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Anatomy and biology of immune system lecture notes
 

Anatomy and biology of immune system lecture notes

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  • Thanks for the sites however l'm not a doctor, they are hard to assimilate.
    Can you briefly explain for the layman why l have profuse lymph pflegm non-stop. What type of massage will stop it? or dietary change?
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  • The organs of the immune system are color-coded on this slide. yellow = primary organs - bone marrow, thymus blue = response organs  
  • Cells of the immune system are called lymphocytes.

Anatomy and biology of immune system lecture notes Anatomy and biology of immune system lecture notes Presentation Transcript

  • Anatomy and biology of immune system Prof M.I.N. Matee
  • Chapter 20 The Lymphatic and Immune systems
    • Structures:
    • Lymphatic vessels and lymph
    • Lymphocytes
    • Lymphoid tissue
    • Lymphoid organs
  • Introduction
    • Immune system is important in the defense against infection
      • Accounts for 5% of body weight
      • Consist of 5x10 13
  • Immune organs
    • Generative/Primary = origin
      • Bone marrow, thymus
    • Peripheral/secondary = mature cells respond to foreign antigens
      • Lymph-nodes, spleen, Mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), cutaneous immune system
  • Lymphoid organs
    • Peripheral – remove and destroy antigens in the blood and lymph
      • Tonsils
      • Lymph nodes
      • Spleen
      • Intestinal lymphoid tissues
    • Central – site of maturation of cells
      • Thymus
      • Bone marrow
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
    • The immune system is localized in several parts of the body
      • immune cells develop in the primary organs - bone marrow and thymus (yellow)
      • immune responses occur in the secondary organs (blue)
  • ORGANS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
    • Thymus – glandular organ near the heart – where T cells learn their jobs
    • Bone marrow – blood-producing tissue located inside certain bones
      • blood stem cells give rise to all of the different types of blood cells
    • Spleen – serves as a filter for the blood
      • removes old and damaged red blood cells
      • removes infectious agents and uses them to activate cells called lymphocytes
    • Lymph nodes – small organs that filter out dead cells, antigens, and other “stuff” to present to lymphocytes
    • Lymphatic vessels – collect fluid (lymph) that has “leaked” out from the blood into the tissues and returns it to circulation
    • Shared properties of
    • peripheral lymphoid organs
    • 1. a means to collect antigen
    • a means to recruit lymphocytes
    • distinct B and T cell zones
  • Lymphatic System
    • Consists of 2 semi-independent parts:
      • Network of lymphatic vessels
        • Function primarily to return fluid to the vascular system
      • Various lymphoid organs and tissues scattered throughout the body
        • Functions in immune defense
  • Lymph capillaries
    • Closed-ended vessels
    • Lined by endothelium
    • 1-way flaps into capillary
      • Allows passage of tissue fluid, large proteins, bacteria, viruses, cancer cells, cell debris
    20.2ab
  • Lymph capillaries
    • Found in all areas of blood capillaries except:
      • Bone, teeth, bone marrow, CNS
    • Lacteals – lymph capillaries in villi of small intestine transports fat (chyle) [compare with blood capillaries]
    20.2a 22.17b
  • Lymphatic Vessels
    • Lymphatic Collecting Vessels
      • Receive lymph from lymphatic capillaries
      • Have the same 3 tunics as veins, but:
        • Are thinner, have more internal valves, and anastomose more
    • Lymphatic Trunks
      • Formed from the union of the largest of the lymphatic collecting vessels
      • Drain large areas of the body
  • Lymphatic Vessels
    • Lymphatic Ducts
      • 2 vessels that receive lymph from lymphatic trunks
        • Right Lymphatic Duct
          • Drains lymph from the right upper arm and the right side of the head and the thorax
          • Empties into the vascular system at the junction of the right internal jugular vein and right subclavian vein
          • How would obstruction of this duct affect the circumference of the right arm?
        • Thoracic Duct
          • Drains lymph from the left upper arm, left side of the head and thorax, and digestive organs, pelvis, and legs
          • Much larger
          • Empties into the vascular system at the junction of the left internal jugular vein and left subclavian vein
  • Lymphoid Tissue
    • 2 main functions:
      • Houses and provides a proliferation site for lymphocytes
      • Provides an ideal site for surveillance.
    • Composed largely of reticular connective tissue and lymphoid cells
    • Can be found as:
      • Diffuse lymphatic tissue
        • Scattered reticular tissue and lymphoid cells found in most organs and especially prominent beneath mucous membranes
      • Lymphoid Follicles
        • Spherical, tightly packed bodies of reticular and lymphoid cells
      • Lymphoid Organs
  • Lymph nodes
    • Scattered in trunk
    • Located along lymphatic vessels
      • Cleanses lymph
    20.3 20.1
  • Lymph Node Function
    • Produce new B and T cells
    • Filter lymph
  •  
  • Lymph node structure
    • Functional tissue
      • Cortex
        • Lymph nodules
        • Lymph sinuses
          • Macrophages
          • Lymphocytes
      • Medulla
        • Lymph sinuses
        • Lymph cords
      • Lymph filter
        • Afferent lymphatic
        • Lymph sinuses
        • Removal of unwanted material
        • Efferent lymphatic
    20.4a
  • Lymph Node Function
    • Multiple afferent lymphatic vessels enter a lymph at its hilus - the indented region on the concave side
    • Lymph percolates thru the node and it is scrutinized by macrophages and lymphocytes ready to mount an immune response
    • Lymph leaves via a few efferent lymphatic vessels
    • Lymph usually has to pass thru several nodes before it is “clean”
    Why is it significant that there are more afferent than efferent lymphatic vessels?
  •  
  • Lymph trunks
    • Lumbar trunks
    • Intestinal trunks
    • Bronchomediastinal trunks
    • Subclavian trunks
    • Jugular trunks
    20.3
  • Lymph ducts
    • Thoracic (L) lymphatic duct
      • Drains ¾ of lymph
      • L head, neck, thorax, upper extremity
      • R&L abdomen, lower extremities
    • Right lymph duct
      • R head, neck, thorax, upper extremity
    • Ducts drain into subclavian veins
    20.6a
  •  
  • Lymphoid Cells
    • Lymphocytes
      • What are the 2 types?
        • What are plasma cells?
          • What do they secrete?
    • Lymphoid macrophages
      • What is their function?
    • Reticular cells
      • Fibroblastlike cells that produce the reticular fiber stroma – the network that supports other cell types in lymphoid organs
  •  
  • Spleen
    • Supporting tissue
      • Capsule
        • Hilus
        • Splenic artery
      • Trabeculae
        • Trabecular arteries
    20.11ab
  • Spleen
    • Functional tissue:
    • White pulp
      • Lymphocytes around central arteries
      • Branches of trabecular arteries
      • Immune response to antigens
      • Produces both B & T lymphocytes
    20.11b
  • Spleen
    • Red pulp
      • Venous sinuses (splenic sinusoids)
      • Splenic cords
        • Lymphocytes
        • Reticular fibers
        • Macrophages
        • Cleanse blood
        • Remove old rbcs
    20.11b
  • Thymus
    • Located in thorax
      • Posterior to sternum
    • Supporting structures
      • Capsule
      • Trabeculae
    20.9,20.10b
  • Thymus
    • Functional tissue - lobules
    • Site of T lymphocyte development
    • Most active during childhood
    • Decreases from adolescence to adult
    20.10
  • Tonsils
    • Aggregations of lymphocytes and lymph nodules
    • MALT – mucosa associated lympoid tissue
    20.12
  • Tonsils
    • Palatine tonsils – in pharynx, near palate
    • Lingual tonsils – in tongue
    • Pharyngeal tonsils – in pharyngeal roof
    21.3a
  •  
  • Spleen
    • Largest lymphoid organ. About the size of a fist.
    • Location:
      • Left side of the abdominal cavity, just beneath the diaphragm and curling around the anterior stomach
    • Served by the splenic artery and vein which enter at its hilus
    • Surrounded by a fibrous CT capsule with inward extending trabeculae
    • Functions include:
      • Extracting old & defective RBCs and removal of debris and foreign matter from blood
      • Storage of blood platelets and iron
    • Internal structure consists of:
      • White Pulp
        • Smaller portion
        • Islands of lymphocytes and reticular fibers
      • Red Pulp
        • Venous sinuses and splenic cords (regions of reticular fibers and macrophages)
  • Thymus
    • Found in inferior neck and anterior thorax
    • Secretes hormones that allow T lymphocyte maturation
    • Prominent in newborns, it increases in size throughout childhood. In adolescence, it begins to atrophy and is fatty/ fibrotic in adults.
    • Only lymphoid organ that does not fight antigens
  • Tonsils
    • Form a ring of lymphoid tissue around the entrance to the pharynx
    • 3 main sets:
      • Palatine
        • Located on either side of the posterior oral cavity
        • Largest and infected most often
      • Lingual
        • Lie at the base of the tongue
      • Pharyngeal
        • Found in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx
        • Called adenoids when infected
  • Lymphocyte Activation