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  1. 1. Biotechnology
  2. 2. What Is Biotechnology? <ul><li>Using scientific methods with organisms to produce new products or new forms of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Any technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals, or to develop microorganisms for specific uses </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is Biotechnology? <ul><li>GMO- genetically modified organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>GEO- genetically enhanced organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>With both, the natural genetic material of the organism has been altered. </li></ul><ul><li>Roots in bread making, wine brewing, cheese and yogurt fermentation, and classical plant and animal breeding </li></ul>
  4. 4. What Is Biotechnology? <ul><li>Manipulation of genes is called genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic engineering involves taking one or more genes from a location in one organism and either </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transferring them to another organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting them back into the original organism in different combinations </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. What is the career outlook in biotechnology? <ul><li>Biotech in 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,300 companies in the US </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 have less than 135 employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>140,000 jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jobs will continue to increase exponentially </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs are available to high school graduates through PhD’s </li></ul>
  6. 6. What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology? <ul><li>Multidisciplinary- involving a number of disciplines that are coordinated for a desired outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical sciences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social sciences </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. What Subjects Are Involved With Biotechnology? <ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Applied sciences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. What Are the Stages of Biotechnology Development <ul><li>Ancient biotechnology- early history as related to food and shelter; Includes domestication </li></ul><ul><li>Classical biotechnology- built on ancient biotechnology; Fermentation promoted food production, and medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Modern biotechnology- manipulates genetic information in organism; Genetic engineering </li></ul>
  9. 9. What Are the Areas of Biotechnology? <ul><li>Organismic biotechnology- uses intact organisms; Does not alter genetic material </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular biotechnology- alters genetic makeup to achieve specific goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transgenic organism- an organism with artificially altered genetic material </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What Are the Benefits of Biotechnology? <ul><li>Medicine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veterinary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biopharming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Food products </li></ul><ul><li>Industry and manufacturing </li></ul>
  11. 11. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? <ul><li>Anton van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red blood </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? <ul><li>Gregor Johan Mendel </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered genetics </li></ul>
  13. 13. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? <ul><li>Walter Sutton </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered Chromosomes </li></ul>
  14. 14. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? <ul><li>Thomas Hunt Morgan </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered how genes are transmitted through chromosomes </li></ul>
  15. 15. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? <ul><li>Ernst Ruska </li></ul><ul><li>Invented the electron microscope </li></ul>
  16. 16. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? <ul><li>Sir Alexander Fleming </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered penicillin </li></ul>
  17. 17. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? <ul><li>Rosalind Elsie Franklin </li></ul><ul><li>Research led to the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA </li></ul>
  18. 18. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? <ul><li>James Watson and Francis Crick </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered DNA </li></ul>
  19. 19. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? <ul><li>Mary-Claire King </li></ul><ul><li>Mapped human genes for research of cancer treatments </li></ul>
  20. 20. What Did These Individuals Contribute to Biotechnology? <ul><li>Ian Wilmut </li></ul><ul><li>Created the first true clone, the Dorset ewe Dolly </li></ul>
  21. 21. What Is Molecular Biology? <ul><li>Molecular biology- study of molecules in cells </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism- processes by which organisms use nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Anabolism- building tissues from smaller materials </li></ul><ul><li>Catabolism- breaking down materials into smaller components </li></ul>
  22. 22. What Is a Cell? <ul><li>Cell- a discrete unit of life </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular organism- organism of one cell </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular organism- organism of many cells </li></ul><ul><li>Prokaryote- cells that lack specific nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryote- cells with well-defined nucleus </li></ul>
  23. 23. What Is a Cell? <ul><li>Cells are building blocks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue- collection of cells with specific functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organs- collections of tissues with specific functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organ systems- collections of organs with specific functions </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. What Are the Structures in Molecular Genetics? <ul><li>Molecular genetics- study of genes and how they are expressed </li></ul><ul><li>Chromosome- part of cell nucleus that contains heredity information and promotes protein synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Gene- basic unit of heredity on a chromosome </li></ul><ul><li>DNA- molecule in a chromosome that codes genetic information </li></ul>
  25. 25. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
  26. 26. What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)? <ul><li>Transcription- process of RNA production by DNA </li></ul><ul><li>DNA-thread-like molecule which decodes DNA information </li></ul>
  27. 27. What Is Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)? <ul><li>Kinds of RNA: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mRNA- RNA molecules that carry information that specifies amino acid sequence of a protein molecule during translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rRNA- RNA molecules that form the ribosomal subunits; Mediate the translation of mRNA into proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tRNA- molecules that decode sequence information in and mRNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>snRNA- very short RNA that interconnects with to promote formation of mRNA </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. What Are Genetic Engineering Organisms? <ul><li>Genetic engineering- artificially changing the genetic information in the cells of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Transgenic- an organism that has been genetically modified </li></ul><ul><li>GMO- a genetically modified organism </li></ul><ul><li>GEO- a genetically enhanced organism </li></ul>
  29. 29. How Can Genetically Engineered Plants Be Used? <ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Horticulture </li></ul><ul><li>Forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Food Quality </li></ul>
  30. 30. How Do We Create Transgenic Organisms? <ul><li>Donor cell- cell that provides DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Recipient cell- cell that receives DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol- procedure for a scientific process </li></ul><ul><li>Three methods used in gene transfer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agrobacterium gene transfer- plasmid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ballistic gene transfer- gene gun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct gene transfer- enzymes </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. How Does Agrobacterium Gene Transfer Work? <ul><li>Extract DNA from donor </li></ul><ul><li>Cut DNA into fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Sort DNA fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Recombine DNA fragments </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer plasmids with bonded DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Grow transformed (recipient) cells </li></ul>
  32. 32. What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology? <ul><li>Plant breeding- improvement of plants by breeding selected individuals to achieve desired goals </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivar- a cultivated crop variety </li></ul>
  33. 33. What Are Methods of Classical Biotechnology? <ul><li>Plant breeding methods; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Line breeding- breeding successive generations of plants among themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crossbreeding- breeding plants of different varieties or species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybridization- breeding individuals from two distinctly different varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul>
  34. 34. Why Are Plants Genetically Engineered? <ul><li>Resist pests </li></ul><ul><li>Resist herbicides </li></ul><ul><li>Improved product quality </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceuticals </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial products </li></ul>
  35. 35. What Is AI? <ul><li>Artificial insemination- the transfer of collected semen to a recipient female </li></ul><ul><li>Semen is collected from males of desired quality </li></ul><ul><li>Semen is graded and stored </li></ul>
  36. 36. What Is AI? <ul><li>Female must be in estrus for conception </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone injections may be used to synchronize estrus </li></ul><ul><li>Semen is placed in the cervix near the horns of the uterus </li></ul>
  37. 37. What Is a Test Tube Baby? <ul><li>In vitro fertilization- fertilization of collected ova outside the reproductive tract; Usually in a test tube </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semen is collected from males of desired quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ova are removed from females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm and ova are placed in a petri dish or test tube </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. What Is Gender Reversal? <ul><li>Gender reversal- changing the sex of an animal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very young animals receive hormone treatments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common among selected fish species </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. What Is Gender Preselection? <ul><li>Gender preselection- choosing the sex of offspring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm sorted before conception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm sorted on basis of chromosome differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X chromosomes produce female offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Y chromosomes produce male offspring </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. What Is Embryo Transfer? <ul><li>Embryo transfer- removing fertilized ova (embryos) from donor and implanting in a recipient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgical and nonsurgical methods are used to remove and implant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A quality donor female can produce more offspring </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. What Is Multiple Ovulation? <ul><li>Multiple ovulation- promoting increased release of ova during estrus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormone injections administered prior to estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used with embryo transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AI may be used to fertilize ova </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After fertilization, embryos are removed and placed in recipients </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. What Is Cloning? <ul><li>Clone- new organism that has been produced asexually from a single parent </li></ul><ul><li>Genotype is identical to parent </li></ul><ul><li>Cells or tissues are cultured </li></ul>
  43. 43. How Are Hormones Used in Animal Production? <ul><li>Hormone- natural product of glands to produce a response in another part of the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Released by endocrine glands into blood system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones are identified, functions determined, and isolated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to increase growth and production rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bST- promotes milk production in cows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pST- promotes lean meat production in swine </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. What Is Bioremediation? <ul><li>Bioremediation- using biological processes to solve environmental problems </li></ul><ul><li>Biodegradation- natural processes of microbes in breaking down hydrocarbon materials </li></ul><ul><li>Biodegradable- capable of being decomposed by microbes </li></ul>
  45. 45. How Can Bioremediation Be Used? <ul><li>Oil spills </li></ul><ul><li>Wastewater treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy metal removal </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical degradation </li></ul>
  46. 46. What Is Phytoremediation? <ul><li>Phytoremediation- process of plants being used to solve pollution problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants absorb and break down pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used with heavy metals, pesticides, explosives, and leachate </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. What Is Composting? <ul><li>Composting- a process that promotes biological decomposition of organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Compost bin- a facility that contains materials for composting </li></ul><ul><li>In-vessel composting- using enclosed containers for composting </li></ul>
  48. 48. What Are Bioethics? <ul><li>Ethics- knowing right from wrong, and then doing the right idea </li></ul><ul><li>Bio- living organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Bioethics- knowing right from wrong with living organisms, and then doing the right idea </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  49. 49. Creating Bioethics Arguments <ul><li>Read this article from the school website </li></ul><ul><li>After you read this article prepare ethical arguments with at least 5 Scientific and Factual claims to support your Premise and Conclusion </li></ul>
  50. 50. Ethical Arguments <ul><li>Create an ethical argument for or against the following topics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Cloning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Reversal on Livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Reversal on Humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic Engineering of Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic Engineering of Humans </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Creating a Premise <ul><li>“ Human cloning is immoral.” </li></ul><ul><li>Now you must find Scientific and Factual Claims to support your Premise </li></ul><ul><li>After you have at least 5 Claims, you may conclude, “Therefore, human cloning is immoral.” </li></ul><ul><li>You do not have to be for or against any of the topics, it’s your choice! </li></ul>
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