and opportunity to identify the most effective policies and measure or BestPractices. Best Practices will assist policymakers in making optimal policy choices tomaximize improvements in air quality, public health and reductions in GHGs.This analysis of Best Practices is not an all-inclusive or exhaustive review of theliterature as it relates to Best Practices or co-benefits. Instead, this paper highlightsresources written by leading institutions that are illustrative of various viewpoints on the1 For the purposes of this paper, co-benefits are generally defined in the following manner: (1) The healthand economic benefits that result from reducing local air pollution, and 2) the GHG reductions associatedwith reducing ambient air pollution. This definition is taken from the Integrated Environment StrategiesHandbook-A Resource Guide for Air Quality Planning, USEPA, p. 8, http:// www.epa.gov/ies. 1
  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes Onlysubject. Given these parameters, this paper attempts to address some of the ways in whichBest Practices can assist developing country policymakers in making optimal decisions.The following aspects of Best Practices for co-benefits will be considered: • Why is measurement in important to the discussion of Best Practices for Co-Benefits? • What are the prerequisites for achieving Best Practices for Co-Benefits? • How do we define Best Practices and how has the definition been applied in various contexts? • What types of enabling environments promote the establishment of Best Practices? • Putting it all together, how do you make Best Practices a standard part of the policymaking process?The importance of measurement in establishing Best Practices for Co-BenefitsIn our current policy environment, more emphasis is being placed on measuring theeffectiveness of policy choices. This is necessary for improved decision-making and theidentification of co-benefits opportunities. In order to achieve optimal results for bothGHGs and local benefits, analyzing the performance of a given policy measure through aBest Practices framework can be extremely useful. Establishing such a framework thatcaptures the multi-disciplinary nature of co-benefits represents a significantmethodological and technical challenge. However, by drawing on the lessons learnedfrom the current academic and industry literature as well as the experiences of leadinginstitutions, Best Practices can become an effective planning tool to advance co-benefits.Before establishing Best Practices, there is a need to identify precise measurement toolsand to develop criteria for selecting them. There is not a set formula for identifying suchmeasurement tools. However, there are several examples from other contexts where BestPractices guidelines have already been established—such guidelines may be relevant toour discussion.Within the U.S. Government, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) monitors theperformance of federal agencies using performance-based metrics. As a part of OMB’soversight of the federal budget process, it has established Best Practices for BudgetPerformance Integration.2As an example of budgeting Best Practices, one federal agencyidentified qualities required of efficiency measures. They should have the followingcharacteristics:2 Presentation on Best Practices: Budget Performance Integration, presented to OMB, December 15, 2004,p. 6, http:// www.results.gov . 2
  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes Only • Meaningful and relevant to program and office management • Clear and quantifiable • Trendable over several assessment cycles • Cost less to achieve than efficiency gained • Work from an established baseline3While the above list applies to measures in the context of federal budgets, they can beadapted to the measurement of co-benefits. In choosing various policy options to measurethe effectiveness of policies to promote co-benefits, policymakers would want to availthemselves of a suite of measures that are: (1) Relevant; (2) Clearly defined; (3) Current;(4)Will assist in meeting a range of objectives; and (5) Sustainable. The fifthcharacteristic, measurement of sustainability, is a critical issue for developing countrypolicymakers.The Role of Indicators in Establishing Best PracticesEffective measurement tools are a critical factor in determining what constitutes effectiveperformance in policy planning. To that end, indicators have emerged as a useful tool bywhich to evaluate environmental performance in a clear and concise way. Indicators aredefined in the following manner: Indicators can be defined as statistics, measures or parameters that can be used to track changes of the environmental and socio-economic conditions. Indicators are developed in synthesizing and transforming scientific and technical data into fruitful information. They can provide a sound basis for decision-makers to take a policy decision on present as well as potential future issues of local, national, regional and global concern. They can be used to assess, monitor and forecast parameters of concerns towards achieving environmentally sound development. 4 (Emphasis Added)The above referenced definition of an indicator is fairly comprehensive and reinforcesseveral important points regarding the need for effective measurement tools in co-benefits analysis. The italicized text, which was added for emphasis, further underscoresthe important role that indicators play in the policymaking process. The actual units ofmeasure can take the form of a statistic, measure, benchmark, metric, standard or policy3 Presentation on Best Practices: Budget Performance Integration presented to OMB, December 15, 2004,p.6-7, http:// www.results.gov.4 “Environmental Indicators—South Asia,” United Nations Environment Programme, Regional ResourceCentre for Asia and the Pacific, 2004, p. 9. 3
  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes Onlytarget.5 As stated previously in the paper, these units of measure can either be quantitativeor qualitative.6 Additionally, this definition of indicator focuses on the need to translatetechnical and scientific information into “fruitful information.” A desire for “fruitfulinformation” underscores an ongoing need for information that is analyzed andinterpreted in such a way that is relevant and useful to the policymaker.The United Nations Environment Programme is one of several institutions that havebegun an in depth research and analysis of role that indicators play, both quantitativelyand qualitatively, in the policymaking process. In 2001, the United States EnvironmentalProtection Agency inaugurated its Environmental Indicators Initiative, in an effort todevelop indicators that would equip the U.S. to evaluate and track the current conditionof the country’s natural environment and strengthen the environmental policy decisionmaking process.7 In addition, IES draws from the lessons learned about the benefits ofindicators in environmental policy decision-making and incorporates them into the IESanalytical model. According to the program description, it acknowledges that differenttypes of indicators play an important role in the evaluation process. It states thefollowing, “To help decision makers understand the analysis, the technical team can usedifferent criteria, or metrics, to prioritize and rank specific policy measures.”8 The U.S.5 UNEP’s Environmental Indicators Report for North America highlights several criteria for measuringenvironmental performance. UNEP (2006) “Environmental Indicators Report for North America,” p.5,http://www.unep.org.Type of Criteria ExampleBenchmark Highest percentage of households connected to sewage system in a comparable entity the same jurisdiction.Threshold Maximum sustainable yield of a fishery.Principle Policy should contribute to the increase of environmental literacy.Standard Water quality standards for a variety of uses.Policy-specific target Official development assistance shall be 0.4 per cent of grow national product. (GNP).Targets specified in legal agreement Per cent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by target date.6 See footnote 9. For further information on the role of quantitative indicators in the environmentalpolicymaking process please refer to the following paper written by Mr. Masakuzu Ichimura, “Verificationand Improvement to quantitative indicators of urban environment improvement.” Institute for GlobalEnvironmental Strategies, (IGES), http:// www.iges.or.jp.7 “Environmental Indicators for North America,” United Nations Environment Programme, Regional Officefor North America, 2005, p. 31. For a more comprehensive review of U.S. EPA’s Indicators Initiative,please see http://www.epa.gov/indicators.8 Integrated Environmental Strategies Handbook-A Resource Guide for Air Quality Planning, US EPA,Chapter 7, p. 74. For a comprehensive list of measures used in the IES Program, please refer to Chapter 9,p. 99-100, http://www.epa.gov/ies. 4
  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes OnlyEPA Indicators Initiative and the Integrated Environmental Strategies Program are twoexamples of how indicators can improve the decision-making processes of an institutionin a given programmatic area. However, in order to achieve Best Practices across aninstitution and sector, there will need to be a greater level of coordination andharmonization both organizationally and analytically.In selecting measurement tools that meet the above referenced criteria, there is a tensionin choosing tools those are either quantitative or qualitative. There is a long-standingdebate within the social science research and policy communities about the use ofquantitative versus qualitative metrics. Quantitative metrics generally apply methods that“produce quantifiable, reliable data generalizable to some larger population.” Suchmeasures are most appropriately used “to conduct needs assessments or for evaluationsthat compare outcomes with baseline data.” In contrast, qualitative metrics are generallyviewed as “softer” measurement tools. Such measures are drawn from “an assessment ofa total cultural context or situation.”9Effective measurement of sustainable development goals, using quantitative or qualitativemeasures is of great importance to policymakers for several reasons. In many instances,climate change objectives are at odds with more immediate domestic priorities such asimproved transportation and energy services. Often, this basic tension results in acompromise that will ultimately give priority to local, domestic needs. Both climatechange and development experts have begun to assess how best to promote activities thatachieve both climate and development results. In order to attain these goals, there must bean integrated framework for analyzing these issues, such as the IES approach developedby EPA.Metrics play an important role in evaluating policy options that advance domesticdevelopment objectives while at the same time promote significant climate benefits thatachieve reductions in GHGs. Sustainable Development Policies and Measures or SD-PAMs are policies that do just that. Ultimately, SD-PAMs are designed to givepolicymakers an approach for analyzing climate change, including co-benefits anddevelopment priorities. Generally, SD-PAMs are defined as “Policies and measures takenby a country in pursuit of its domestic policy objectives.”10SD-PAMs are very useful in providing developing country policymaker a framework andgreater flexibility to make decisions to meet a range of objectives. The SD-PAMsanalysis relies on both quantitative as well as qualitative metrics in applying its analyticalframework. Often, developing country policymakers will need to rely on a range of9 These research methods help others “To understand social phenomena and mental processes underlyingcertain behaviors.” Definitions cited in “integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in SocialMarketing Research” by Nedra Kline Weinreich at http:// www.social-marketing.com/research.10 Rob Bradley and Jonathan Pershing, “Introduction to Sustainable Development Policies and Measures,”Growing in the Greenhouse—Protecting the Climate by Putting Development First, 2005, p. 2,www.wri.org. 5
  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes Onlymeasurement tools both quantitative as well as qualitative to make optimal policydecisions.11Prerequisites for Achieving Best PracticesOver the last eight years, several national and international organizations have developedvarious research and methodological approaches for identifying and measuring co-benefits. While such variation in research methods and methodological approaches isexpected, an even greater set of challenges emerge when seeking to identify BestPractices. The identification of Best Practices across disciplines and sectors requiresharmonization of analytical approaches and methodologies. Before launching into adetailed discussion of Best Practices, there are several important prerequisites toconsider: (1) organizational structure; (2) the role of the policymaker; and (3) the role ofthe technical adviser.Organizational factors that promote Best PracticesThe first factor to consider is organizational structure. More specifically, from anorganizational design standpoint, how can one optimize an organization’s structure toachieve Best Practices? The literature on Change Management from the business worldprovides several important examples of how organizations can be best configured topromote optimal results in leadership, sustainable change and performance.A basic goal for undertaking a review of Best Practices is to assist policymakers inmaking optimal decisions that will achieve “win/win results” to reduce GHG benefits andimprove local air quality, and public health benefits and promote effective energy policyplanning. If we accept that this premise is true, then the nature of an organization’sstructure to achieve optimal performance for Best Practices for co-benefits becomes animportant factor. Major U.S. corporations have adopted the “Best Practice SystemsModel” for identifying and analyzing Best Practices. The Best Practice Systems Modelrelies on a 360º feedback loop to promote the constant flow of information to optimizeorganizational performance to achieve Best Practices.11 Ibid. 6
  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes Only THE BEST PRACTICE SYSTEMS MODEL Evaluation Diagnosis Support/Re- inforcement Assessment Implement Design Best Practice System Model™ Best Practices Institute 200712How does the Best Practice Systems Model inform our understanding of Best Practicesfor co-benefits? One, this tool can greatly assist developing country policymakers inmaking better choices by encouraging more sound organizational planning to promoteintegrated, strategic, environmental and energy resource planning. This model provides astructure to capture more fully multi-criteria analysis. Two, the 360º feedback loopprovides constant and consistent feedback by moving the decision-making process fromone that is static to one that is dynamic. A more dynamic decision-making processensures a more robust set of results that have taken into consideration a broader set ofcriteria which lends itself to integrated environmental planning.The Role of the Policymaker in Achieving Best PracticesA central element in the policymaking process is the role of the policymaker who must beinformed and engaged in order for it to maximize co-benefits. Decision-makers are inneed of policy-relevant information that will inform and assist the evaluation andselection of appropriate policies and measures.13 The contribution of scientific/technicalinformation and its role in the policymaking process has been the source of a long-standing debate in the environmental community. Despite best efforts to obtain ascomplete information as possible, often, policymakers are forced to make decisions withincomplete information and are under significant time or budgetary constraints.12 https://bestpracticeinstitute.org.13 Policy-relevant information can be defined as information that is timely, accurate and contextuallyappropriate. See “Gaps in Policy-Relevant Information on Burden of Disease in Children,” Lancet 2005;365:2031-2040, http://www.thelancet.com. 7
  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes OnlyAccording to one author, the value of scientific/technical information is viewed in thefollowing manner: Policy analysts use scientific research and studies to decipher the causes, effects, mitigation, and remediation associated with public environmental policy decisions. Scientific information is seen to be objective discrete, and value-neutral. As such, policymakers and other ‘users’ commonly view it as an indispensable political resource that provides important information requires for the fuzzy arena of public policy and decision-making. 14The Role of the Technical Expert in Achieving Best PracticesAn important contributor to the policy making process is the technical expert. Thecollective expertise of the technical team is a critical component of the decision-makingprocess. The technical adviser can provide a policymaker specialized advice regarding arange of topics such as energy and emissions, air quality, public health, and economics.Based on the lessons learned from the IES program, a carefully selected team ofprofessionals can recommend effective strategies for reducing air pollution and GHGemissions. More importantly, well-crafted recommendations that can add value to acountry’s policy initiative will most likely be implemented. After giving carefulconsideration to some of these prerequisites, now our attention can be turned to whatactually constitutes a Best Practice.Definition of Best Practices and their application to Co-BenefitsArriving at a consensus definition of Best Practices that is relevant to a discussion of co-benefits is both an analytical and conceptual challenge. Generally, definitions of BestPractices are specific either to the discipline or industry to which they apply. Forexample, in the context of co-benefits analysis, it is fairly easy to identify definitions ofBest Practices as they relate to public health, energy, air quality and other related sectors.However, at present, there is not a definition of Best Practices which fully captures theinterdisciplinary nature of co-benefits. This section will begin with a review of somebasic characteristics of Best Practices. Then, this section of the paper will undertake ageneral review of several definitions of Best Practices. It will turn to definitions that aremore specific to the environmental context.14 For a more detailed discussion about the relationship between scientific/technical information and thepolicymaking process, please review the following paper, “Policy Relevant Scientific Information: TheCo-Production of Objectivity and Relevance in the IPCC,” Paper 14, Year 2005, University of CaliforniaInternational and Area Studies Breslauer Symposium, authored by Alison Shaw,http://www.repositories.cdlib.org/ucias/breslauer/14. 8
  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes OnlyCharacteristics of Best PracticesAt a fundamental level, a Best Practice applies methods, actions or processes thatproduce beneficial results. Three fundamental characteristics of a Best Practice arereplicability, sustainability, and applicability. Replicability suggests that an action orprocess that has produced positive results on one occasion or setting can be reproduced.Sustainability suggests that the results that have been reproduced can be carried outmultiple times within the socio-cultural, economic and political context of a particularcountry. Lastly, the applicability of an action should be considered. Essentially, the actionshould be relevant to the issue at hand and the context in which it is occurring.After considering these fundamental characteristics of Best Practices, our attention cannow turn to a fuller general definition of Best Practices. The definition reads as follows:“A best practice is a technique or methodology that, through experience and research hasproven to reliably lead to a desired result.” This definition goes on to include additionalstatements to explain the impact of using Best Practices. It states, “A commitment tousing the Best Practices in any field is a commitment to using all the knowledge andtechnology at one’s disposal to ensure success. The term is used frequently in the fieldsof health care, government administration, the education system and projectmanagement.” 15This knowledge-based and technology-based definition of Best Practices informs ourdiscussion of Best Practices for co-benefits in several ways. More specifically, aknowledge-based definition offers a precise statement of the cause and effect relationshipof a Best Practice to desired outcomes. It also emphasizes both theory and practice indetermining what constitutes a Best Practice. More importantly, a knowledge-basedstandard for co-benefits Best Practices ensures that the actions taken are theoretically andmethodologically sound. Finally, it informs our discussion about how Best Practices canbe applied across disciplines and sectors by highlighting “the need to use the bestpractices in any field is a commitment to using all the knowledge at one’s disposal toensure success.” Ultimately, this knowledge-based approach for Best Practices serves asa baseline approach for applying Best Practices across disciplines and sectors.A technology-based standard for Best Practices is equally useful and ensures that a state-of-the art approach is undertaken where technologically-based solutions are required toachieve Best Practices. A technology-based standard would be especially useful in whenexamining issues related to energy, transportation and air quality.Best Practices in the Environmental Context15 http:// www.bitpipe.com/tlist/Best-Practices.html. 9
  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes OnlyA knowledge and technology-based standard provides a baseline for considering howthese standards apply to the environmental context. The Institute for GlobalEnvironmental Strategies, (IGES), has established guidelines and criteria for goodpractices that were developed in conjunction with an inventory of projects. For purposesof this paper, “Good Practices are considered similar to “Best Practices.” The “Good Practices” that have been collected in this inventory are practices thatmeet the following conditions: • Lead to an actual improvement in the environmental area considered, or breaks new ground in non-traditional approaches on the issue. • Involve indicators for some visible or measurable change, giving consideration to: o Improvement in the environmental situation with at least no deterioration in the socio-economic situation, or o Improvement in the socio-economic situation with at least no deterioration in the environmental situation; • Demonstrate an innovative (uniqueness of either the product process) and replicable approach; • Be self-sustaining (e.g, capacity of being sustained by key proponents/beneficiaries-government, academia, media, the UN, aid institutions, etc.); • Involve a range of actors (civil society, private sector, government, etc.) through a participatory process.16The IGES guidelines for good practices set forth an important definitional framework forevaluating Best Practices in an environmental context. They incorporate several of thecharacteristics that have been previously identified as positive attributes of Best Practices.One, the IGES guidelines provide a precise statement of what constitutes a positivebenefit. These guidelines highlight two specific positive outcomes—an actualimprovement in the environmental area considered or the breaking of new ground innon-traditional approaches on the issue.(emphasis added). Two, the IGES guidelineshighlight the importance of indicators as a means of benchmarking changes inperformance. The guidelines also rely on fairly common characteristics of best practicesdefinitions—replicability and sustainability. An interesting feature of the IGES guidelinesthat is not typically found in most definitions of Best Practices is innovation. By addinginnovation as a characteristic of good practices, it introduces an even higher standard ofperformance.16 APEIS/RISPO Project-“Guidelines and Criteria for Good Practices,”http://www.iges.or.jp/APEIS/RISPO/guidelines.html. 10
  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes OnlySector-Specific Definitions of Best PracticesAfter reviewing some of the more foundational concepts related to Best Practices, we cannow begin to look at a definition of Best Practices as it relates to co-benefits. Animportant distinguishing feature of co-benefits analysis is its integrated, multi-disciplinary approach. As stated previously, co-benefits analysis draws on a range ofacademic disciplines as well as sectoral analysis. Primarily, co-benefits analysis draws onthe disciplines of public health, economics, air quality as well as several key industrialsectors such as energy and transportation. Each of these academic disciplines and sectorsbrings with it its own rigorous standards of review and analysis which have given riseunique and specific standards of Best Practices. The real challenge lies in how toestablish a common set of best practices across disciplines? More specifically, how doesone establish a Best Practices guidance that will adequately capture standards from publichealth, air quality and economics, and related sectors?Best Practices and the Public Health SectorThe academic and industry literature provides many examples of Best Practices in airquality, economics, public health, energy and transportation. Each of these disciplinesbrings with it a well-defined set of methods, analytical tools and metrics for measuringperformance and outcomes.17 The public health sector serves as an excellent example ofhow indicators can be used to measure the performance of a particular action and toactually define what constitutes a Best Practices. This section will consider how thepublic health sector has defined and applied Best Practices. Specifically, the WorldHealth Organization’s Health Metric Network (HMN) serves as a good example of onesector’s attempt to harmonize metrics and other evaluation tools across an institution toachieve Best Practices.18Definition of Best Practices in Public HealthThe Interactive Domain Model (IDM) of Best Practices in Health Promotion and PublicHealth defines Best Practices in the following manner: “Best Practices in health promotion/public health are those sets of processes and activities that are consistent with health promotion/public17 For an example of best practices in the energy sector please refer to the U.S. Department of Energy—Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy-Industrial Technologies Program-Best Practices is a programarea within the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) that supports ITP’s mission to improve the energyintensity of the U.S. industrial sector through a coordinated program of research and development,validation, and dissemination of energy-efficient technologies and practices.http://1eere.energy.gov/industry/bestpractices/printable_version/about _bestpractices.html.18 For more information about the World Health Organization’s Health Metrics Network, refer to thewebsite at http://www.who.int/healthmetrics/en. 11
  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes Only health values, goals and ethics, theories and beliefs, evidence, and understanding of the environment, and that are most likely to achieve health promotion/public health in a given situation.” 19The IDM definition of Best Practices is consistent with other approaches on the subject.One, the IDM definition follows a knowledge-based standard of Best Practices with itsemphasis on “health values, goals and ethics, theories and beliefs, evidence andunderstanding of the environment” in order to achieve optimal public health outcomes.Additionally, the IDM approach also places a great deal of emphasis on policy-relevantinformation. This definition emphasizes the cause and effect relationship between theknowledge and optimal policy outcomes. Specifically, the definition focuses on theattainment of two optimal policy outcomes that are consistent with existing public healthprocesses. 20The World Health Organization’s Health Metrics Network (HMN)-Establishing BestPractices in the Public Health SectorThe Health Metrics Network (HMN) strives “To increase the availability and use oftimely and accurate health information by catalyzing the joint funding and developmentof core country health systems.”21 HMN’s harmonized framework plays an essential rolein setting common standards for health information systems. This framework helps todefine the types of systems that are needed at the country and global levels, including theappropriate standards and measurements.An important contribution of the HMN is its movement towards standardization.Organizationally, this framework process plays an important role in promoting donoralignment by fostering technical advances and disseminating experiences and goodpractices through collaboration between partners. 22 The HMN serves as excellentexample of how an organization can promote Best Practices by harmonizing strategicgoals.23 After considering one sector’s efforts at establishing Best Practices, now lets turnour attention to broader strategic frameworks for establishing Best Practices.19 IDM Manuel for Best Practices for Better Health, Barbara Kahan and Michael Goodstadt, May, 2005 (3rdedition).20 For more information on the valuation of public health benefits as the result of air pollution reductions,please read “Evaluating the Health Benefits of Air Pollution Reductions: Recent Developments at the U.S.EPA, “Bryan J. Hubbell, prepared for the UK DETR/UN ECE Symposium on The Measurement andEconomic Valuation of Health Effects of Air Pollution London, Institute of Materials, February 19-20,2001.21 http://www.who.int/healthmetrics/about/whatishmn/en/print.html.22 http://www.who.int.healthmetrics/about/whatistheevalueaddedofhmn/en/print.html.23 Cost Benefit Analysis is an important evaluation tool for assessing policy performance. For moreinformation, please refer to the following presentation entitled, “Evolving Consideration of Co-Benefits inU.S. Analyses of Environmental Regulation” US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and DevelopmentalCo-Benefits by Dr. Mark Heil, March 5, 2007. 12
  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes OnlyEnabling Environments to promote the establishment of Co-Benefits forBest PracticesTop-Down Approach to Best Practices for Co-BenefitsStrategic planning in decision making plays an important role in promoting Best Practicesfor co-benefits. One author places strategic planning in the context of environmentaldecision-making in the following manner: “One of our primary assertions is that adviceon best practices has to be thoroughly anchored in a larger strategic context ofdevelopments in environmental management.”24 By taking a strategic approach we canlook at national systems, policies and programs and assess the role in which they play inpromoting Best Practices from a “Top-Down” perspective and then from a “Bottom-up”perspective.What is meant by a “Top-Down”Approach to Best Practices for co-benefits analysis?For the purposes of this discussion, it refers to a broad set of strategic decisions thatpromote or enhance environmental policy performance, thereby strengthening theenabling environment.Enabling environments are those factors and conditions that promote good governanceand policy development on a global or national scale. Their contribution to Best Practicesis especially important because we can consider those factors make it more favorable topromote the development of Best Practices for co-benefits. Some of the factors that aretypically considered are legal/regulatory reform, energy and trade policy reform.Each of these actions advances national systems to encourage better policy planning anddecision-making. In the context of the IES Program, the impact that the enablingenvironment played in improving environmental outcomes was significant. For example,Chile’s integrated planning to improve air quality through transportation measures waslargely driven by its accession to the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas and itsdesire to comply with the trade agreement’s environmental side agreements. At the otherend of the spectrum, China’s use of a centrally-planned political structure has increasedthe influence of environmental considerations in Chinese national economic planning. 2524 “Managing the Environment—A Review of Best Practices,” Executive Summary-Executive ResourceGroup, January 2001, p. 2.25 For a more detailed analysis of the Chile and China case studies, the full text of the case studies can befound at http:// www.epa.gov/ies. 13
  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes Only Top-Down Approach to Strategic Policies Which Promote Best PracticesFree Market Economies Centrally-Planned economiesTrade Policy (Chile) Command and Control policies (China)Legal ReformEnvironmental RegulationsBureaucratic Re-organizationsEnergy Policy Reform—Bottom-Up Approach to Best Practices for Co-Benefits AnalysisWhat is the impact of a “Bottom-Up” approach for establishing Best Practices for co-benefits analysis? Again, in the context of energy and economic analysis, the term“Bottom-Up Approach” carries with it a very specific set of assumptions and contextualmeaning. For the purposes of this discussion, this concept refers to a broad set ofdecisions that are made at the local, regional and sub-national level to promote BestPractices.For example, the World Bank and other institutions have evaluated the performance ofseveral projects to improve environmental assistance programs over the past decade and ahalf by focusing on key client countries. By examining the Bank’s role in assessingchanges in key indicators of environmental quality at the national, subnational levels,one can draw several important conclusions that will have a positive impact on theBank’s lending operations that will promote Best Practices.26Again, one can then turn to a project level assessment of successful measures that havebeen effective. By assessing successful project level practices, one can make the case that26 “Assessing the Effectiveness of World Bank Group Assistance for the Environment—Approach Paper,”World Bank Group, July 5, 2006. 14
  • Paper and Presentation for the US-Japan Workshop on Climate Actions and Developmental Co-Benefits,March 5-6, 2007- Myra M. FrazierDraft for Discussion Purposes Onlycertain decisions can be optimized to improve country-level and sub-country levelassistance. Additionally, one can consider the design and performance of environmentalprojects and components and the environmental aspects of other lending instruments.Putting it all together—Mainstreaming Best Practices into the PolicyDevelopment ProcessIn summary, this paper has considered several factors that promote the establishment ofBest Practices for co-benefits. One, we considered the importance of measurement inidentifying Best Practices for co-benefits. It was determined that indicators play animportant role in assisting both policymakers and technical advisers in measuring theeffectiveness of policy choices to promote co-benefits. Two, in considering the variousdefinitions of Best Practices and approaches to co-benefits, it was determined that bothknowledge-based and technology-based standards serve as important baseline standardsin establishing co-benefits. A knowledge-based and technology-based standard will alsopromote innovative thinking. Three, organizational planning can play an important role inestablishing co-benefits. Here, we found that organizations that align themselves tocreate dynamic decision-making processes are in the best position to make optionaldecisions to promote Best Practices for co-benefits. The World Health Organization’sHealth Metrics Network is one such organization.Most importantly, in order to incorporate fully Best Practices in to the policydevelopment process, they must become a policy planning tool. When considering BestPractices as a policy planning tool, the goal will be to promote greater coordination andalignment between the policy planning process and implementation.In creating a standard for Best Practices for co-benefits, there are several factors toconsider and they provide opportunities for additional research: • Greater alignment between the underlying disciplines and to promote greater harmonization of methods, metrics and evaluation tools; • Greater alignment between local development goals and national GHG mitigation strategies; • Greater alignment between policymaker and technical adviser; • Greater alignment between policy inputs and outcomes for co-benefits; • Greater alignment between organizational structure and performance and outcomes. 15