Everything you ever <br />needed to know <br />about everything<br />
Animal Cells<br />
Plant Cells<br />
Carbohydrates<br />Starch, Glycogen & Cellulose<br />Sucrose, Lactose<br />Glucose, Fructose<br />
Types of Lipids<br />Triglycerides<br />Phospholipids<br />
The nucleotide monomer<br />PHOSPHATE<br />SUGAR<br />Nucleic acids contain C, H & O in addition to N & P<br />
Proteins<br />3 groups: Amino group, Carboxyl group & R-group<br />When joined together they form peptide bonds<br />Aside...
Protein structure<br />Primary structure<br />The linear sequence of amino acids<br />Secondary structure<br />The type of...
Summary<br />
Elements of a plasma membrane<br />carbohydrate <br />chains<br />glycolipid<br />glycoprotein<br />phospholipid<br />bila...
How does it regulate molecular transport?<br />Passive Transport<br />Diffusion<br />Osmosis<br />Facilitated diffusion (c...
Endocytosis<br />
Exocytosis<br />
<ul><li>Isotonic: (iso - same) surrounding fluid and cells internal fluid are of equal concentration
Hypotonic: (hypo - lower) surrounding solution has a lower concentration than the cells.</li></ul>Water will diffuse throu...
Mitochondrion<br />Energy supplying organelle<br />Produces chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) th...
Chloroplasts<br />
Exergonic and Endergonic Reactions<br />
Enzyme Structure<br />Enzymes have an active site and a regulatory region<br />The active site (formed by folds in the pro...
Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity<br />pH<br />Temperature<br />Pressure<br />Enzyme Concentration<br />Substrate concentr...
A simplified version of photosynthesis<br />
Light <br />Dependent<br />Reaction<br />
Light <br />Independent<br />Reaction<br />
Light-dependent reaction<br />Occurs in the grana<br />Light energy is used to split water in to two H+ ions and O2 gas<br...
Light-independent stage<br />Occurs in Stroma<br />Does not need light, but NADPH and ATP from previous stage<br />Needs C...
C3 PLANTS<br />C4 PLANTS<br />
Putting Photosynthesis together<br />2 x PGAL = fructose<br />fructose = glucose<br />fructose + glucose = sucrose<br />gl...
Cellular Respiration<br />
Glycolysis<br />Occurs in cytosol – uses enzymes and vitamins as coenzymes<br />1 glucose (6C) converted to 2 pyruvate (3C...
Krebs Cycle<br />Occurs in mitochondria<br />Pyruvate initially broken down in to CO2 and Acetyl-coA<br />Joins with 4C mo...
Electron Transport<br />Occurs in inner membrane of mitochondria<br />Produces 2-3 ATP per loaded receptor<br />Electrons ...
Anaerobic respiration (in humans)<br />Occurs in muscles where oxygen supply exceeds demand<br />The only stage that can o...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Chapter 1 to 3 summary

635

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
635
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 1 to 3 summary

  1. 1. Everything you ever <br />needed to know <br />about everything<br />
  2. 2. Animal Cells<br />
  3. 3. Plant Cells<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. Carbohydrates<br />Starch, Glycogen & Cellulose<br />Sucrose, Lactose<br />Glucose, Fructose<br />
  6. 6. Types of Lipids<br />Triglycerides<br />Phospholipids<br />
  7. 7. The nucleotide monomer<br />PHOSPHATE<br />SUGAR<br />Nucleic acids contain C, H & O in addition to N & P<br />
  8. 8. Proteins<br />3 groups: Amino group, Carboxyl group & R-group<br />When joined together they form peptide bonds<br />Aside from the C, H, O & N in the base molecule, the R group may also contain S & P<br />
  9. 9. Protein structure<br />Primary structure<br />The linear sequence of amino acids<br />Secondary structure<br />The type of peptide bond determines how sections of the protein fold – spiral helix / pleated sheet / random coils<br />Shape reinforced by additional H bonds<br />Tertiary structure<br />Eventual 3D shape formed by folding<br />Shape reinforced by additional H bonds<br />Quanternary structure<br />When a protein is formed by the interaction of 2 or more polypeptide chains<br />
  10. 10. Summary<br />
  11. 11. Elements of a plasma membrane<br />carbohydrate <br />chains<br />glycolipid<br />glycoprotein<br />phospholipid<br />bilayer<br />protein channel<br />cholesterol<br />
  12. 12. How does it regulate molecular transport?<br />Passive Transport<br />Diffusion<br />Osmosis<br />Facilitated diffusion (channel, receptor & carrier mediated)<br />Active Transport<br />Primary (uses chemical energy)<br />Secondary (uses electrochemical gradient)<br />
  13. 13. Endocytosis<br />
  14. 14. Exocytosis<br />
  15. 15. <ul><li>Isotonic: (iso - same) surrounding fluid and cells internal fluid are of equal concentration
  16. 16. Hypotonic: (hypo - lower) surrounding solution has a lower concentration than the cells.</li></ul>Water will diffuse through the membrane into the cells<br /><ul><li>Hypertonic: </li></ul>(hyper - higher) surrounding solution has a higher concentration than the cells<br />
  17. 17. Mitochondrion<br />Energy supplying organelle<br />Produces chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through the process of cellular respiration<br />Outer & inner membrane<br />The inner membrane contains many folds to provide a larger surface area for energy production<br />ATP produced by reactions on inner membrane<br />Only in eukaryotes<br />
  18. 18. Chloroplasts<br />
  19. 19. Exergonic and Endergonic Reactions<br />
  20. 20. Enzyme Structure<br />Enzymes have an active site and a regulatory region<br />The active site (formed by folds in the protein) is where substrate binds to the enzyme<br />The regulatory region is where cofactors coenzymes or enzyme inhibitors can alter the function of an enzyme<br />Substrate<br />Products<br />Active site<br />Enzyme inhibitor<br />Regulatory region<br />
  21. 21. Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity<br />pH<br />Temperature<br />Pressure<br />Enzyme Concentration<br />Substrate concentration<br />Cofactors / coenzymes<br />Inhibition<br />
  22. 22. A simplified version of photosynthesis<br />
  23. 23. Light <br />Dependent<br />Reaction<br />
  24. 24. Light <br />Independent<br />Reaction<br />
  25. 25. Light-dependent reaction<br />Occurs in the grana<br />Light energy is used to split water in to two H+ ions and O2 gas<br />The O2 is released as waste<br />With the power of the two free electrons<br />One H+ ion fuses ADP to Pi to form ATP<br />One H+ ion fuses to NADP to form NADPH<br />
  26. 26. Light-independent stage<br />Occurs in Stroma<br />Does not need light, but NADPH and ATP from previous stage<br />Needs CO2 and H+ions <br />Sugar molecules are synthesised from CO2<br /> CO2 = oxidised state (low E compound)<br /> C(H2O)n = reduced state (high E compound)<br />NADPH (carrier H+) is the reducing agent<br />ATP is the energy source<br />
  27. 27. C3 PLANTS<br />C4 PLANTS<br />
  28. 28. Putting Photosynthesis together<br />2 x PGAL = fructose<br />fructose = glucose<br />fructose + glucose = sucrose<br />glucose x ∞= starch<br />
  29. 29. Cellular Respiration<br />
  30. 30. Glycolysis<br />Occurs in cytosol – uses enzymes and vitamins as coenzymes<br />1 glucose (6C) converted to 2 pyruvate (3C)<br />Forms 2 ATP & 2 NADH<br />
  31. 31. Krebs Cycle<br />Occurs in mitochondria<br />Pyruvate initially broken down in to CO2 and Acetyl-coA<br />Joins with 4C molecule to form 6 C molecule<br />CO2 to form 5 C molecule, then again to form 4 C molecule<br />Further oxidation takes place to reform original 4C<br />Throughout cycle, constant oxidation is fusing hydrogen to carrier molecules NAD -> NADH and FAD -> FADH2<br />
  32. 32. Electron Transport<br />Occurs in inner membrane of mitochondria<br />Produces 2-3 ATP per loaded receptor<br />Electrons passed from one cytochrome to next until accepted by O2- to form water<br />Return of released protons through ATP synthase carrier provides energy to produce ATP from ADP & Pi (phosphorylation)<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34. Anaerobic respiration (in humans)<br />Occurs in muscles where oxygen supply exceeds demand<br />The only stage that can occur is glycolysis<br />So 1 glucose produces 2 ATP<br />2 NADH convert pyruvate to lactate (lactic acid)<br />Lactate build up causes pH to fall and pain & muscle fatigue<br />When activity returns to normal and oxygen becomes available, lactate converted back to pyruvate to enter the Krebs Cycle.<br />
  35. 35. Anaerobic respiration (in yeast)<br />Anaerobic respiration in yeast is called fermentation<br />Pyruvate is broken down in to CO2 and ethanol (alcohol)<br />
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×