Me, myself, I


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Me, myself, I exploring conceptions of self and others in Indonesian names and pronouns with eatrly learners, Presentation by Anne Marie Morgan at AFMLTA conference Sydney 2009

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Me, myself, I

  1. 1. Anne-Marie Morgan Nives Mercurio July 2009
  2. 2. Paper prepared for AFMLTA 2009 conference Dialogue, discourse, diversity Sydney, Australia 10 July 2009
  3. 3. Language teachers  Teachers of different languages do not plan together  Different language and culture and students  Language teachers teaching the same language have common programs but do not often share information about their teaching  Sole language teachers in school  Primary, teaches whole school  Secondary, several languages but different How can language teachers relate their teaching programs to the rest of the school? What commonality of ‘content’ across the curriculum?  to integrate the students’ learning across learning areas  to integrate the language into the school curriculum – not extra, not special
  4. 4.  Activities from textbooks are used as a starting point in developing classroom language and culture interactions  Focus on ◦ identifying teachers’ pedagogical ‘stance’ as underpinning interactions at the learning ‘interface’ ◦ shift from textbook ‘topics’ to intercultural ‘concepts’ in line with pedagogical stance ◦ learners’ responses and meaning-making; relevance  Indonesian and Italian examples, using common textbook ‘topic’  Exemplify some planned interactions
  5. 5.  Point of ‘interaction’ in teaching and learning  Includes both teacher’s and learners’ contributions  Where learning, specific to each learner, occurs
  6. 6.  Where teacher assumes responsibility for own role, and anticipates that of the students, through ◦ knowing the learners ◦ program preparation ◦ choice of learning interactions ◦ scaffolding provided to learners  Suitably flexible to account for learners’ input in mutual contribution (Bruner 1975; Lantolf 2000; Woods 2006; Scarino et al 2008)
  7. 7.  The way we teach languages reflects the way we understand language, culture and learning  What students learn results from teachers’ understandings of language, culture and learning and their pedagogical orientation towards teaching and learning  Critical that teachers of languages both consider and articulate their views about language, culture and learning (Papademetre & Scarino 2000; AFMLTA 2005; Woods 2006; Scarino & Liddicoat 2009)
  8. 8.  Teachers understand within framework of own ‘stance’ ◦ learners ◦ resources ◦ language and culture they teach  Teacher’s stance influences all that is done ◦ planning ◦ resources choice and use ◦ what happens in the classroom ◦ assessing
  9. 9.  The Professional Standards for Accomplished Teaching of Languages and Cultures (Accomplished teachers)… have a view of curriculum in which planning, teaching, resourcing, assessing, evaluating and renewing are done coherently according to a principled approach to languages and cultures teaching. Accomplished teaching is reflected by an ability to explain the choices being made in planning and teaching (AFMLTA 2005).
  10. 10.  Understanding language learning as a social practice of active participation affects the type of interactions planned, as well as how learners and teachers are positioned to engage with language learning (Kramsch 1993; Lantolf 2000, for example)  ‘interactions’ involve providing for ◦ social engagement with other learners and the teacher ◦ recognition of what learners bring to the interactions ◦ seeking learners’ views and perspectives on their learning to get at understandings being developed, meaning-making occurring and the processes learners are employing (Kramsch 1993; Long 2007; Scarino et al 2008)
  11. 11.  need for planning and then scaffolding, at an individual level, through questions, activities and tasks that specifically seek to discover the meaning-making that is occurring in the social interaction of the classroom (Woods 2006; Scarino et al 2008)  not solely ‘code’ acquisition, but will necessarily engage with the processes of group and individual constructions of meaning, considered holistically (Mercer 2000; Scarino & Liddicoat 2008; Samuda & Bygate 2008)
  12. 12.  we see language learning understood as social and active construction as occurring within an intercultural orientation  language and culture always linked  involves teachers and learners constantly working across and between all the languages and cultures available in the classroom  learners invited to ◦ consider the language and culture they are learning through the lens(es) of their existing experiences, language(s) and culture(s) ◦ to‘step out’ or ‘decentre’ from previous personal (Papademetre & Scarino 2000; Liddicoat, Scarino, Papademetre & Kohler 2003)
  13. 13. Ideas that appeal to teachers when they hear about the intercultural  Free to be a speaker and participant in a language community  It’s Ok to have a personal stance – and be aware of own enculturation  The third space – decentring: observing from outside and in Challenges of planning for and finding evidence of intercultural learning  The class, group, pair interactions need planning and guidance  Quiet dedicated writing time for individual reflection – guided  Mostly seen in interactions, discussions Aspects which worry teachers  Questions, thinking on the spot can lack direction  Discussion often is in English
  14. 14.  need for ◦ language skills ◦ cultural understanding ◦ subject knowledge ◦ professional knowledge  acquire and continue to develop and renew throughout teaching career
  15. 15.  ‘content’ knowledge supports deep linguistic knowledge and stance on teaching and learning ◦ knowledge of the target language and culture, including  understanding of people  how they live in range of in-country or diasporic contexts  history, geography and politics of the target culture  traditions and customs  arts, special events and symbols  relationship of the nation with its neighbours  view of that culture about itself and other cultures  shared ways of communicating and understanding the world
  16. 16.  Indonesian and Italian examples for Year 9 students  working from readily available and used textbooks  Aim to explore ◦ learning and understandings with which we want learners to engage ◦ detail of what might be said and done by the teacher ◦ what might be expected of the learners (Samuda & Bygate 2006; Scarino et al 2008)  Focus on ◦ questions and processes that we would use; their interrelationship ◦ engaging learners in their learning through consideration of their own position in relation to language, culture and the ideas being considered (Lantolf 2000; Long 2007; Scarino et al 2007; Scarino et al 2008)
  17. 17.  starting point for exploring concept  recognising them as resources available to many teachers of languages  acknowledging teachers’ time is limited, and planning cannot always be based around developing original materials  contextualise the discussion of textbook use within an intercultural orientation to languages teaching and learning as teachers’ pedagogical stance ◦ integral to sociocultural and interactional view of languages learning ◦ critical in our own developing thinking about languages and cultures teaching and learning  explore using textbooks flexibly and critically ◦ benefits and learning opportunities ◦ limitations ◦ need to ‘problematise’/critically interrogate all resources used (AFMLTA 2005; Scarino et al 2008)
  18. 18. The use of textbooks in schools  Few primary school students have a language textbook  Mostly used between Years 7 and 10  Senior secondary include issues as well as topics  Beginners’ textbooks Year 11 Teachers use textbooks more than students  use textbooks and other resources, cut and paste  question of control of construction of a vocabulary, sequencing of grammar Teachers need to understand the textbooks they use
  19. 19.  all cultures engage with the concept of selling, buying and markets  language specific to markets is enmeshed in cultural contexts in which it occurs  cultural concepts related to markets are embedded in language  provides rich opportunities for exploring language in use, in multiple ways  uses can be interpreted by learners through their own frames of experience in buying, selling and negotiating markets in their own contexts
  20. 20. Language and culture of:  bargaining; fixed and negotiable prices  creating an image and saving face  fairness and ‘rip-offs’; value for money  self-image associated with what is bought  ‘designer’ and other ‘labels’  different markets (market places, mobile stalls, shops, supermarkets, shopping centres) and their appeal for this age group  market versus supermarket aesthetic/attraction  using money and dealing with different currencies  fair trade, local versus imported and environmental issues  etc
  21. 21.  Taylor & Sedunary (1997) Ayo! Dua, CIS- Heinemann, Sydney.  Chapter 6: Ayo ke pasar! (Let’s go to market!)  focus on one activity related to use of photos  starting point to considering the ideas of ‘audiences’ for different markets and how this affects the lives of users  first image shows a street market; the second a supermarket, both in Indonesia
  22. 22. (Taylor & Sedunary 1997, p. 100)
  23. 23. (Taylor & Sedunary 1997, p. 101).
  24. 24.  explored through a process of comparison and reflection with learners  beginning with comparison of photos within Indonesian understandings of social class distinctions as indicated through cultural practices related to shopping  through comparison with Australian practices, and learners’ own experiences
  25. 25.  Use target language where possible ◦ limitations as Year 9 ◦ other interactions reinforce language of the cultural events/concepts ◦ use developing ‘metalanguage’ in target language in discussions
  26. 26.  Ask students to describe what photos show  Consider: ◦ Where are these markets (inside/outside/urban/rural/noisy/quiet, etc)? ◦ What can you tell about the conditions in these markets (cleanliness/heat/ cooling/shopping aids/flooring/cover/shelves etc)? ◦ Who is using them (and who is not)? ◦ What do the shoppers look like? What are they wearing? How is their hair cut? What does this tell you about them? ◦ Are the shoppers rich or poor? How can you tell? ◦ How are children considered in the different markets? ◦ What do these photos tell us about differences between rich and poor in Indonesia and the kind of markets available to and used by each?
  27. 27.  Develop this first idea of differentiation between rich and poor, where social class is shown to influence access to and use of different market places  Second idea: explore different processes of buying in these markets  Consider ◦ In which of these markets does bargaining occur? ◦ How do learners know this (prior knowledge, visits to Indonesia or elsewhere, guesses from the available information in the pictures?) ◦ Who are the sellers in the supermarket? Are they visible? How does the presence or absence of sellers affect shopping and shoppers? ◦ The idea of harga pas (fixed price): why does it apply in supermarkets and not at the market? Does this affect how Indonesian people might think about people who bargain, in terms of class? (and later: is an expression like this used in/displayed in shops in Oz?)  Using the other texts from the chapter, discuss the processes of bargaining ◦ Where do you start, what are the steps, what do you say, how do you reach an agreement? ◦ More complex: What does the movement from two ends of a limited spectrum of prices towards a middle, agreeable figure say about Indonesian culture, and how does the language used facilitate the idea of harmonious society?
  28. 28. A third idea to pursue is the issue of ‘quality’ in relation to what is being bought in the different markets (social class demonstrated in what is being consumed) Discuss:  What is shown for sale? What is being bought? What’s in the little girl’s trolley? Which aisle of the supermarket are the mother and daughter in?  Compare packaging, display, presentation of the goods for sale  Compare freshness and simplicity of food items on display. Are they processed or raw?  Consider the source of food or products (are they local or imported?)  What kind of price range would you imagine for these items, given who can be seen buying them, and previous discussion?  Consider the health value and quality of different products (note that most of the items visible in the supermarket are chocolates and biscuits). Which are healthier? Why?
  29. 29. A fourth idea is that of ‘image’ in relation to shopping as an indicator of social class; that is, social class demonstrated in being seen to use particular markets and in adopting ‘western’ habits (dress, shopping style, fixed prices, etc) Ask learners to think about:  The importance to Indonesians of using a market ‘suitable’ for people of ‘their’ class, with whom they identify/are encouraged to identify with/share a wealth relationship  What Indonesians wear to shop and whether this matters  What languages are used on the product boxes? Where these can be seen? What does this imply?  Whether buying at shops with harga pas is halus (‘refined’) and whether this appears to be an important/desired Indonesian quality
  30. 30.  Comparison with Australian and personal social/cultural practices  Consider these understandings in comparison with Australian cultural practices, and, importantly, learners’ own experiences of shopping in Australia and how it also indicates social class- their social class  Go back over the questions for Indonesian contexts and reconsider in relation to Australia and students’ own ideas  Expect lively conversations that might go in multiple directions, and challenge learners’ conceptions of their own or their classmates’ views  Compare each other’s views (as data/texts) and manage the different perspectives through inviting learners to think deeply about their views and to recognise the diversity of opinions  What students might discover is that there is a reversal of social class indications in Australia in relation to markets. Encourage them to consider this possibility.  Is a higher status attached to direct market buying, ‘buying fresh’,
  31. 31.  You might ask learners  Who uses supermarkets in Australia? Who uses markets? Is this the same in Indonesia, given what can be seen in the pictures (or is it the reverse)? What does this tell us about Indonesian and Australian social practices?  Why are there no signs saying ‘fixed price’ in any Australian markets or supermarkets? Does this mean bargaining never occurs?  What sort of Australians do your learners think like to be seen in markets? Who likes to be seen in supermarkets? Does it matter to them?  How do people dress to shop in Australia, and what does this tell us about them?  Compare the ‘quality’ of fresh produce and packaged products. Who is targeted by sellers of each in Australia?  How important is the relationship between buyer and seller in Australia? When does it matter, and for whom?
  32. 32.  Bring together the different aspects of the concept in discussion  Pedagogical craft (demonstrating ‘stance’) is in drawing these ideas together and how this is done ◦ showing integration of language and culture ◦ inviting comparison of cultures and languages ◦ encouraging seeing through lens of own perspective and then ‘decentring’ to look back at and reflect on their own lives  Consider that they themselves both demonstrate and are being judged in terms of social status by their shopping habits  Encourage learners to see that social pressures affect people in what they do; pressures lead to choices that impact on people’s self identity, social status and health outcomes  May be startling revelations, or hotly contested or even denied- be prepared for discussion twists and multiple (or uniform) perspectives  Use the language(s) most appropriate to the discussions for learners’
  33. 33.  Sedunary, M 1998, Forza! Due, CIS-Heinemann, Melbourne  Chapter 6: Che bella figura!  The first 3 images show the Perugia market and the characters of the textbook in different scenes  The last 2 photos show the Sulmona marketplace Possible dimensions of exploration  self-image associated with what is bought, fare bella figura  ‘designer’ and other ‘labels’, il firmato  fairness and value for money, a buon prezzo  The setting of the mercato, the ancient towns, new towns  Piazza and centro storico
  34. 34. Considering the concept of markets: Italian From Sedunary, M 1998, Forza! Due, CIS-Heinemann, Melbourne
  35. 35. From Sedunary, M 1998, Forza! Due, CIS-Heinemann, Melbourne
  36. 36. Linguistic concepts language to do with buying Cultural concepts la firma vs buying at markets Italians brand names designer products Intercultural concept Australian ‘labels’/brand names? From Sedunary, M 1998, Forza! Due, CIS-Heinemann, Melbourne
  37. 37. From Sedunary, M 1998, Forza! Due, CIS-Heinemann, Melbourne
  38. 38. From Sedunary, M 1998, Forza! Due, CIS-Heinemann, Melbourne
  39. 39. The interaction The Interaction  A discussion exploring the images through a process of comparison and reflection with learners  Exploring the photos as images and through the language content  comparison with the learners’ knowledge and experience of the Australian setting, language and culture The language of the interaction  Use target language as much as possible  Model and prompt using prior learning  Provide some metalanguage  Repeat student responses in English, in Italian when possible
  40. 40. How are ‘market’ images used here?  In textbook Forza due, many images of markets and market places in chapters dealing with different ‘topics’  market image part of unit titled la bella figura  market image in earlier chapter about il paese, a provincial town  market image in Forza uno, Maura fa la spesa, food shopping in market and shops No explanation of the cultural meaning of mercato (setting) or fare bella figura (expression) beyond the photostory use and vocabulary meaning
  41. 41. Is ‘markets’ as used here a topic or a concept?  no market vocabulary, no specific ‘market’ language  language of selecting and buying could be used in any ‘shopping’ situation  title la bella figura, a common expression, culturally laden concept, lends itself to examining what we buy, where and why Research and investigative tasks in senior secondary levels focus on issues/ questions/a problem/ looking for a solution Allows the student to a make a reflective connection to their own experience Topic Concepts
  42. 42. The images may be considered from  The culture that the images portray (city/country; old town/modern town; different use of spaces)  The culture that the language conveys (making a good impression/brands and a good price/historical centre)  Connecting with the images through the intercultural stance (Comparison and connection through the learner’s knowledge and experience) Predicting the different courses that discussion may take and having
  43. 43. Exploring the culture that the images portray  Where is the market situated?  Is it a city, town, paese?  In what part of town is it situated?  What can you see there?  Where is the town?  What sort of market is it?  What would you expect to find at this market?  How different are the two market places?  Does the city look old or new?  Are the people rich or poor?  What do you find different, strange, or familiar about these markets?
  44. 44. Exploring the culture that the language conveys La piazza and il mercato as traditional meeting places Il centro storico  What do you expect to find in a centro storico?  From the images, how old do you think the buildings are?  Who do you think would come to a market in a paese?  Do country people in Australia go to markets? Fare bella figura  What do you think that Italians mean by this?  How do Italians show that they think this idea is important?  Is looking good associated with Italians outside of Italy? Il firmato versus no label/ paying a good price  Do you know of any Italian brands/labels?  Why do you think that people like to wear brand names?
  45. 45. Exploring the images from an intercultural stance and making connections  What kinds of markets are there in our city?  Have you ever shopped at a market?  Have you been to a market when visiting another city? How was it similar/different from the market in your city?  Would you meet your friend at the market?  Would you take visitors to your city to the market? Why? Why not?  Do Australians wear brand names? Which? Why?  Do you think Australians dress to impress?  Is there an equivalent expression in English for fare bella figura? What is it?  If many Italians believe in la bella figura, what would be a cultural belief about themselves that many Australians have in common?
  46. 46. Teachers find it difficult to negotiate and direct an open discussion Interactions ◦ Need preparation: predict different courses discussion may take ◦ It will be necessary at some point to thinking on one’s feet: learn to do this ◦ Plan questions for class/group/pair discussions and individual reflective writing ◦ Provide students with the language (tl) needed to express observations, similarity, difference, ideas, opinions, contradict and persuade
  47. 47. Text books containing language (topics) and language study (grammar) may offer opportunities for intercultural classroom interactions, however,  the communicative language assumes the learner is acting in the situation  there is no provision of language for the learner to talk about the language and cultural content in the target language (metalanguage) Discussion  interactions and reflection need to be guided by teacher questions  the use of Italian (tl) in discussion needs supporting language  Missing links ◦ underlying concepts and issues in language and culture ◦ metalanguage:
  48. 48.  We invite you to share your thoughts and responses to our presentation, in small discussion groups  You might like to consider: ◦ orientations to teaching and learning languages and relating these to planning and resource choices ◦ resources you currently use and how you use them ◦ ways to supplement/augment textbook materials ◦ ‘concepts’ versus, or as well as, ‘topics’ ◦ ways of understanding learners’ needs and interests ◦ ways of providing meaningful, social classroom interactions using existing resources ◦ ways of sharing planning across languages and year levels in schools and networks
  49. 49.  Bring your comments, responses and suggestions back to a whole group discussion  Provide us with feedback on our ideas
  50. 50. Nives Mercurio Anne-Marie Morgan