A. The Function of Chemical in Foods 1. Add various kinds of foods. 2. Meets particular needs with addictive substance, Add more instresting colour. Make foods long lasting. Add more flavours to foods.
B. Chemicals Substance Categorization inFoods 1. Colouring agent. The colouring agent is added in food is to attract the consumers interest. The food colouring is categorized into three: natural colouring, natural- identical colouring, and artificial colouring.
A. Natural Colouring. Natural colouring is a colour that made of naturalsubstance. Several natural food colouring licensed in Indonesia arebellow: Colour Name Red Alkanet, Chochineal red. Yellow Annatto, Carotene, Curcumin, Saffron. Green Chlorophyll. Blue Ultramarin. Brown Carbon black. Black Iron oxide. White Titanium oxide.
The usage of natural colouring agent is safer, but thenatural colouring has several limitations as stated below:Natural colouring often gives unexpected taste, such as termeric.Process of pigmentation concentrate is very low that it is required alot of raw materials.Pigmentation process is not stable , it is commonly stable only inparticular pH.The colour combination is not appropriately chosen.
B. Nature- identical Food Colouring.A nature- identical food colouring is a pigment made by synthetically, but it’s chemical structure is equal with nature colouring. The use of nature- identical food colouring must be restricted.
C. Artificial Food Colouring.The use of artificial food colouring must pass the strict qualification, because it is important for consumers safety. Food colouring that has passed strict qualification and permitted to be used is called permitted colour or certified colour.Almost 90% of food colouring in open market is artificial food colouring. The reason of the assumption is the fact, artificial food colouring have many adventage, such as have a good colour combination, sharp, and a small number of food colouring used.
The usage of artificial food colouring has recently been increasing, many misapplication of the usage.An example will be the use of textile colouring and this can harm consumers, because the textile colouring consists of toxic heavy metal.
A number of artificial food colourings that has been permitted in Indonesia are shown in following labels: Colour Name Red Carmonisine, Amaranth. Orange Sunset yellow FCF. Yellow Tartrazine, Quineline yellow. Green Fast green FCF. Blue Brilliant blue, Indigacarmine. Violet Violet GB.
2. Sweetener. Sweetener is added in food in order to obtain sweet taste. Sweetener have a 2 kind, natural sweetener and artificial sweetener.
The example of artificial sweetener is:a. Aspartame. Aspartame has level of sweeteness 200 times greater tahan refined sugar.b. Cyclamate. cyclamate is most used as sweetener, but in 1969 cyclamate was a prohibition, because cyclamate had carcinogenic effect.
a. Saccharin. Saccharin is sodium salt or potassium saccharin. Saccharin can cause bitterness, saccharin is commonly used with cyclamate at the same time.
3. Preservative. Preservative is added in food to make the food undamage easily. The preservative substance can make the food preserves for a long time.
An example of preservative substances are bellow: Natural preservative Artificial preservativeSugar. Acetic acid.Salt. Sorbic acid.Vinegar, etc. Benzoit acid, etc.
4. Flovouring. Flavouring is a substance used to enhance the flavour of a food or drink. Flavouring can give additional adventages of deleciousness in food limit the unpleasant flavour in food.
5. Antioxidant. Antioxidant is a molecule capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules. Example: riboflavin, tocopherol (vit. E), BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene), PG (propylgallat), etc.
C. Regulation of Food Additive Usage Food additive usage in food processing should be accordance with the regulation given. The purpose of the regulation is to avoid exceeding usage food additive.1. ADI (adequate daily intake) In determining ADI value, we should calculate safe substance, which will not result in health alternation, negative impact, or toxic effect if consumed.
2. Maximum Intake (BMP). Maximum intake of food addictiveness is determined according to the ADI value multiplied by total food containing food addictiveness abd adult’s weight (in kg) and divided by food comsumers (in gram).
Altough there is such department controlling the rug and food usage, you have to look at the following consideration anyhow:I. Food package should not be broken, rusted or other damage.II. Date of expiry written on the package.III. Make sure that the food has been registered at Depatment of Health.