旺浸主日學第四講:   宗教改革對社會
            與文明的廣泛影響



         馬丁路得
        Martin Luther
October 31
• Halloween  Hallows’ e’en  the eve
  before All Saints (Hallows) Day
• Reformation Day, Oct 31, 1517
Background of Reformation
• Cultural-Intellectual: the Renaissance
• Ecclesial: the corruption of the church
• Personal-Sp...
文藝復興
• Key effects …
1. A return to ancient written sources
  “Ad fontes!”
2. An emphasis on ancient artistic
  styles and...
Sistine Chapel
• Built between 1475 and 1483
• Michelangelo Buonarroti was
  commissioned by Pope Julius II della
  Rovere...
Saint Peter’s Basilica, Rome
• In A.D. 67, during the reign of Emperor
  Nero, Saint Peter was crucified,
  headdown, in t...
• By the 4th Century pilgrimages to Rome
  increased enormously. With the Peace of
  the Church--when emperor Constantine ...
• The Basilica of Peter the Apostle was
  richly decorated and furnished and began
  attracting pilgrims from the far reac...
• By 1506, St. Peter's Basilica, the main church at the
  Vatican, was too small and decrepit to impress
  anyone.
• Follo...
Pope
Julius II
• The relation between this building project
  and the Reformation?
• To be continued
人文主義者 / 人文學者
• Key person …
  ERASMUS
1. Compiled the
  Textus Receptus
  Greek New
  Testament
2. Criticized
  corruption...
《
愚
人
頌



》
Earlier humanists-critics:
• “The humanists were, however, conscious
  rebels, whether their main interest was in
  schola...
• This complex movement we call
  humanism “is a very self-conscious rebel,
  a rebel against a way of life it finds
  cor...
教會腐敗 1: 高層
• Avignon Papacy (1309-1378) – the pope
  was effectively a vassal of the French King
• The Great Schism (1378-...
“The Church at the beginning
 of the 16th century stood in
great need of purification and
    reform at every level”
• “Th...
• Their position as rulers of the Papal States
  involved them in warfare and political
  intrigue
• Their political and a...
Censor's stamp:   NIHIL OBSTAT   "nothing stands in the way"
Bishop's stamp:   IMPRIMATUR          "let it be printed"
教會腐敗 2: 中層
• “Bishoprics could be looked upon primarily
  as sources of income, and…it was
  sometimes necessary for churc...
• “Frequently bishops and pastors had
  multiple ‘benefices’ (有俸聖職) from
  which they drew income without attending
  to t...
教會腐敗 3: 基層
• “Celibacy was poorly observed; it was
  common for clergy to have concubines or
  common-law wives.
• Discipl...
改革努力的先驅 !!
• John Wycliffe ( 1320s –1384 英格蘭)
• The Great Schism made him reject the
  traditional theology of the church
...
John Hus (捷克)
• 1409 three Popes
• 1413 Reply to the Synod of Prague
• “But if his [the Pope’s] life is contrary to Christ...
John
Huss
Burned
as a
heretic
1415
離
開
宗
教
改
革
日
約
100
年
Girolamo
Savonarola
1452-1498
(意大利)
Savonarola
      on the sinful church
• “Sitting on the throne of Solomon she [the
  church] makes signs of all who pass b...
Conciliarism
• Council of Constance, 1414-18
• The decree Sacrosancta, 1415
• “…that this same Council,….constitutes a
  G...
Devotional Movements
• Brethren of the Common Life
• Augustinian Eremites
• Wrote numerous devotional tracts that
  advoca...
Martin Luther
as a monk
Terrified conscience
• Martin Luther’s religious struggle
• Unceasing sins  repentance and
  confession never complete  ...
“Like a penitent who beats
his back to a bloody pulp,
Luther punishes himself
unmercifully. His sins
always loom so terrib...
羅馬書 1:17
因為神的義正在這福音上顯明出來
 ,這義是本於信,以至於信,如經
 上所記:「義人必因信得生。」
German Nationalism
• Resistance of Germany cash flowing into
  Italy
• Resistance of Italian Pope’s control of
  German re...
受洗後的罪
• 告解
 1. contrition 為罪痛悔(心)
 2. confession 告明(口)
 3. satisfaction 補贖 (善行)
• 宣佈赦免
• 十字軍東征 / 侵     大赦( indulgence )
煉
獄
• The Church believes that Purgatory is a
  place to clean up the effects of “Venial Sin”
  (not Mortal Sin which, if un-r...
Indulgence 大赦
• “In Roman Catholic theology, remission of
  temporal punishment for sin.
• An indulgence, once granted, ob...
當大赦可以“販賣”…
Using money
borrowed from others,
Albrecht gained the
approval of both pope
and emperor to hold
three major church
offices...
Pope Leo X
In 1517 He
permitted the
proclamation of an
indulgence in the
territories of
Archbishop Albert
of Mainz


 “Sin...
• “The ‘good work” required was a
  contribution toward the re-building of St.
  Peter’s basilica.
• The faithful were not...
• “Albert and the preachers of the
  indulgence made extraordinary claims for
  it: remission not only of punishment, but ...
“As soon as the coin in the coffer rings,
the soul from purgatory springs”
Fifteenth-
century letter
of indulgence
Church Door
University of
Wittenberg
Read
• The 95 Theses
• 《九十五條論綱》(關
  於贖罪劵效能的辯論)
教宗諭旨 Bull, 1520
• Threatening Luther with excommunication
  by Pope Leo X
• Requiring everybody who can lay hands
  on the...
Luther burns the
papal bull and also
the papal laws and
constitutions, the
decretals
The burning signifies a final break with the
 Roman church
A single individual stands up to the power of
  an institution ...
The Diet (Council) of Worms
• In April 1521 Luther was brought before
  the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, to
  defend his...
“Unless I am convinced by the testimony of
  the Scriptures or by clear reason (for I do
  not trust either in the pope or...
“Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise. May God help
me.”
Extreme danger
• Already excommunicated by the Pope
• Now to be outlawed by the Emperor !!

• 分裂教會,顛覆國家,煽動叛亂!
• 竟敢叛逆全歐洲權力最...
Awakening of the German identity
• German princes wished to resist imperial
  and church control of German states
• (Emper...
Luther’s emphases
1. Scripture as authority (sola scriptura, sola
  gratia, sola fide)
2. Justification by faith alone (Ro...
Ultimately Rejected
• Papacy
• Later Church Tradition
Also Rejected:
• Clerical celibacy (Luther married a former
  nun)
• monasticism
• veneration of Mary
• prayer to saints
•...
The spread of the
            Reformation
•   1518 Switzerland
•   1527 Sweden
•   1536 Denmark-Norway
•   1560 Scotland
•...
大一統大半壁江山,四分五裂
           ca.1600
The Peace of Augsburg
                   (1555)
• “cuius regio, eius religio” (“Whose rule, his
  religion” ;教隨政定 — 羅馬帝國羅諸...
The Reformation Heritage to
        European Civilization
•   Promoted religious tolerance
•   Added momentum to individua...
Read
• “Reformation, The” The Modern Catholic
  Encyclopedia, section on “Effects of the
  Reformation,” p.730
• 《西歐文明》,頁 ...
The Catholic Reformation
• Council of Trent, 1545-1563
• “Several new orders appeared that aimed
  at reestablishing the c...
• “While many of the Renaissance popes
  had been causes of scandal, Pius V…set
  an example of asceticism and morality.
 ...
新生機
千年老店,國營企業,病入膏肓
引入競爭,急起直追,創造雙贏
李平曄        1992
《人的發現》
1985
 《走向未来》叢
書的第一本
吳于廑序( 1991 )
“ 馬丁‧路德宗教改革的歷史性功績,就在於
  確認人的信仰應當取決於人內心的理解,
  而非取決於外在的強制。…這就把人的信
  仰從天主教正宗教義的禁錮下解放出來,
  為近代西方的宗教自由和某程度上的思想
  自...
自序
“ 的確,歷史上從來沒有過這樣的文化,這樣
  的精神,它能保持其基本原理的不變而適
  應幾種不同的生產關系,至今尚無衰敗之
  勢。…如果我們了解一點基督教,了解一
  點西方人民生活的文化背景,…不就更有
  利於我們…探索中華民族...
再論:
時勢造英雄?英雄造時勢?
思考問題
• 教會的改革有沒有句號,從此不需再改革
  了?
• 若教會永遠需要改革,理由安在,是甚麼
  因素導致?
• 我們該有甚麼警惕之心,防止教會腐敗或
  犯錯?
• 教會如何可燃起新生機?
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)
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第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)

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基督教與西方文明 – 羅秉祥博士
Christianity & Western Civilization
LO, Ping-cheung, Ph.D.

2009年 第一季成人主學專題

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第四課 - 宗教改革:對社會與文明的廣泛影響 (Lesson 4 - Reformation & Effects)

  1. 1. 旺浸主日學第四講: 宗教改革對社會 與文明的廣泛影響 馬丁路得 Martin Luther
  2. 2. October 31 • Halloween  Hallows’ e’en  the eve before All Saints (Hallows) Day • Reformation Day, Oct 31, 1517
  3. 3. Background of Reformation • Cultural-Intellectual: the Renaissance • Ecclesial: the corruption of the church • Personal-Spiritual: Martin Luther’s religious struggle • Social-Political: German nationalism Reformation : Development and Impacts
  4. 4. 文藝復興 • Key effects … 1. A return to ancient written sources “Ad fontes!” 2. An emphasis on ancient artistic styles and forms 3. A movement from Scholasticism to humanism
  5. 5. Sistine Chapel • Built between 1475 and 1483 • Michelangelo Buonarroti was commissioned by Pope Julius II della Rovere in 1508 to repaint the ceiling; the work was completed between 1508 and 1512. • He painted the Last Judgement over the altar, between 1535 and 1541, being commissioned by Pope Paul III Farnese.
  6. 6. Saint Peter’s Basilica, Rome • In A.D. 67, during the reign of Emperor Nero, Saint Peter was crucified, headdown, in the Circus Maximus. After his death, some of the faithful built a simple tomb for his remains in the center of a pagan cemetery on what is now known as Vatican Hill. The tomb soon began drawing pilgrims, and over the next few years their number steadily increased.
  7. 7. • By the 4th Century pilgrimages to Rome increased enormously. With the Peace of the Church--when emperor Constantine I legalized Christianity throughout the empire following his own conversion-- there was a flurry of church building in Rome that included a basilica on Vatican Hill over the old cemetery.
  8. 8. • The Basilica of Peter the Apostle was richly decorated and furnished and began attracting pilgrims from the far reaches of the empire. By the late fifteenth century, however, Constantine’s Basilica of Saint Peter had fallen into disrepair and was structurally unsound. Over the next two centuries, it was replaced by the present basilica and the buildings of today’s Vatican.
  9. 9. • By 1506, St. Peter's Basilica, the main church at the Vatican, was too small and decrepit to impress anyone. • Following the examples set by emperors and sultans, Pope Julius II decided to crown the old church with a dome. • He hired Italian architect Donato Bramante to do the job. Bramante's vision for the Basilica was simple: a Greek cross with equal-sized arms around a central dome. But Bramante and the Pope died before much could be built. • In 1546, a young artist from Florence named Michelangelo gained total control of the construction of St. Peter's, the largest church in Christendom.
  10. 10. Pope Julius II
  11. 11. • The relation between this building project and the Reformation? • To be continued
  12. 12. 人文主義者 / 人文學者 • Key person … ERASMUS 1. Compiled the Textus Receptus Greek New Testament 2. Criticized corruption in the churches.
  13. 13. 《 愚 人 頌 》
  14. 14. Earlier humanists-critics: • “The humanists were, however, conscious rebels, whether their main interest was in scholarship, philosophy, art, or letters. They are very modern in their awareness of being in revolt against their fathers, the men of the Middle Ages.” (C. Brinton, The Story of Western Thought, 2nd ed., 1963, p.211)
  15. 15. • This complex movement we call humanism “is a very self-conscious rebel, a rebel against a way of life it finds corrupt, over elaborated, stale, unlovely, and untrue.” (p.212)
  16. 16. 教會腐敗 1: 高層 • Avignon Papacy (1309-1378) – the pope was effectively a vassal of the French King • The Great Schism (1378-1417)  2 Popes: Rome vs. Avignon, • The two popes excommunicated each other, and issued bulls calling for crusades against each other • 3 Popes!
  17. 17. “The Church at the beginning of the 16th century stood in great need of purification and reform at every level” • “The Renaissance popes frequently lived more like secular princes than like spiritual leaders • Their personal lives were sometimes scandalous
  18. 18. • Their position as rulers of the Papal States involved them in warfare and political intrigue • Their political and artistic projects demanded the expenditure of enormous amounts of money. • The Roman Curia (the central administrative body of the Church) was top heavy, inefficient, and corrupt; • Positions were frequently sold to raise funds for a depleted papal treasury.” (quoted from “Reformation, The.” The Modern Catholic Encyclopedia, 1994, imprimatur ! p.722)
  19. 19. Censor's stamp: NIHIL OBSTAT "nothing stands in the way" Bishop's stamp: IMPRIMATUR "let it be printed"
  20. 20. 教會腐敗 2: 中層 • “Bishoprics could be looked upon primarily as sources of income, and…it was sometimes necessary for churchmen to acquire several sees to support themselves” (New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed., vol 2, p.14)
  21. 21. • “Frequently bishops and pastors had multiple ‘benefices’ (有俸聖職) from which they drew income without attending to their pastoral responsibilities or even residing in the place….” • The Modern Catholic Encyclopedia, p.723
  22. 22. 教會腐敗 3: 基層 • “Celibacy was poorly observed; it was common for clergy to have concubines or common-law wives. • Discipline in the monasteries was lax. • Preaching was neglected… • popular religion was riddled with superstition and theological misunderstanding.” The Modern Catholic Encyclopedia, p.723
  23. 23. 改革努力的先驅 !! • John Wycliffe ( 1320s –1384 英格蘭) • The Great Schism made him reject the traditional theology of the church • 離開宗教改革日約 140 年 • Read: “Reformation, the” The HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism (1995), p.1091
  24. 24. John Hus (捷克) • 1409 three Popes • 1413 Reply to the Synod of Prague • “But if his [the Pope’s] life is contrary to Christ, then he is a thief, a robber, who introduces himself surreptitiously, a ravening wolf, a hypocrite and of all mortals the chief Antichrist.” • “For nothing is more certain than that the pope and all the Curia can be deceived as to the truth as in their customs.” • Quoted from How to Read Church History [ 天主教出版社 ], vol 1, p.184.
  25. 25. John Huss Burned as a heretic 1415
  26. 26. 離 開 宗 教 改 革 日 約 100 年
  27. 27. Girolamo Savonarola 1452-1498 (意大利)
  28. 28. Savonarola on the sinful church • “Sitting on the throne of Solomon she [the church] makes signs of all who pass by; anyone who has the money enters and does whatever he pleases. But anyone who desires the good is thrown out. So it is, prostituted church, that you have uncovered your shame in the eyes of all the universe…” • He was burned at the stake, 1498 • 離開宗教改革日約 20 年
  29. 29. Conciliarism • Council of Constance, 1414-18 • The decree Sacrosancta, 1415 • “…that this same Council,….constitutes a General Council, representing the Catholic church militant and that therefore it has its authority immediately from Christ; and that all men, of every rank and condition, including the pope himself, is bound to obey it in matters concerning the Faith,….
  30. 30. Devotional Movements • Brethren of the Common Life • Augustinian Eremites • Wrote numerous devotional tracts that advocated intense self-examination and a life of prayer and Bible reading.
  31. 31. Martin Luther as a monk
  32. 32. Terrified conscience • Martin Luther’s religious struggle • Unceasing sins  repentance and confession never complete  God’s judgement  terrified and in despair  no assurance of salvation
  33. 33. “Like a penitent who beats his back to a bloody pulp, Luther punishes himself unmercifully. His sins always loom so terribly large in his sight. He torments himself endlessly – until at last he makes a discovery, a great and liberating discovery in….
  34. 34. 羅馬書 1:17 因為神的義正在這福音上顯明出來 ,這義是本於信,以至於信,如經 上所記:「義人必因信得生。」
  35. 35. German Nationalism • Resistance of Germany cash flowing into Italy • Resistance of Italian Pope’s control of German religious life • Resistance of the Holy Roman Emperor’s control of German political life • Awakening of German identity
  36. 36. 受洗後的罪 • 告解 1. contrition 為罪痛悔(心) 2. confession 告明(口) 3. satisfaction 補贖 (善行) • 宣佈赦免 • 十字軍東征 / 侵 大赦( indulgence )
  37. 37. 煉 獄
  38. 38. • The Church believes that Purgatory is a place to clean up the effects of “Venial Sin” (not Mortal Sin which, if un-repented, leads to eternal punishment). • Purgatory would be where the backslider would get cleaned up before joining the wedding banquet of the Lord - so he wouldn't be thrown out (Mat 22:12) For nothing unclean can enter the presence of God in heaven (Rev. 21:27) Certainly Jesus can and does the clean up. He is a merciful God but he is also a just God.
  39. 39. Indulgence 大赦 • “In Roman Catholic theology, remission of temporal punishment for sin. • An indulgence, once granted, obviates the need for the sinner to do penance, although it does not necessarily remove guilt, and may be only a partial rather than a full (plenary) indulgence. • Previously available from bishops, today they are granted only by the pope.”
  40. 40. 當大赦可以“販賣”…
  41. 41. Using money borrowed from others, Albrecht gained the approval of both pope and emperor to hold three major church offices at one time. Now the loan has to be repaid.
  42. 42. Pope Leo X In 1517 He permitted the proclamation of an indulgence in the territories of Archbishop Albert of Mainz “Since God has given us the papacy, let us enjoy it.”
  43. 43. • “The ‘good work” required was a contribution toward the re-building of St. Peter’s basilica. • The faithful were not told that half the contributions were to go to Albert to pay the debt he incurred for his ‘installation fee’ as archbishop.”
  44. 44. • “Albert and the preachers of the indulgence made extraordinary claims for it: remission not only of punishment, but of sin itself; or, for souls in purgatory, immediate release, without repentance on the part of the contributor. It was easy for uneducated people to think that they were ‘buying’ grace.” • Quoted from The Modern Catholic Encyclopedia, p.724
  45. 45. “As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs”
  46. 46. Fifteenth- century letter of indulgence
  47. 47. Church Door University of Wittenberg
  48. 48. Read • The 95 Theses • 《九十五條論綱》(關 於贖罪劵效能的辯論)
  49. 49. 教宗諭旨 Bull, 1520 • Threatening Luther with excommunication by Pope Leo X • Requiring everybody who can lay hands on the writings of Luther to burn them
  50. 50. Luther burns the papal bull and also the papal laws and constitutions, the decretals
  51. 51. The burning signifies a final break with the Roman church A single individual stands up to the power of an institution 1500 years old.
  52. 52. The Diet (Council) of Worms • In April 1521 Luther was brought before the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, to defend his beliefs and actions. In reply, the emperor said: • “A single friar who goes counter to all Christianity for a thousand years must be wrong. I have decided to mobilize everything against Luther: my kingdoms and dominions, my friends, my body, my blood, and my soul.”
  53. 53. “Unless I am convinced by the testimony of the Scriptures or by clear reason (for I do not trust either in the pope or in councils alone, since it is well known that they have often erred and contradicted themselves), I am bound by the Scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not retract anything, since it is neither safe or right to go against conscience…
  54. 54. “Here I stand. I cannot do otherwise. May God help me.”
  55. 55. Extreme danger • Already excommunicated by the Pope • Now to be outlawed by the Emperor !! • 分裂教會,顛覆國家,煽動叛亂! • 竟敢叛逆全歐洲權力最大的兩個人,不法 之徒!
  56. 56. Awakening of the German identity • German princes wished to resist imperial and church control of German states • (Emperor Charles V: a Spaniard) • Frederick the Wise helped Luther in hiding • Luther translated the New Testament Bible from Greek into a vernacular language, German – immensely popular and influential
  57. 57. Luther’s emphases 1. Scripture as authority (sola scriptura, sola gratia, sola fide) 2. Justification by faith alone (Romans) 3. Priesthood of all believers: Rejection of hierarchy  direct link to Scripture and God 4. Focus on the “Word” Sermon 5. Translated Bible into German  Wide access to Scripture
  58. 58. Ultimately Rejected • Papacy • Later Church Tradition
  59. 59. Also Rejected: • Clerical celibacy (Luther married a former nun) • monasticism • veneration of Mary • prayer to saints • pilgrimage, etc.
  60. 60. The spread of the Reformation • 1518 Switzerland • 1527 Sweden • 1536 Denmark-Norway • 1560 Scotland • 1563 England • 1568 the Netherlands
  61. 61. 大一統大半壁江山,四分五裂 ca.1600
  62. 62. The Peace of Augsburg (1555) • “cuius regio, eius religio” (“Whose rule, his religion” ;教隨政定 — 羅馬帝國羅諸侯) • Catholics and Lutherans can migrate to another part of the Holy Roman Empire in which their faith was solely legitimate. • The first official toleration of religious diversity in the Empire since Constantine • Pluralism !!
  63. 63. The Reformation Heritage to European Civilization • Promoted religious tolerance • Added momentum to individualism • Promoted mass education • Furthered democracy Edward McNall Burns and Philip Lee Ralph, World Civilizations, 5th ed., volume 1, pp.569-571.
  64. 64. Read • “Reformation, The” The Modern Catholic Encyclopedia, section on “Effects of the Reformation,” p.730 • 《西歐文明》,頁 415-416.
  65. 65. The Catholic Reformation • Council of Trent, 1545-1563 • “Several new orders appeared that aimed at reestablishing the credibility of the ascetical life.” (MCE, p.728) • Ignatius of Loyola, Society of Jesus (founded 1534, approved by the Pope 1540) • Jesuits to N. America, C. America, S. America, India, Japan, China !!
  66. 66. • “While many of the Renaissance popes had been causes of scandal, Pius V…set an example of asceticism and morality. He limited luxurious living in the papal territories and imposed penalties for simony, blasphemy, sodomy, and concubinage.” (MCE, p.729) • Spirituality: Teresa of Avila, John of the Cross
  67. 67. 新生機 千年老店,國營企業,病入膏肓 引入競爭,急起直追,創造雙贏
  68. 68. 李平曄 1992 《人的發現》 1985 《走向未来》叢 書的第一本
  69. 69. 吳于廑序( 1991 ) “ 馬丁‧路德宗教改革的歷史性功績,就在於 確認人的信仰應當取決於人內心的理解, 而非取決於外在的強制。…這就把人的信 仰從天主教正宗教義的禁錮下解放出來, 為近代西方的宗教自由和某程度上的思想 自由樹立了先聲。…當前我國正以全力從 事社會主義四個現代化的建設,…”
  70. 70. 自序 “ 的確,歷史上從來沒有過這樣的文化,這樣 的精神,它能保持其基本原理的不變而適 應幾種不同的生產關系,至今尚無衰敗之 勢。…如果我們了解一點基督教,了解一 點西方人民生活的文化背景,…不就更有 利於我們…探索中華民族現代化之路麼?”
  71. 71. 再論: 時勢造英雄?英雄造時勢?
  72. 72. 思考問題 • 教會的改革有沒有句號,從此不需再改革 了? • 若教會永遠需要改革,理由安在,是甚麼 因素導致? • 我們該有甚麼警惕之心,防止教會腐敗或 犯錯? • 教會如何可燃起新生機?

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