Enterotoxins – produced by enterotoxigenic strains of E. coli (ETEC). Causes a movement of water and ions from the tissues to the bowel resulting in watery diarrhea. There are two types of enterotoxin:
LT – is heat labile and binds to specific Gm 1 gangliosides on the epithelial cells of the small intestine where it stimulates production of cAMP.
Increased cAMP alters the activity of sodium and chloride transporters producing an ion imbalance that results in fluid transport into the bowel.
K pneumoniae and K oxytoca Hospital acquired infections due to K rhinoscleromatis produces rhinoscleroma, condition with destructive granuloma of the nose and pharynx . K ozenae – progressive atrophy of nasal mucous membrane
Diagnosis of Bacterial Infection culture on plates or in broth identification by biochemical or serological tests on pure growth from single colony microscopy Decolorise Counterstain Stain unstained or stained with e.g. Gram stain sensitivities Serodiagnosis DNA technologies by disc diffusion methods, breakpoints or MICs