BIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMEN T Madoffe, S.S. Tailored for3rd Year BSc WLM 2007
Introductiono Living organisms and reliance on the envo The world’s bd made up of mi of sppo Species and environmental adaptationo All species depend on one another- directly or indirectly for their survivalo Recently more env degradation ever than beforeo Humans and the role on the future of the Eartho Conflicts btn Resource Utilization and Cons LEAD TO: Debate on Biodiversity
Why conflicts over bd use? Different interest groups at: local(medicinal), national (water catchment) and International (Carbon sequestration) Awareness on bd and measures to reduce losses
CONCEPT OF BIODIVERSITY Existence of many species Need to identify them – Estimates only Identification difficult – WHY?
Table 1. Estimated number of individual species in thousands ESTIMATED NUMBERS (THOUSANDS)CATEGORY IDENTIFIED UNIDENTIFIEDALGAE 50 350ARACHNIDAE 45 550CRUSTACEANS 50 150FUNGI 40 1,360INSECTS 1,000 1,400MOLLUSCUS 250 100NEMATODES 45 455PLANTS 500 100PROTOZOA 100 160VERTEBRATES 150 0OTHERS 240 260
EXTINCTION OF SPECIESo Species extinction as natural phenomenono Role of human on spp extinctiono Do we know how many spp have disappeared?o Spp extinction and documentationo Have we overdrawn our account?o Status of Global foresto Examples from EAMs and Amazono Protect what protects us
BD &BIOLOGICAL RESOURCESo Biodiversity buzzword for the 1990s,o Concern over bd is not new.o BD = Contraction of Biological diversity.o Biodiversity variety of life forms ORo Variety and variability among living organisms
LEVELS OF BIODIVERSITY Three fundamental levels Genetic diversity: Species diversity Ecosystem diversity
Main gradients of terrestrial diversity Diversity increases from: Latitudinal gradients: Increase Poles – equator Elevation gradients: Increases with altitude. Precipitation gradients Others include: Nutrient levels, Salinity gradients and Island
TROPICAL BIODIVERSITY AN OVERVIEW Very high bd:- spp, habitats, ecosystems Spp richness depends on RTH. About 2/3 of all spp occur in tropics Tropical humid forests 14-18 mi. km2 Today shrinkage 1 mi. km2 every 5 - 10 yrs.
EA a Mega-biodiversity Region Due to: Biogeographic diversity Diversity of the land-form from Patterns of geological change History of ethnic/cultural diversity
Uses of Biodiversity Direct use Consumptive Commercial Indirect values Maintain water cycles Climate regeneration Storage and cycling of essential nutrients Photosynthesis etc These values: could be looked at: International, National, or local.
AGRICULTURAL VALUES OFBIODIVERSITY Genetic resources - rapid growth, high yield, pest resistance etc Crossing of cultivated species and their wild relatives Variety of gemplasm e.g. dry land cereals: millet, Wild species of cropping potential for agriculture/livestock
Biodiversity hotspots What are hotspots? High diversity of endemic spp and threatened Support 1,500 endemic plant species, 0.5%t of the global total Plant diversity is the biological basis for hotspot designation WHY? Diversity of endemic vertebrates in hotspot regions is also extraordinarily high
BD hotspot cont. There are 34 regions of biodiversity hotspots worldwide Examples: Madagascar, The tropical Andes, Mediterranean region, Mesoamerica, the Caribbean, Indo Burma etc In EA we have EAMs and Coastal forests of Kn and Tz
What are endemic species? Highly restricted organisms example Saint paulia (African violet), Usambara eagle owl, Uluguru violet-backed sunbird.
Why are there endemic species? Evolutionary history and respond to the environment they inhabit. Their ecological requirements are only met over a small area and They are not capable of dispersing great distances to other suitable habitats.
Why do hotspots have many endemicspecies? Many of the worlds hotspots are islands WHY?. Isolation over long periods of geologic time Benign environments - greatest diversity of ecosystems Isolate benign environments
Why are hotspots threatened? Island nature - Often unprepared to compete with the introduced and exotic species They are ecologically "naive." – due to evolutionary history Threats by humans - logging, slash and burn, mining etc
Hotspots conservation Pre-requisite Relies on scientific evaluations of the threatened status of species. Determining priority areas for conservation Set conservation priorities on the basis of resources and importance of the area
Hotspots can be evaluated in terms of: Their unique biodiversity The amount of habitat lost and protected, and The number of endemic species in a small area
Some conservation approaches The establishment of traditional PAs Implementation innovative economic alternatives Influencing the behaviour of the locals Working with international corporations Employ scientific, economic, policy, and education tools to create effective conservation strategies.
Monitoring hotspots Aim: Implement programs and strategies that are effective at protecting bd Hotspots are dynamic places Need to monitor them on what has already happened Anticipate what might happen, based on what has happened before
Monitoring done through Understanding the situation in these areas e.g. Patterns of biodiversity Which spp are concentrated in which places? Factors contributing to biodiversity loss How is biodiversity changing over time?Different ways of monitoring: Permanent sample plots, remotes sensing etc
Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of East Africa The Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests hotspot (Fig. 1) Stretches along most of the eastern coast of Tanzania and into extreme SE Kenya. The hotspot extends more than 400 km Comprises only 0.1% of tropical Africas land area yet contains 13% of the entire continents vascular plants.
The EAMs of EA
Threats to EAMs Fire Illegal logging and pole extraction Encroachment for Agricultural development and settlement Human population pressures also threaten the remaining forests Alien invasive species
Fire in lowland adjacent to EAMs
Cons of EAMs and Coastal forests What are the current conservation initiatives taken by both Tz government and International institutions?
THREATS TO BIODIVERSITY The rate of species extinction is higher today than ever before In spite of this there are more species to date on earth than ever before. BD loss and environmental degradation is a result of humanity + natural
A: Socio-economic context ofBiodiversity loss i) Poverty ii) Loss of Traditional Knowledge iii) Population dynamics Consider : Migrations by people and livestock Urbanization Refugees in small area
iv) Poor agricultural practices Extensive and shifting cultivation Indiscriminate use of fire Cultivation on slopes – lead to soil erosion Monocultural farming Over-grazing Dilemma of pushing pastoralists to marginal areas
v) Pollution Agro-chemicals (pesticides, and chemical fertilizers) Mining lead to degradation, water pollution and disturbance of wildlife. Traffic.
vi) Energy Crisis Bio-energy use is about 92% Petroleum 7.2%, and electricity 0.8% vii) Tourism What are main tourism related problems?
2. Ecological aspects of BD loss i) Invasive species ii) Aforestation and deforestation
Examples of some threats tobiodiversity in Tanzania i) Ecological isolation of protected areas Tarangire NP is isolated from lake Manyara NP Uluguru as an ecological islands Ref. Island biogeography theory
ii) Fragmentation of protected areas Due to: logging, mining, construction e.g. Ruvu F.R., Selous (TAZARA). Fragmentation: Reduces the effective habital areas Divides plant and animal pops into smaller isolated pops that become viable to local extinction Creates gaps barriers for dispersal and migration of animals and plants.
iii) Food and timber productionmethods Change from subsistence agriculture - industrial agriculture Clearing natural forests for industrial forest plantations WHY is industrial farming not sustainable in tropical Africa?
iv) Invasive exotics into protectedareas What’s an Invasive species? What’s Alien invasive species?
Factors contributing to the introductionand spread of alien species Human mobility. Economic and trade Climate change Conflict and construction Tourism Biological control of pests Forest/ecosystem disturbance
Examples of Alien invasive spp in EA Nile perch (Lates niloticus) Maesopsis eminii Acacia mearnsii Lantana camara Senna spectabilis Indian house crow
Alien invasive speciesMaesopsis eminii in the E. Usambaras
Impacts of Invasive species Can reduce the quality of the forest Sometimes they can eliminate native spp Sometimes invaders brings its diseases or parasites Sometimes they interbreed - thus eroding native gene diversity Sometimes exotics out-compete natives for an essential resource They exert a price.
How can we protect our PAs from notorious invasives? Quarantine Planned imports and releases of exotics Importers to accept liability for damages Govt determine ecological effects of new spp International co-operation Adopt a general policy on use of native species
Control/Elimination of invasive species Mechanical Control Chemical Control by pesticides Biological Control Ecosystem Manipulation Integrated Management
V: Over-exploitation of plants and animals Over-exploitation of plants and animals like deforestation could result in: Habitat destruction and modification, Examples: Charcoal burning Excessive harvesting of animals e.g. elephants, rhinos
VI: Foreign debt serving High levels of foreign debt, has put pressure on governments to engage in a variety of agricultural and industrial practices e.g Hunting block e.g. in Loliondo Mining in Lake Zone could endanger some species - WHY?
ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT What is Environment? Environment overlapping phenomenon: physical, biological, anthropic, and resource generating in nature. Humans use Resources and could be renewable or non-renewable
What is a resource Resource implies something which: Can be used to satisfy human needs. Some technology to extract and transform it to a usable form Must be a demand for that product.
Impacts of Environmentaldegradation Loss of bd has significant impact on environment Development activities could have impact on the environment
Impacts Local impacts Consider impact of tree fall or animal killed in a tropical forest National, regional and global impacts Effects of Uluguru Mt forests and water resources in Dar River Nile and Niger Deforestation in the LCD and industrial pollution in DC on C build-up.
Relationship Environment and bd Env and bd are cross-sectorial issues BD are therefore housed in environmental agencies, e.g Environmental degradation increase GHGs, soil erosion etc which impact on biodiversity Solution to environmental problems is thus solutions to biodiversity issues
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (SD) The Concept of SD and its implications Development Environment led to the concept of SD SD now a central concept in environmental policies of many countries.
Concept of SD cont. Several defs, however, balancing the fulfillment of human needs with the protection of NE so that these needs can be met now and future SD has to be: environmentally friendly technically appropriate, economically viable and socially acceptable
Sustainable Agriculture Agriculture is sustainable if it provide: Enough food Employment, Better income and Conserve NR and protect the environment.
Requirements for sustainable development Right Policy for effective citizen participation Conducive economic system Friendly social system with less conflicts Environmentally friendly production system International system that fosters sustainable patterns of trade and finance Administrative system that is flexible and has the capacity for self-correction
How to achieve sustainable development i) Conservation and development – hand in hand ii) Holistic Integration in: land use; traditional and modern systems & technology iii) Cropping/animal production systems iv) Alternative energy systems v) Monitoring of resources and environment vi) Education, training, and orientation priorities
Challenges in Sustainable Development Time-horizon of development The principle of the free market mechanism Trickle-down process from the developed countries Liberalization and an increase in North-South trade and aid cooperation
Constraints on SD in Sub-Saharan Africa General constraints Political constraints Socio-economic constraints Technological constraints Specific or sectoral constraints Agriculture Industrial development Mineral industry development
Roles of BD in Sustainable Agricultural Planning Maintain diversified ecosystem around farms Diversified cropping systems, and cultivars. Traditional activities-ecologically sound Use env friendly cropping & husbandry practice Promoting sound economic valuation Promote community participation in planning
ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENTS• Popular from 1960s & 1970s DCs• Main concern human impact on env• 1960s concern, pesticides, pollution, & population.• 1970s, concern resource depletion, pop and poverty• Today, global conservation & wise mang of NR for SD
Major International Environmental conference UNCHE - Stockholm in 1972. WCED - 1986 -Brundtland Advocated world "SD" 1987,WCED "Our Common Future" Global env problems and measures to solve them.
UNGA RESOLUTIONS 1989- Holistic approach to env & development 1992 Earth Summit on SD – Rio MAIN OTPUT AGENDA 21
AGENDA 21 Action Plan and Strategy of env & economic problems & solutions to the problems. Remove differences btn N&S Global consensus and political commitment Develop alternative and more environmentally friendly ways of living. Aiming to achieve SD - "sustainable living"
INTERNATIONAL IMPLEMENTATIONOF RIO COMMITMENTS International conferences of 1990s Establishment of legal, institutional and policy instruments Mid-term assessment (1997) of Rio Resolutions
IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21 IN TANZANIA◊ Ratified important international legal instruments – eg BD & Climate Change Conventions.◊ Important legislations at national level – Forest policy, Land policy, etc◊ Institutional arrangements like establishment of NEMC◊ Policy documents e.g. Environment, Population, HIV/AIDS, PRSPs
CONSTRAINTS IN IMPLEMENTING AGENDA 21 High Incidence of Poverty Un-equal distribution of pop/economy HIV/AIDS and human health problems Other: extreme weather conditions, negative effects of globalization etc
WORLD SUMMIT ON SD, JOBURG 2002 (WSSD) Main changes after Rio Summit: Globalisation, Increasedpoverty, HIV/AIDS, Loss of bd etc Rio was for commitments Joburg was to: • Review progress of agenda 21 & • Map way forward towards global SD.
Key areas dedicated for the WSSD Water, energy, Health, Agriculture and Biodiversity To achieve SD in above areas we need: Global Partnership e.g. NEPAD
Key Outcomes of the WSSD SD central element of the international agenda More Governments commitments on SD Energy and sanitation issues More support to Africa and NEPAD Civil society were given prominence The concept of partnerships
BEYOND JOSBURG: FUTURE PERSPECTIVES FOR TANZANIA Main focus: Inter-sectoral co-ordination and integration More emphasis on SD and poverty reduction themes Harmonization and further development of legal, policy and institutional arrangements Further action on HIV/AIDS and poverty, and environmental degradation
WORLD CONSERVATION STRATEGY What is conservation? History of Conservation e.g. Greeks and Romans Motivations for conservation in Africa: Preserve game for colonial hunters Preserve for rituals (sacred forests)
CONSERVATION OBJECTIVES Maintain essential ecological processes Preserve genetic resources Ensure the sustainable utilisation of species and ecosystems
WHY CONCERN ABOUT CONSERVATIONGeneral Reduced ecosystem services Resources degradation particularly in DCs due to poverty and struggle for food Increased costs to produce goods and services The resource base of major industries is shrinking
Other concerns: Global Many living resources are shared Many living resources occur in areas beyond national jurisdiction Living resources in one state may be affected by activities done in another state
Main obstacles for conserving bd Belief on living resources Failure to integrate conservation with development Poor developmental planning Lack of a capacity to conserve Lack of support for conservation Wrong target conservation group
CONSERVATION AND MANG OF BD Conservation to bd focus on: • Causes of losses • Opportunities for bd on SD BD not equally distributed – Set conser priority Approaches in priority setting biodiversity hotsports, major tropical wilderness and megadiversity countries.
Priority setting based on: Importance of the BD to nations survival Distribution of BD Level of endemism Level of threat Availability of resources
Why Conservation of Natural forestand wildlife is a very challenging High demand of this resource by the people. Artificial regeneration very difficult and most of the species are under studied. Little biological data for making precise cons recommendations
METHODS OF REDUCING BIODIVERSITY LOSSES Respective and incorporate African values, knowledge systems, and priorities Involving local people in conservation activities Biodiversity conservation systems
Methods cont. Policies Education, Training and Networking Monitoring, Evaluation and Research
MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND ENV. CONS 2000, 189 countries sign Millennium declaration Focus on the declaration: Peace, security and disarmament Development and poverty reduction Protection of environment Human rights, democracy and good governance
WHAT ARE THE MDGS? Blueprint on devel & env - agreed by all world countries & all leading developing institutions to eradicate extreme poverty worldwide Key target of MDGs – fight poverty through reduced loss of env resources by advocating bd conservation
Element of the MDGsi) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Main sources of bd losses Particular attention to marginal areas BD main source of livelihood by poor Poor countries borrow from DCs and they pay through bd utilization Strengthening rural income will reduce BD losses
ii) Achieve universal primary education Girls/women are main target Importance of women on bd cons Role of UNV
iii) Promote gender equity and empower women Women are the poorest yet they are main actors in bd cons Empowerment will help in decision making, access to knowledge etc
Constraints of Women empowerment and participation in BD conservation Traditions – women should not own land Lack of ownership Little control of benefits from income Restricted in participation of social welfare
Others iv) Reduce child mortality v) Improve maternal health vi) Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases vii) Ensure environmental sustainability
viii) Develop global partnership for development Open trade – non-discriminatory Assist to conserve rare species, endangered etc Good governance reduce poverty Cancel debts etc
C: The Linkage of MDGs and BD conservation Linkages btn MDG’s and BD cons exists but not well articulated!! Consider poverty, diseases, education Vs Env conservation!! Dangers of not understanding and accepting the linkage by politicians and technocrats Could compromise conservation objectives
AND THEREFORE: Stable env will therefore assist to achieve MDGs Income from bd can reduce poverty Income from BD cons can improve social services eg health, education etc
ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AND ITS MEASUREMENTSWhy ecologists interested in ecologicaldiversity and its measurement. Comprehending ecosystem structure and function. Conserving and breeding. Monitoring important land management interventions Set areas of priority for conser of bd
Objective of measuring BD To provide baseline information on: distribution, richness and relative abundance of taxa that is needed for conservation decisionNB: Biodiversity seen as indicators of the wellbeing of ecological systems
How to measure diversity Recording the number of species Describing their relative abundance or Combine the two components
POPULATION INDICES Numerous diversity indices developed Indices seek to characterize the diversity by a simple number. Two best known are Simpson’s Index Shannon’s
Simpsons Diversity Index Used to quantify the bd of a habitat. Takes into account: the number of species present, and abundance of each species. Simpsons Diversity Index refer to any one of 3 closely related indices
i) Simpsons Index (D) D = (n / N)2 n = the total no. of organisms of a particular species N = the total no. of organisms of all species The value of D ranges between 0 and 1 ii) Simpsons Index of Diversity 1 - D iii) Simpsons Reciprocal Index 1 / D
Measuring biodiversity Diversity appears to be very simple and unambiguous concept. Where then is the scope for so many competing indices? Because diversity measures takes into account two factors. Species richness – i.e. number of species Evenness (equitability)
Example of the above Consider 4 sites A, B, C and D Site A: - 1 species of moth Site B: - 3 species of moth B is more diverse i.e. greater richness
Example cont. Site C: 4 spp - @ moth sp has 3 individuals = 12 Site D: 4spp – one sp has 9 individuals, others (3 sp.) have 1 individual @ giving a total of 12 individuals C & D have equal number of spp and individuals (12), The greater evenness of C makes it more diverse
METHODS OF ASSESSING FOREST BIODIVERSITYi)Traditional inventory analysis: Estimate of standing volume of trees or animals in an area To determine changes with time (e.g FHM) Could use permanent or temporary sample plots
Methods cont.ii) Remote Sensing: Include aerial photography and satellite imagery Can not be used to identify individual plant Can be used for mapping vegetation (zonation) and land use planning
MORE READINGS ON: GLOBOLIZATION AND ITS IMPACT TO BIODIVERSITY IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES GOOD LUCK