What is Wave? A wave is a disturbance that moves through matter or space. Waves transfer energy, not matter.
Kinds of Waves:
Mechanical Waves can travel only through matter.
Example: Sound waves can travel through air or water, but not through empty space.
Electromagnetic Waves can travel through both matter and space.
Examples: radio waves, gamma rays, microwaves, X-rays, light, etc.
Transverse Waves A transverse wave causes particles to move at right angles to the direction in which the wave travels. High points = Crests Low points = Troughs
Longitudinal Waves Also called compressional waves. A longitudinal wave causes particles in matter to move along the same direction in which a wave travels. Squeezed parts= compressions Spread out parts = rarefactions
Wavelength Wavelength is the distance between one point on a wave and the nearest point moving in the same speed and direction . The wavelength of a transverse wave is the distance between two adjacent crests or troughs. The wavelength of a longitudinal wave is the distance between two adjacent compressions or rarefactions.
Frequency The frequency of a wave is the number of wavelengths that pass by a point each second. Frequency is measured in units of hertz (Hz) .
Amplitude Amplitude of a wave is the maximum distance that matter moves as the wave passes.
Wave behavior Reflect (bounce off) Refract (bend) Diffract (bounce around an obstacle)