Assessing Intercultural Capability 8.7.09


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Assessing intercultural capability Handout from Angela Scarino's presentation at AFMLTA conference in Sydney 2009

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Assessing Intercultural Capability 8.7.09

  1. 1. Assessing intercultural capability: teacher and researcher perspectives Paper presented at the 17th AFMLTA Biennial National Languages Conference Sydney, 9-12 July 2009 Angela Scarino, Research Centre for Languages and Cultures University of South Australia Melissa Gould-Drakeley, Macarthur Anglican School 1
  2. 2. Abstract As teachers of languages have engaged more strongly with intercultural language learning they have begun to raise important questions about how intercultural capability might be assessed. Addressing these questions is valuable because (1) the assessment lens sharpens the conceptual focus on what the intercultural capability entails; (2) the assessment process provides useful information about students’ actual learning; and (3) assessment has the power to influence what language learning is. Drawing on the sustained inquiry-based work of an experienced teacher and insights from research in this area being carried out at the Research Centre for Languages and Cultures at the University of South Australia, this paper explores what it is that assessing this intercultural capability entails and how it might be elicited. Introduction Language learning within an intercultural orientation has been gaining ground in Australia since the release of the Report on Intercultural Language Learning (Liddicoat, Papademetre, Scarino & Kohler 2003) and the subsequent professional learning programs including the Intercultural Language Teaching and Learning in Practice (ILTLP) Project (Scarino, et al 2007), the Professional Standards Project (Scarino, et al, 2008) and most recently the release of Teaching and Learning Languages – A Guide (Scarino & Liddicoat, 2009). An issue that has emerged consistently in this process is how to assess intercultural capability. We use the notion of ‘capability’ rather than ‘understanding’ or ‘awareness’ to render the idea of intercultural engagement as active and dynamic. The issue arises for a number of interrelated reasons. The first relates to uncertainty pertaining to the construct; it emerges in questions such as: What exactly is this ‘intercultural capability’ and how can it be operationalised for the purposes of assessment? How does it relate to knowledge of language and culture? What is the relationship between language and culture in assessing language learning? The second reason relates to uncertainty regarding the nature of the assessment process itself, for example: How do we assess intercultural understanding in language learning? Is it embedded within or separate from assessing language? How can assessment of intercultural capability be objective when it involves values? Should we be assessing values anyway? Since it is not assessed in the HSC, VCE, SACE, etc. why include it in assessing language learning at earlier levels of schooling? These kinds of questions evidence deeply held and often unquestioned assumptions about both the nature of language and language learning on the one hand, and the assessment process on the other hand. For example: How do we understand language for the purposes of school language learning? Is objectivity the only quality that is needed in assessment? Is traditional, summative assessment the only form of assessment that is of value? Is the assessment of product necessarily more important than the assessment of process? Are curriculum frameworks, syllabuses or frameworks of standards the only guides to what it is valuable to learn in language learning? Are they as constraining as some teachers claim them to be? It is the combined force of uncertainty about the construct and uncertainty about what is and is not permissible in assessment that has led to questions about assessing intercultural capability. Over the past five years at the Research Centre for Languages and Cultures at the University of South Australia we have been investigating assessment within an intercultural orientation to language teaching and learning in a number of our research projects. It is in the context of this work that Melissa and I came together. We invited Melissa, as a highly experienced teacher of Indonesian to design a long-term program of work for her Year 12 Indonesian class to be included in the ILTLP project. After the initial design Melissa re-worked her program to incorporate feedback that we had provided. We then asked Melissa to investigate the process of working with that program with her students over the period of a year, constantly observing, noticing, and recording details of her work, her interactions with her students, their responses. We particularly asked her to focus on incorporating a long-term perspective in teaching, learning and assessment because we know that one of the key features of intercultural language learning is that it should be considered both in the moment (synchronically) and over time (diachronically). We subsequently visited Melissa in the context of her school, interviewed her, observed a lesson, and interviewed her students. The data and examples that we use as an illustration in our paper come from this experience. In this paper we focus specifically on assessment which, for us, is integral to and not separate from learning. We believe that the assessment lens sharpens the conceptual focus on what it is that developing intercultural capability entails and that the assessment process has the power to yield 2
  3. 3. useful information about students’ actual learning (Scarino, 2009). Prior to considering what it is that assessing intercultural capability entails and how it might be elicited, we need to signal how we understand assessment. For the purposes of our discussion we consider assessment as a cycle involving a set of our interrelated processes. Conceptualising  Eliciting  Judging  Validating (what to assess) (how to elicit) (how to appraise) (how to justify) (Scarino 2009) The starting point for assessment is not the procedures and technicalities but rather, it is the conceptualisation of what is to be assessed, namely, the construct; in languages education it is what we mean by language learning. It is in this sense that any assessment is fundamentally a conceptual matter, more than a technical one. The way we understand the construct subsequently influences elicitation, how we construe evidence, the judgments we make and how we justify them. In addition, we recognise that the traditional assessment paradigm is not sufficient. The traditional paradigm focuses on testing ‘content’ through ‘objective’ procedures normally as single events; student performances are then referenced either to the performance of other students or to a predetermined standard. It is a psychometrically oriented perspective that addresses the ‘measurement’ of learning. Assessment within an alternative paradigm, while variously understood (Fox 2008), seeks to expand on the traditional understanding of assessment. Within an alternative paradigm of assessment, the focus is on finding appropriate ways of demonstrating what it is that students know. The alternative paradigm allows for formative assessment (assessment for learning) as well as summative (assessment of learning), recognising the power of assessment to form or shape learning (see Black & Jones, 2006). It allows for diverse evidence for diverse learners and the valuing of the product of learning as well as the process. (see Birenbaum 1996; Gipps, 1999; Teasdale & Leung 2000) It also recognises that assessment is a dynamic, on-going process of coming to understand students’ performance over time, thus, it frequently involves a collection of multiple performances over time to provide evidence of growth and learning. It is a perspective that draws on sociocultural views of learning which highlight language use and learning as socially constructed and situated in contexts of use, that is, that they are accomplished collaboratively, and embedded in the social and cultural life of the individuals involved. Within the alternative paradigm, then, there is a recognition of “(1) the centrality of the classroom (teaching practice and learning process); (2) the active role played by students/learners in assessment processes….; (3) a heightened view of process; and (4) outcomes characterized by summaries of learner competencies which are detailed, descriptive and informative…” (Fox 2008:102). Assessing intercultural capability is best seen within this alternative paradigm. Conceptualising In our interview with Melissa she describes how she understands ‘the intercultural’ in learning languages in the school setting. This understanding provides a way in to conceptualising what it means in relation to knowing and learning an additional language: AS: What does the intercultural actually mean to you now that you’ve played with it for a few years……? M: …’s really meaningful communication. And I suppose, when I’ve looked at my program, I think that the things I’ve changed significantly is now that my program is now a program in which my students feature…. So it’s that idea, I think you might have quoted it, that it’s a peopled program and that the whole idea of it’s being not only just turning the page and moving on, it’s actually looking at the students themselves…..and I think for me actually a big change too. But what is different for me is the intra-cultural…… and really coming to terms with it, looking at each student’s background, and knowledge, and experience, and absolutely everything they 3
  4. 4. bring to the classroom and how we are all moving together and yet on a separate journey…… and that, if I don’t understand and they don’t understand their intra-cultural journey, they never will understand the intercultural. And to me that’s the difference in the way I teach….. so for me, I suppose it’s the intra-cultural…that it’s been the big shift in the way I present things (Melissa Gould-Drakeley interviewed by Angela Scarino and Leo Papademetre, September 2007) Having experimented with intercultural language learning, for a few years, at this point Melissa re-conceptualises for herself what it means. This understanding provides the basis for determining what to assess. She highlights several features of how she understands intercultural capability as follows: 1) ‘really meaningful communication’, that is, communication understood as the exchange of meaning, is central; it entails an expanded view of language that considers language per se as well as the way language and culture come into play in interpreting and creating meaning; 2) ‘a program in which my students feature’, that is, that old dichotomy between teaching students vs. teaching a learning area or school subject’ is dismantled; it involves both; 3) ‘a peopled program’, that is, communication involves interaction among all kinds of people, in all their diversity; 4) ‘looking at the students themselves’, that is, working with incorporating the reality of who students are, their lifeworlds and their identities; this is not just a question of noting their backgrounds but rather engaging with them as ever-changing and developing, human beings, constantly foregrounding and connecting with their experiences and understandings of those experiences; she elaborates this as “knowledge and experience and absolutely everything that they bring”; 5) ‘the intra-cultural’, that is, developing an awareness of self that people bring to developing an awareness of others; 6) ‘moving together and yet on a separate journey’, that is, recognising intercultural language learning as an on-going, cumulative process of developing one’s communicative repertoire and that this is a common trajectory in terms of the classroom experiences but distinctive in terms of what each participant makes of it 7) ‘understand’…..’understand’, this word, repeated highlights the intercultural orientation as one that is focussed on coming to understanding – for both students and their teacher. The value of Melissa’s reconceptualisation resides in the fact that she sees intercultural languages learning as communication and learning to communicate in and through an additional language (for her: Indonesian) and learning to understand the process of communication itself across languages and cultures. This entails knowing the target language and knowing how to use the target language and this will always be referenced to the languages of the students, that the students use in their repertoires; it entails knowing the target culture (s) related to the target language and this will always be referenced to the cultural experiences of the students. In other words, assessment is not simply an assessment of knowledge, independent of the knower, but it involves attending to the knowledge as referenced to, understood by, appraised, and judged by the knower. The value of learning within a classroom and school community is that the experience necessarily foregrounds diversity, the variability of people in terms of what they bring to interactions, their use of language and interpretations of meaning. Learning any language, is learning interculturally, that is, referencing that language use and learning across diverse languages and cultures understood as meaning systems. Conceptualising the assessment of language learning to include an intercultural capability entails re-conceptualising and expanding the view of language and the view of assessment; in both re-conceptualisations there is a sense in which the focus is on meaning, diverse people interpreting and making meaning differently across their own and new languages and cultures. Language use among people involves making meaning through referencing the context of culture. Learning among people involves making meaning through referencing the context of cultural experiences. Intercultural language learning and its assessment involve language use and understanding these processes of referencing. Both need to be developed and elicited in and through learning languages. As Shohamy (1996:152) states: “there are different types of language knowledge and mastering one type is no guarantee for mastering another….” 4
  5. 5. Eliciting Eliciting involves considering the construct and the procedures to be used to draw out students’ understanding. In so doing Shohamy (1996:152) reminds us that in assessing language learning “different instruments are capable of ‘seeing’ different things’ ”. In assessing intercultural capability in language learning it is necessary to select processes that capture its multi-dimensional nature and to do so in a way that is fair and just to learners’ learning. Such procedures range from analyses of moment-to-moment interactions, conversations that probe students’ meanings, observations of students in interaction to a range of on-going written work (including projects, quizzes, etc), self-reports, summaries of accomplishments, portfolios, and learning logs, among many other procedures. Assessing intercultural capability involves several dimensions as follows: • interactions (spoken and written) in the target language in which students negotiate meaning through interpreting and using language in diverse contexts, involving people from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds; in these interactions what is of interest is the accuracy, fluency, appropriateness and complexity of language used in the exchange as well as how students negotiate meaning in interaction and how they manage the variability that the particular context of communication demands; • eliciting understanding of the way peoples’ enculturation affects how they see and interpret the world, interact and communicate; understanding how peoples’ own language(s) and culture(s) come into play in exchanging meaning; understanding how they themselves are already situated in their own language(s) and culture(s), and the same for others, and recognising that this experience is dynamic, ever-developing. I have described this as assessing students’ learning in two ways. as participant users of the target language and as learners/analysers of the use of the target language, constantly reflecting critically on the exchange of meanings from multiple perspectives. (Scarino, 2009:69) Example 1 from Melissa’s program illustrates how she has operationalised these ideas in the scope and sequence of her year-long program, and its related assessment. Example 1: Scope and sequence Designing an intra/intercultural scope and sequence has provided a conceptual framework for teaching and assessing intercultural capability. The concepts have been mapped across the Stage 6 (Years 11/12) NSW Board of Studies syllabus themes of the Individual, the Indonesian Speaking Communities and Issues in Today’s World and focus on identity, social organisation, interpersonal relationships and change. These concepts are probed using key questions. For example, the concept of identity is teased out in the first module in Year 11 with questions such as Who are you? How do you represent yourself to others? What is important to you? What are your values? What do you notice is important to different Indonesians? In the final Year 12 module, questions on identity include; How has your understanding of your identity developed/changed over the past two (or more) years? How has your new knowledge influenced who you are? Is your identity influenced by your knowledge and understanding of Indonesian life? Have your values changed? A diagrammatic representation of this appears at Appendix 1. This presentation, in particular, the use of the ‘evidence’ column indicates the way in which assessment is integrated naturally with learning. Example 2 shows how Melissa elaborates on a module of work from her Year 12 program. Key questions are an integral part of her teaching and learning processes and assessment, as are a focus on evidence and feedback. Example 2: Sample Year 12 module of work The module on Religion in Indonesia gives students the opportunity to further consider and reflect on their intraculturality by re-analysing their identity with a particular emphasis on religious position and comparing it to other Australian and Indonesian contexts. Macarthur Anglican School is a Christian school and Year 12 students study Biblical Studies or Studies of Religion as part of the curriculum, have daily devotions in tutor groups and attend Chapel Services once per week. Exploring religion in 5
  6. 6. Indonesia gives students an additional opportunity to consider their own beliefs. Some of these students may be Christians while others will not adhere to any particular faith. From an intercultural perspective, students are encouraged to recognise the different values inherent in various religions in Indonesia as expressed through a variety of texts. They focus on analysing the language in these texts to explicitly reinforce the link between language and culture. From their observations, students consider how this influences the way they communicate with various people in Indonesia as well as Australia. From a linguistic development perspective, students develop a repertoire for describing their feelings and being able to exchange ideas with others. Students also develop an awareness of the specific religious terminology that is used in various settings, the etymology of these words and the intercultural significance. For example, the use of words with Arabic origin, selamat, maaf lahir batin (forgive me in body and soul) and the importance of the concept of saying sorry and the need to apologise is used in a range of situations (eg at the beginning of a speech). This module also aims to dispel stereotypes held about Islam. Questions used in this module include: Is religion part of your identity? Is it an important aspect of your life? Do your parents (or others) expect you to follow a religion? What influence does Macarthur Anglican School have on your identity (if any)? Does going to a Christian school have an impact on who you are? Do you think religion is an important aspect of the lives of Indonesians? What influences your point of view on this? Consider the previous modules covered. What do you know about religion in Indonesia? From your readings/viewings/interactions, what do you think about arranged marriages, or elopement or interfaith marriage, etc in Indonesia? How does this relate back to the information you have learnt on ethnic diversity in Indonesia? Consider your situation. Will you have an arranged marriage? Is it possible for you to marry someone from a different religious/ethnic background? Is age a factor? What connections have you made to previous modules? These questions are enmeshed in continuous classroom interactions that incorporate images, texts, discussion, focused work in Indonesian, with English as needed. Teacher input and facilitation is necessary to scaffold and pace the learning. Teachers: • encourage noticing and analysing of language and culture (including visuals); • manage the discussion of controversial issues and diverse perspectives; • challenge the naturalness of culture and students’ own culture being the norm; • help dispel stereotypes; • encourage students to ask themselves questions: Why do I think that? Where does that idea come from? • provide sensitive feedback; • provide time for guided student reflection; • encourage students to interpret themselves. Notice how Melissa includes processes and questions that tap into students’ evolving, cumulative understanding. One such process is the use of the learning log. The following extracts come from the learning log of one of Melissa’s students called Becky. Melissa also highlights how she, as teacher, interprets these entries. Example 3: Excerpts from Becky’s learning log “Learning about Mudik, in which everyone has the right to go home to celebrate the breaking of the fast, no matter who they are or what ‘status’ they are astounds me. This is because it is such a contrast to what I have learnt so far to be the hierarchical culture of every day Indonesian life, displaying the huge importance this celebration holds in Indonesian society.” This shows that the student is questioning her knowledge. “…….. it was interesting to note that the inclusive words and phrases like “kita” (inclusive form of 6
  7. 7. ‘we’), “kita semua” (we all) “setiap orang” (every person), “bersama” (together), which I have seen several times in reading, writing, speaking and listening, are used so consistently throughout many texts we have studied in Indonesian. To me, this displays a clear reflection of the Indonesian culture and their aims as a nation and individual islands/ societies ie the national determination to work together showing unity [the Indonesian motto is Unity in Diversity.] These words employ a sense of unity and inclusiveness. I need to be very aware of this when I interact with an Indonesian.” In this journal entry it is clear that this student has come to an awareness of the cultural significance of inclusiveness and that she needs to use this type of inclusive language in her interactions. This shows her meta-awareness. Using a journal like this is useful as it not only shows the student’s awareness and understanding of the use of inclusive language in Indonesian but it shows her intention to use this type of language when interacting with others and the reasons for doing so. This shows her intercultural understanding. She recognises that using this vocabulary is authentic as it reflects Indonesian culture. Without the journal entry, the student’s thinking process would be missed. Thus, it is a useful assessment tool for the teacher. Judging performance Judging student performance is interrelated with the conceptualisation of language learning and the procedures used to elicit this learning. Criteria are generally used to elaborate the requirements of particular assessment tasks and the features of expected performance (often described as outcomes and standards). While it is useful to specify criteria in advance, within alternative approaches, it is also important to allow criteria to emerge from experience and performance on actual student performance. This is a fundamental difficulty with the framing of the systems of assessment and standards that are typically used by educational systems. The difficulty arises because the outcomes and standards that are hypothesised are generally seen as the actual outcomes and standards. In assessing language learning particularly within an intercultural orientation we must leave open the possibility of unanticipated connections and evidence of learning. In Example 4, Melissa describes an interrelated interview and email task, with accompanying criteria for judging performance. Example 4: Assessment Task (interview and email) The assessment task was as follows: Students interviewed a young Indonesian male Muslim, Ucy, (who was on exchange in Australia for 3 weeks) about his religious practice and the special occasions associated with his religion. Students then imagined they were living in Indonesia with Ucy’s family and witnessed a special occasion. Using the information from their interview, they described and reflected on the special occasion in the form of an email to a close friend. Sample student interview response “Kami sangat berterima kasih atas kehadriran Anda hari ini. Kami minta maaf sebelumnya kalau ada yang tidak berkenan dan tidak wajib menjawab pertanyaan” Thank you for your attendance today. We wish to apologise in advance if there is anything we say that is disagreeable and it’s not compulsory to reply to the questions. (Amy) In Amy’s learning log, she explained that she commenced her interview in this manner as she had found out from an Indonesian speaker that this was the appropriate, polite formality to use when conducting an interview. This shows that Amy was concerned to not only ensure her language was accurate, but that the cultural pragmatics were accurate. This demonstrates intercultural understanding. 7
  8. 8. Criteria for judging performance in the interview Assessment was based on the following criteria: - recognise and employ language appropriate to interviewee and social context; - relevance and depth of questions; - clarity of expression (pronunciation, intonation, stress); - accuracy of vocabulary and sentence structures; - variety and appropriateness of vocabulary and sentence structures; - capacity to maintain a conversation (comprehension, communication strategies). Sample student email response “sebelum aku datang ke sini aku kira bahwa agama Islam nggak menerima agama lain.” (Before I came here I thought that Islam didn’t accept other religions) …. Di Australia aku berprasangka tentang semua aspek agama Islam. Aku berpendapat bahwa mereka nggak membolehkan aku ikut perayaan mereka. Akhirnya, Ucy berkata: ‘tergantung dari kamu.’ (In Australia I was prejudiced about all aspects of Islam. I thought that they wouldn’t allow me to take part in their celebrations. Finally Ucy said: It’s up to you.” (Alana) Alana had asked Ucy in her interview if, as a Christian, she would be able to participate in the fasting month of Ramadan. Ucapan yang selalu aku dengar adalah ‘Selamat Hari Raya. Maaf lahir batin.’ Ucapan ini menarik; penting bahwa yang muda mengunjungi yang tua untuk sungkem kepada mereka dan minta maaf. Aku ngaak sungkem, sedangkan Ucy dan kakaknya sungkem kepada ortunya. Bisa kamu membayangkannya?’ The expression that I always heard was “Happy Hari Raya. Please forgive me in body and soul.” This expression is interesting; it’s important for young people to kneel before their parents and request forgiveness. I didn’t kneel whereas Ucy and his older brother knelt before their parents. Can you believe it? (Laura) Criteria for judging performance in the email task Assessment was based on the following criteria: - summarise main points and provides detailed items of specific information from your interview; - identify values, attitudes and beliefs of cultural significance; - interpret and evaluate information showing your intercultural learning; - use appropriate register; - use accurate sentence structure; - use complex vocabulary; - structure and sequence appropriately. Melissa provides an example of the judging of her students’ performance in Example 5. Example 5: Sample teacher written feedback on the email task On the whole, this is a very well-written email Laura. You have provided an excellent summary of Ucy’s interview, commenting on may aspects of Ramadan and Idulfitri. I am also impressed with the depth of your ideas. Your Indonesian vocabulary is varied and the sentences you use are complex. You have, however, made a couple of word order errors. You have been perceptive in the comments you have made, showing reflection. You have written in a more appropriate register this time. Well done! The task provided an opportunity to assess the students’ knowledge and understanding of Ramadan and Idulfitri as well as their ability to interpret and evaluate the information conveyed in Ucy’s interview. It also gave me an insight into the types of questions they thought important to ask. The task was also used as an assessment for learning task as it provided me with key information about the students’ preconceptions about Islam and Idulfitri and how these had changed. Examining the explicit vocabulary choice, grammatical structure, tone, bias, etc. of texts helps students develop their intercultural capabilities. If students can understand and apply this knowledge, 8
  9. 9. knowingly, and reflect on it, teachers are in a better position to assess how students are understanding interculturality. Further to this task, I interviewed the students about their learning and asked them to comment on what they included in their email (and why) and whether there was specific language they chose in their email. One student then used her email to further explore her thoughts in her learning log. In reference to the comment in her email about children needing to kneel before their parents and ask forgiveness, she writes “I think this is highly ritualised and reveals the importance of family and parents. I’m not sure if the source is religious or cultural…… is the tighter family unit the rule for all Indonesian Muslims or just Ucy?” She used her response as a means to assess her own learning and continue in her learning journey. In reference to her reflection of Islam not just being a time of prayer and forgiveness but also a festive atmosphere . “More evidence against my original ‘Islam is strict, solemn and monolithic’ hypothesis, I think it is important to recognise that it is a holy time, but still a celebration.” “Aku berpendapat bahwa perbedaan di antara Islam di Indoensia dan Islam di Arab disebabkan adat- istiadat serta pengaruh suku bangsa”. I am of the opinion that the difference between Islam in Indonesian and in the Middle East is caused by customs and traditions as well as the influence of ethnicity. She comments on her own text: “Logically it is impossible for religion to be untouched by ethnicity and culture.” This style of task shows that intercultural language learning is far more than a product; it is the process that is important and the learning is captured in an ongoing manner. In judging student performance of interaction with a developing intercultural capability it becomes necessary to judge: • the nature and scope of the interaction - understanding the task, text, concept or participation in interaction in vivo - understanding assumptions/diverse perspectives - responding to others: noticing, explaining, connecting, applying, etc; • understanding the process of interpretation/themselves as interpreters and their ability to reflect; and, within a long-term perspective to consider: • the connections that students make in all of the above in understanding languages and cultures in social life (see also Scarino & Liddicoat, 2009:75-76) Validation Validation is the process by which teachers consider the evidence they use to ensure that the inferences they make about students’ performance are, in fact, fair and justifiable. One way of seeing this is through the students’ responses to the kinds of cumulative questions on learning that we are proposing. When we interviewed Melissa’s students about their Year 12 Indonesian learning experience, they commented as follows: With the intercultural, like, I guess, it doesn’t just involve looking at the Indonesian culture, but looking at our own, so we look at our personal culture and our own knowledge and that can reflect differences and similarities between the two. I don’t know about anyone else, but the knowledge of the way other cultures deal with things has sort of changed the way I might think about different things, like trying to adopt what I might believe is a better way of dealing with things, that I’ve gotten from that new culture. In a video interview that Melissa conducted with her students in relation to the learning log, she gained further evidence of their learning. Has taking an intercultural approach to your learning helped you learn more about your own 9
  10. 10. culture? Yes absolutely. Language reflects culture and culture reflects language – the two are inseparable. Um, as I said before OFC [Object Focus Construction], in studying OFC, I’ve learnt that my culture is a very concerning Western society whereas in Indonesia, they’re not.” Becky Has taking the intercultural approach helped you learn in a deeper way? I’m not just looking at vocabulary, not just learning how to speak the language, I’m not just learning the what but I’m learning the how and the why. Through focusing on my intercultural understanding, I’m gaining a better understanding of the culture in Indonesia and my own culture. (Becky) I feel like I am learning at deeper level because I’m trying to look beyond and like trying to understand more about them rather than what they look like and how they talk and everything… language is in culture and culture is language and they both tie into together and um when I visited Malaysia it really was an eye-opener for me to really connect with how they interact with everyone.” (Candice) How do you feel about reflecting on your learning? Yeah I really enjoy that, um, it’s time when I can really reinforce what I learn on paper. Then when it’s on paper I can then go back and look over it therefore I won’t forget it and it allows me to deepen my understanding and knowledge of what I’ve learned, not simply forget it. (Becky) How is the intercultural approach different to other ways you have learned? “I think the major thing for me is this idea that - you go into a Maths classroom, it’s here’s a formulae, make sure you know what the heck to do with it. You go into an English classroom – here’s a play, make sure you know it backwards, intercultural learning, yeah again, it’s thinking of things on a deeper level.” (Frank) Conclusion Assessing an intercultural capability involves an invitation: • to reconceptualise language, culture, learning and assessment; • to reconceptualise the nature of evidence of learning; • to expand the ways of gathering evidence and the kinds of evidence gathered; • to create a new culture of learning and assessment. References Birenbaum, M. (1996) Assessment 2000; towards a pluralistic approach to assessment. In Birenbaum, M. and Dochy, F. (eds). Alternatives in assessment of achievements, learning processes and prior knowledge. Boston, MA. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.3-29. Black, P. & Jones, J. (2006) Formative assessment and the learning and teaching of MFL: sharing the languages learning road map with the learners. Language Learning Journal 34, 1, 4-9. Fox, J. (2008) Alternative assessment. In Shohamy, E. & Hornberger, N.H. Encyclopedia of language and education (second edition). Volume 7. Language testing and assessment. New York. Springer. Chapter7, pp.97-110. Gipps, C. (1999) Sociocultural aspects of assessment. Review of Research in Education. 24, pp.355-392. Liddicoat, A., Papademetre, L., Scarino, A. & Kohler, M. (2003) A report on intercultural language learning. Australian Government Department of Ducation, Science and Training, Canberra. 10
  11. 11. Scarino, A. (2009) Assessing intercultural capability in learning languages: some issues and considerations. Language Teaching 42,1,67-80. Scarino, A. & Liddicoat, A.J. (2009) Teaching and Learning Languages: a guide. Carlton South, Victoria. Curriculum Corporation. Scarino, A., Liddicoat, A.J., Crichton, J., Curnow, T.J., Kohler, M., Loechel, K., Mercurio, N., Morgan, AM., Papademetre, L. & Scrimgeour, A. (2008) Professional Standards Project Professional Learning Program. Scarino, A., Liddicoat, A.J., Carr, J., Crichton, J., Crozet, C., Dellit, J., Kohler, M., Loechel, K., Mercurio, N., Morgan, AM., Papademetre, L. & Scrimgeour, A. (2007) The Intercultural Language Teaching and Learning in Practice (ILTLP) Project. Shohamy, E. (1996) Language testing. Matching assessment procedures with language knowledge. In Birenbaum, M. and Dochy, F. (eds). Alternatives in assessment of achievements, learning processes and prior knowledge. Boston, MA. Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.143-159. Teasdale, A. and Leung, C. (2000) Teacher assessment and psychometric theory: a case of paradigm crossing? Language Testing. 17, 2, pp.163-184. 11
  12. 12. APPENDIX 1. MACARTHUR ANGLICAN SCHOOL Stage 6 Scope and Sequence For each module the following key intra-and intercultural concepts will be presented: Year 11 Year 11 Year 11 Year 12 Year 12 Year 12 Year 12 Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 1 Module 2 Module 3 Module 4 Identity Who are you? Identity – How does Identity – Multiple Religious identity Making choices Identity of Youth How has your How do you your job reflect who identities. and values, self, and reflecting on and how young understanding of represent yourself you are and what Examination of and communities their implied people are your identity to others? What is status you have? ethnicity, in Australia, values. How portrayed by developed/changed important to you? What do different nationality. How do Indonesia and issues affect Indonesian & over the past 2 What are your Australians and different other countries as self/identity. Being Australian years? How has your values? What do Indonesians value Indonesians relevant a global citizen communities. new knowledge notice is important about work? What represent influenced who you to different are your aspirations? themselves? are? Is your identity Indonesians? Compare this to Symbolism of Art influenced by your aspirations of and Craft knowledge and Indonesian youth. Change – understanding of Traditional vs Indonesian life? Contemporary Have your values practices. changed? How do you measure success? Social Individual and How is education Motto: Unity in Church, Mosque, Government & Rites of passage. Birthday parties, Organisation family life, valued? Examine Diversity. Temple and other Non-Government School, Family, ceremonies, Variability of family educational Examination of places of spiritual organizations, Marriage, Issues – Graduation structure and opportunities. What ethnic variability in significance. Environmental smoking, alcohol, composition in qualities are Indonesia. Explore Special Occasions Clubs drugs Australian & considered similarities & Indonesian important for an differences between contexts. employer/employee rural & urban life in in Aust/Indon? Indonesia & Examination of jobs Australia & other in both countries. countries 12
  13. 13. Interpersonal What do you need How do you interact How would you Interacting with Discussing issues Friendships, Understanding how Relationships to know to engage with peers & interact in a social people of different with different Relationships with to relate to a wide with and teachers at school? situation in religions in people; friends, parents, teachers, variety of understand What would you Indonesia? everyday setting, family, teachers, others. Making Indonesians. others? What do need to consider if Consider setting – special occasions Indonesian people arrangements, Understanding of you value in a you were to go on a eg in a home, at an etc, Interfaith of different ages Invitations interrelationship friend? How do student exchange to event etc. as well as relationships and background. between language you like to spend Indonesia? other factors Impact of issues and culture. Able your leisure time? What would an including a person’s and how they to define ‘Third How Indonesian student ethnicity, religion, affect lifestyle place’ similar/different is need to know about age, gender, status, this for an school life in etc. How would Indonesian Australia? Examine interacting with a teenager? How similarities & Javanese be similar will the register of differences between to or different from the language you Indonesia & a Balinese? Why is use vary according Australia (& other this the case? to whom you countries) Examination of interact with? etiquette and ritual. Change What type of Changing nature Change in Changes in choice Globalisation, Change – Shifts Future aspirations, global citizen do of work and values contemporary of religion, Rural-Urban shift in perception of transition from you want to be? of work. society – changes Marriage, in Indonesian, Youth, school to Discussion of language, etiquette, Influence of ‘Sea/Tree- Demographic work/university gender, status, values, housing, different religions, Change’ changes, Change in intra- technology in architecture, arts and politics etc phenomenon in Technology and-intercultural relation to change. craft, cuisine, etc. Australia, understanding Examination of Climate Change work/study options of the future 13
  14. 14. Key Questions Rationale How do you make up your As this is the first unit of the Preliminary course, it it important for identity? students to consolidate their understanding that cultures are relative What factors do you base not absolute. This has been discussed in previous years. this on? (ethnic background, The theme of the module is ‘Personal World’ and students are language, gender, socio- encouraged to focus on their own intra-culturality by becoming economic status, religion?) aware of how they see themselves, what they consider their culture What characteristics of a friend to be and what they consider to be important in their lives. Teachers are important to you? Why? will guide students in their awareness-raising and learning process Menurut Anda Sifat-sifat apa of creating their knowledge about their own culture and Indonesian paling penting bagi teman? culture. In particular, students will be encouraged to think about how Mengapa? (NB Anda is used their experience and knowledge can affect the way they see the instead of kamu to prepare world. A focus will be on how identity affects social interactions. students for the register that Students will be encouraged to consider their multiple identities and will be using during the HSC recognise that Indonesians have muliple identities too. Explicit speaking examination) teaching will be on the different language that an Indonesian may Do you think the Indonesian use depending on their specific identity for a given context and and Australian concept of reasons for that choice (e.g. Javanese person would use Bahasa friendship is the same? Jawa with family and Javanese friends but may use Bahasa Menurut Anda, apakah Indonesia with work colleagues). Students discuss own language persahabatan sama di use. It is important for the teacher to make explicit connections Indonesia dan Australia? between language, culture and knowledge. Discussing ethnic variability will give teachers the opportunity to foreshadow a later Write down what you notice module in which students will further explore Indonesian-speaking about friendship from the communities. texts? Tulislah apa yang Anda perhatikan tentang Students will predict how Indonesians view friendship and family persahabatan. Think about the and will analyse texts to gain a fuller understanding of friendship qualities that are described. and family in Indonesian society. Students will also gain a Pikirkan sifat-sifat apa yang knowledge of how friends and family are represented in texts. It is digambarkan. Does this important to present students with tasks to facilitate a range of change your earlier point of interactions. It is important to discuss different register of language view or reinforce it? used between friends and family in Indonesian and Australian contexts. Help students notice that some Indonesians will use much How is family represented in more honorific language with their parents than Australians. Indonesian texts? What adjectives are used to describe Pragmatics will be introduced to help students see how family in the texts? Why? understandings are reached as a result of the interrelationship Bagaimana keluarga between language use and the socio-cultural context in which it is ditunjukkan dalam iklan dan being presented. Encourage the idea that it cannot be assumed that bacaan? Tulislah kata-kata every language will have the same type of behaviour associated sifat yang dipakai dalam teks with speech acts, e.g. discuss the universal maxim of quality which untuk menggambarkan implies all speakers are expected to tell the truth but for an keluarga. Indonesian, giving a pleasing response is far more important, as related to the value of harmony in Indonesian society. Explain how Why do you think Indonesians language use differs across speech communities because of predominantly use the Object- different cultural values and norms. Students will be encouraged to focus-construction as opposed find their own ‘third place’ between cultures. to the Subject-Focus- Construction? What does this Discussion on the importance of the object-focus-construction and tell you about the emphasis its relationship to the dominant Javanese culture which deflects any placed on the individual and /or emphasis from oneself. This culture has influenced the construction the community? of the national language. Students should be asked to ‘notice’, ‘compare’ and ‘reflect’ in all that they learn. At this stage of their learning, they should be encouraged to shift from the descriptive to the conceptual when making observations. 14
  15. 15. Suggested teaching and learning activities All tasks are completed in Indonesian Evidence of learning unless otherwise specified. Evidence will be gathered by assessing students’ ability to Listening and responding read and listen to texts by Listen and respond to Indonesian texts from Jajak, Suara Siswa, Bersama- determining the gist, extracting sama 2 (Ch 8), HSC Online (beginners), 2UZ HSC listening. Discuss the key information and purpose, audience and context of these texts. In pairs students discuss summarise this as required. register of language used and whether language is informative, persuasive The speaking activities etc Link this to text type. From the texts, students consider how being polite will assess students’ ability in Indonesian isn’t necessarily the same in English. to reproduce relevant Listen to and view Indonesians being interviewed by Macarthur students. information about themselves Discuss concepts presented in DVD. Help students notice the type of and demonstrate their intra- language used by different interlocutors when referring to parents. Why cultural learning. would this difference exist (is it related to age, gender, ethnicity, personal The writing activities will choice or other factors?) indicate students’ ability to Complete cloze activity for song about love Cinta Kilat. Discuss (in write descriptively and apply Indonesian) concept of relationship as presented in the song. Is this similar learned vocabulary and to the type(s) of relationships teenage Indonesians may experience? structures, particularly Listen and respond to song about unemployment Sarjana Muda (Iwan adjectives to describe Fals). With other students, discuss main issue raised in the song. personality and behaviour. Discussion about family life Listen and summarise song about sibling relationship Sebelum kau bosan. and friendship in Indonesia will What does this say about sibling relationships in this situation? Is this indicate students’ similar to your own experience? preconceptions and show their View and listen to and extract information from TIFL videos in which a intercultural learning. range of Indonesians discuss friendship. In Indonesian, students discuss The reflective diary entry will and explain the important qualities of friendship to them as individuals. assess students’ intercultural understanding and this will be Reading and responding used to help students build on Learn about pragmatics. Read various texts which contain how to their knowledge and accept/decline invitations. Students are asked to notice the language used. understanding for subsequent Discuss cultural implications. Compare this to how they accept/decline modules. invitations. The written email will assess Learn dictionary skills. Translate various sentences. (Discuss the students intra-cultural importance of link between language and culture) knowledge and understanding Read Kawan karibku from Suara Siswa. In groups, discuss what values as students describe arise from these texts about friendship. What qualities are considered to be themselves and their important? Summarise this in Indonesian. friends/family and explain why certain qualities are important Read Indonesian advertisement for ideal partner. Students consider their to them. own personal values and consider what factors influence their values. Students write own advertisement for ideal partner. Students will be expected to use a range of appropriate vocabulary and structures. The interview based on the content of the email will assess students’ understanding of the topic and their ability to communicate appropriately according to audience, purpose and context. 15
  16. 16. Read text in English about ‘Youth Indonesian’ and discuss main Students will be expected to concepts in text. Make a list of colloquial Indonesian expressions from be able to articulate and the text and discuss when you would use these in an Indonesian explain their personal context. qualities and activities and Read about the personal lives of Indonesian teenagers. In pairs those of their friends and discuss what similarities and differences to their own lives. How does family. It is expected that this show Indonesian values? Use the structure of the texts as a students will use a range of model for speaking about their own lives. sophisticated vocabulary and Read personal profile of young Indonesian in teenage magazine. structures (including OFC) Consider the profiles that are presented in Australian teenage and be able to speak for 7 magazines. Compare the content. In groups (in Indonesian) discuss minutes. and reflect on the types of things that are important to include in personal profile in an Indonesian and an Australian context. Students write up as prose text and write own profile. Read advertisements which focus on the images of Indonesian Feedback families. Write down key vocabulary from these advertisements and The teacher provides written discuss what they are saying about family. Look through magazines, feedback about students’ and note the most common form of advertisements which show email and interview. family. Compare this to Australian magazine. Oral feedback will be Read Indonesian texts (short story, poem, article) and respond in provided about their English, extracting key ideas and analysing and evaluating aspects of understanding of spoken and language and culture with reference to the audience, purpose and written texts and their ability context. to speak in Indonesian Speaking in Indonesian during the pairwork and whole-class activities. Describe own family members (personality, appearance, job). Give opinions of roles of family members. Describe and explain Ongoing feedback will relationship. be provided on their intercultural learning. In English, describe friends focusing on relationships. Explain what is important in choosing a friend. Identify and discuss favorite leisure activities. Engage in information exchange based on describing important qualities in friends. Role-play declining an invitation politely. Complete surveys to find out information about other students’ family/leisure activities, preferred career, etc. Use Board of Studies and other sample speaking questions as a model to talk about personal world. Play “Musical adjectives” game to encourage students to speak on a range of topics using a range of structures. Writing Brainstorm what is important in a friendship, relationship. Write a role-play in which a teenage Indonesian and Australian meet and exchange information on various topics. In the role-play, focus on aspects that you have learnt about Indonesian attitudes and values. Respond to a letter in which a young Indonesian asks for advice on how to get on better with his/her parents. Consider the type of advice you should give as a result of your understanding of family relationships in Indonesia. Write a profile of self. Write about own family, friends and aspirations. Imagine you are being billeted with an Indonesian family while on a Study tour. In Indonesian, write a diary entry in which you describe and reflect on your observations of family life. Write an email to an Indonesian friend describing self, family and friends and explain what you value most in your personal life. (Assessment task – assessment of learning). 16