第三課 - 中世紀鼎盛期:教宗對皇帝的限權 (Lesson 3 - Church And State)


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基督教與西方文明 – 羅秉祥博士
Christianity & Western Civilization
LO, Ping-cheung, Ph.D.

2009年 第一季成人主學專題

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第三課 - 中世紀鼎盛期:教宗對皇帝的限權 (Lesson 3 - Church And State)

  1. 1. 羅秉祥 1. 22. 2009 旺角浸信會 主日學 第 3 講
  2. 2. A. Emergence of this issue B. Gelatian Thesis and Instability C. Emperor had the upper hand D. Pope had the upper hand E. The Investiture Controversy 敘任權爭 議 F. Declining power of the papacy G. Critical and Appreciative Perspectives
  3. 3.  church, state  “ 政教合一”  “ 政教分離”  政教有序,政教和諧  政教緊密合作伙伴
  4. 4.  A society in which everyone is a Christian  A community within a community  An organized society within society  An independent institution within an organization  Two parallel central governments
  5. 5.  One Christian society with two faces  The church is the soul and the state is the body of society  The King and the Pope have their respective distinct sphere of responsibility  Two heads, two principles of authority, and two hierarchies of governing officials  Alliance and competition of these two powers
  6. 6.  Birth of Jesus and the fear of King Herod  Matthew 22:22; Mark 12:17  double loyalty
  7. 7.  Bishop of Milan
  8. 8.  Emperor Theodosius massacred about 7,000 citizens of Thessalonica as a punishment of their riot against the garrison and the murder of its commander.  Ambrose excommunicated him and demanded him, in a private letter, to undergo public penance before he could partake in church communion again.  Ambrose told Theodosius to imitate David in his repentance as he had imitated him in guilt  The emperor finally obeyed, and returned to the cathedral in sackcloth and knelt before the
  9. 9. The prophetic tradition: •Nathan rebuked King David •Elijah withstood King Ahab “Although kings are above man’s laws, they are subject to the punishment of God for their sins.” The emperor: •as a Christian, is within the Church •as layman, is subordinate to the bishop
  10. 10.  Thesis of two authorities within one society (spiritual and secular, religious-moral and civil-political).  In a letter in 494 to the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I  “There are indeed, most august Emperor, two powers by which this world is chiefly ruled: the sacred authority of the Popes and the royal power.... For if in matters pertaining to the administration of public discipline, the bishops of the Church, knowing that the Empire has been conferred on you by Divine instrumentality, are themselves obedient to your laws, lest in purely material matters contrary opinions may seem to be voiced, with what willingness, I ask you, should you obey those to whom is assigned the administration of Divine mysteries? ”
  11. 11.  一國兩權(政權、教權),非大一統於中 央政府,非中央集權  不穩定的二元軸心,二權分立,相互制衡  兩極端:  政權管理教會( Caesaropapism, Constantinianism )  教會管轄政府( theocracy ) (教宗管轄皇帝)
  12. 12. 平行 對等 合作 二元格局 政府 教會 生命財產 道德教化 國家社會
  13. 13. 主從關係 二元格局 教會 政府 國家 社會
  14. 14. 主從關係 二元格局 政府 教會 國家 社會
  15. 15. The Coronation of Charlemagne as Emperor of the West by Pope Leo II Christmas Day, 800 A.D.
  16. 16. Fresco, Vatican, by Albrecht Durer, 1516-17 A.D.
  17. 17. Coronation of Louis the Pious Coronation of Charles the Bald by Pope Stephen IV, 816 A.D. by Pope John VIII, 875 A.D.
  18. 18. Otto III enthroned as Emperor, 983 A.D.
  19. 19. “ 皇帝必須得到羅馬教皇的允許才能即為;羅 馬教皇也須得到皇帝的承認才能即位為教 皇,顯示當時的西方勢力錯綜複雜,帝王 和教皇皆無法獨當一面掌控西方各地,必 須結合彼此的力量獲取各自的利益” 劉增泉,《西洋中古史》, 2001 , 頁 329
  20. 20.  Emperors dominated the Church  Emperors appointed popes, archbishops, monastery abbots  Many clergy scandals: simony, clerical marriage and concubinage
  21. 21.  Emperor Henry III: appointed 4 and deposed 3 popes  Henry III appointed his relative as Pope Leo IX  Both were strong supporters of church reform  Henry III also wanted “to weaken the grip of Roman and Italian families on ecclesiastical offices, offices which they treated like heritable property,” (W. C. Jordan,
  22. 22.  To root out these scandals  To fight for liberty of the Church  1056 -- Henry IV became emperor when he was a boy at 6  opportunity!  1059 – the Pope to be elected by a college of cardinals  1059 – denounced laymen’s ceremonial investiture (敘任權、授職權) of
  23. 23.  Hildebrand, elected as the Pope  1074– forbidden married priests in Germany to perform the sacraments (Henry’s territory!)  1075 – prohibited lay investiture ( Emperor Henry IV !!)  1075 – Dictatus Papae  Henry IV denounced these decrees  Dec 8, 1075 – Gregory demanded Henry do penance
  24. 24.  Jan 27, 1076 – Henry denounced Gregory as a false monk and declared his election as pope null and void  Lent 1076 – Gregory excommunicated Henry and absolved people from allegiance to the king  Seeking forgiveness, castle of Canossa, Winter 1077
  25. 25.  Romans 13: 1  How much more for Christian kings !  They are anointed with holy oil, like priests  They became new Davids, new Solomons, new Christs  Coronation should be considered a sacrament (vehicle of grace) W. C. Jordan,
  26. 26. Written by an unknown cleric around 1100 A.D. “We thus have to recognize [in the king] a twin person, one descending from nature, the other from grace… One through which, by the condition of nature, he conformed with other men; another through which, by the eminence of [his] deification and by the power of the sacrament [of consecration], he excelled all others. Concerning one personality, he was, by nature, an individual man; concerning his other personality, he was, by grace, a Christus, that is, a God-man”
  27. 27.  “Sometime during the year 1075 clerks at the papal court drew up the Dictatus Papae, a list of privileges and powers attributed to popes in ancient and early medieval documents.  Though hardly an official pronouncement, the Dictatus may be read as the expression of a revolutionary challenge to the existing political and ecclesiastical order.”
  28. 28. 1. 羅馬教會由上帝單獨創建。 2. 只有羅馬教宗能正當地稱為普世的。 3. 只有他能夠廢黜主教或使其復職。 9. 唯有教皇的腳能被所有的王侯吻。 12. 它能廢黜皇帝… 14. 如他願意,他有權任命任何教會的教士 … 16. 沒有他的命令,宗教會議不能稱為大公 會議。
  29. 29. 17. 沒有他的認可,任何書或其章節都不能視為 教會法規。 18. 任何人都不能撤銷他的任何判決, 所有人 中維有他一人能撤銷這種判決。 19. 他自己不受任何人審判… 22. 羅馬教會從未犯錯誤,也永不犯錯誤,《聖 經》作證。 25. 他可以不通過宗教會議廢黜主教或使其復職 。 26. 一個人如果不與羅馬教會保持一致,就不能 稱為大公教會的。 27. 教皇能解除不義之人的臣民的忠誠誓約。
  30. 30. 8. That he alone may use the imperial insignia. 9. That of the pope alone all princes shall kiss the feet. 12. That it may be permitted to him to depose emperors.
  31. 31. 18. That a sentence passed by him may be retracted by no one; and that he himself, alone of all, may retract it. 19. That he himself may be judged by no one. 22. That the Roman church has never erred; nor will it err to all eternity, the Scripture bearing witness. 27. That he may absolve subjects from their fealty to wicked men.
  32. 32.  1112 – Concordat of Worms , a compromise  both Emperor and Pope have the right to invest bishops; the former to invest them with secular authority and the latter with spiritual authority, one after another
  33. 33. “If the compromise was a rebuke to the most radical vision of the liberty of the Church, on at least one point its implications were firm, and this was of enormous significance. A king, even an emperor, was a layman.” (W. C. Jordan, Europe in the High Middle Ages, 2001, p.99)
  34. 34.  The very year he became Pope  “the moon derives her light from the sun, and is in truth inferior to the sun in both size and quality, in position as well as effect. In the same way the royal power derives its dignity from the pontifical authority.”
  35. 35.  In 1207, King John of England refused to accept Innocent’s choice for Archbishop of Canterbury and defied the pope by selecting his own candidate and extorting money from the church.  Innocent responded by excommunicating John and placing all of England under interdict 停止 教權 .  Finally, when it appeared that the king of France was preparing an invasion of England
  36. 36.  Not only did he have to repay the money he had taken from the church, but he was forced to surrender his realm to the pope, who returned it as a fief 封地 . In essence, John was now a vassal 封 臣 of his feudal lord, the pope.  Innocent used, or threatened, interdicts some 85 times during his papacy
  37. 37.  Unam Sanctum < 一聖 > (1302)  Two swords: spiritual and temporal  “Both are in the power of the Church….But the latter is to be used for the Church, the former by her; the former by the priest, the latter by kings and captains but at the will and by the permission of the priest. The one sword, then, should be under the other, and temporal authority subject to spiritual.”
  38. 38.  Boniface VIII was attacked, captured, and humiliated by agents of the French king, Philip IV  Boniface died soon after (1303)  The days of papal supremacy were over
  39. 39.  1309-1377  The popes resided not in Rome, but in Avignon of Southern France  Indulging in luxury and corruption
  40. 40.  Late 14th – early 15th century  Two popes at the same time (Avignon, Rome)  Unity of the Church collapsed as each pope excommunicated the other  The conciliar movement – a general council of the church represents the whole church, and it is the highest spiritual authority to which even the Pope has to submit  Such a reform movement was resisted by popes, and finally condemned by Pope Pius II in 1459
  41. 41.  the idea of papal sovereignty is clerical pretension;  church’s role is teaching and preaching;  William of Occam, Marsilius of Padua (Defensor Pacis: supports the theory that the Church is in some respects subordinate to the State)
  42. 42.  “ 教皇欲為‘萬王之王,萬主之主’”  “ 力圖建立教皇對世界的統治,做‘世界之王 ’”  “ 教會將自己的權力置于世俗權力之上,以 政治仲裁人自居,干預各國內政,握有君 王廢立與君王婚姻的決定權。”  安長春,《基督教籠罩下的西 歐》, 1995 ,頁 210 , 211 , 213
  43. 43.  凱撒與上帝二元並立  保持教會純潔  表面上相互權力利用,權力鬥爭  相互立位,廢位  實質效果:權力對抗權力 權力約束權力
  44. 44. An Appreciative Perspective
  45. 45. 1. 世俗國家吞沒了教會,王權吸納了教權 (古代中國、古希臘羅馬、拜占庭、俄羅 斯) 2. 教會吞沒了國家,教權吸納了俗權(古伊 斯蘭國家、 [ 伊朗、古西藏 ] ) 3. 教權與王權相互分離,各自獨立,相互平 衡(中世紀西歐、古印度)
  46. 46. “ 教會在古代社會還守護著人的內心世界,抵 御世俗國家的侵犯。…在人們深層心理上 積淀為一種根深蒂固的意識,即國家的權 力是有限的。…個人生活還有一部分…國 家則無權干預。這種觀念也許是基督教對 人類政治思想最重要的貢獻。”(頁 311-312 )
  47. 47. 叢日雲:政教關係三模式 2. 世俗國家吞沒了教會,王權吸納了教權 3. 教會吞沒了國家,教權吸納了俗權 4. 教權與王權相互分離,各自獨立,相互平衡 羅秉祥:  叢日雲之 3 比較含糊,中世紀事實上是“平行對等合 作的二元格局”,近代西方才是“平行對等分治的二元 格局”  叢日雲之 1 與 2 的中央集權一元格局皆演變自“主從 關係的二元格局”,而後者又演變自“平行對等合作的 二元格局”
  48. 48. 政教合一 一元格局 政府 教會 國家 社會
  49. 49. 中世紀 平行 對等 合作 二元格局 政府 教會 國家 社會
  50. 50. 主從關係 二元格局 教會 政府 國家 社會
  51. 51. 主從關係 二元格局 政府 教會 國家 社會
  52. 52. 宗教改革後 平行 對等 分治 二元格局 政府 教會 國家 社會
  53. 53.  教會對自治有所堅持,可能與政府有衝突 。近代中國教會史有沒有這樣的例子?  教會該如何關心政治,而不會給人有霸權 的感覺?