Pt19 method of preparation of emulsion for external use

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  • 1. Method of preparation of emulsion for external useSoap emulsion fatty acid  oil phase mix alkali  aqueous phaseWaxy solid emulsion melt wax before mixing maintain similar temperature before mixing
  • 2. For rectal useSuppositories : solid preparations for rectal useEnemas : liquid preparation for rectal use Starch mucilage, sodium carboxymethylcellulose used as an emollient and suspending/emulsifying agent
  • 3. Colligative propertiesProperties depend on the number of solute particles in solution • osmotic pressure • vapor-pressure lowering • boiling-point elevation • freezing-point depression
  • 4. Osmotic pressureDefinition of osmosisthe diffusion of solvent through a semi-permeablemembrane from the solution of lower solute concentrationto the solution of higher solute concentrationOsmotic pressure The force causes osmosis
  • 5. Isotonic solutionTwo solutions separated by semi-permeablemembrane are in osmotic equilibrium
  • 6. Hypotonic Hypertonic solution solution Lower osmotic pressure higher osmotic pressure than blood serum than blood serumRBC burst, haemolysis RBC shrinkirreversible reversible
  • 7. Pharmaceutical preparations requiring isotonicityInjections subcutaneous injection  not necessary intramuscular injection  must be isotonic intravenous injection  isotonic in large volume intrathecal injection (subarachnoid/subdural space)  strict isotonicityEye drops  not necessaryNasal drop  not necessaryIsotonicity reduces pain on injection or administration
  • 8. Adjustment of isotonicity• freezing point depression• molar concentration• sodium chloride equivalents
  • 9. Freezing point depressionFreezing point of blood plasma and tears : - 0.52 ℃Solution which freezes at - 0.52 ℃ have the sameosmotic pressure as body fluids. 0.52 - a W= b W: concentration in grams per 100mL (w/v %) of adjusting substance in the final solution a: freezing point depression of the unadjusted hypo-osmotic solution b: freezing point depression produced by 1% w/v of adjusting substance
  • 10. Molar concentration0.28 mol/L solution is isotonic with blood plasma andtears 0.28 x M W= n W : concentration (g/L) of solution M : molecular weight of the substance n : number of ions formed from the substance
  • 11. Sodium chloride equivalentsThe mass (gram) of NaCl that has an effect on freezing pointdepression equivalent to that produced by 1 g of substance 0.9 w/v % of NaCl solution is isotonic with blood serum and tears. W = 0.9 - a x c W : percentage of NaCl required for adjustment a: NaCl equivalent of substance c : percentage of substance solution