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15 Respiratory System
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15 Respiratory System

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  • 1. The human respiratory system
  • 2. The human respiratory system
    • Air enters via the nasal cavity or mouth
    • It continues down through the pharynx
    • The cartilaginous larynx acts as a filter
    • The goblet cells and cilia of the trachea remove more foreign particles
    • Greater surface area for gas exchange is created by the branching of the bronchial tubes in the lungs.
  • 3. Lungs
    • Air from the trachea is slit in to two bronchi
    • …then in to secondary bronchi
    • …then in to bronchioles
    • …then in to terminal bronchioles
    • … then in to alveolar ducts
    • … then in to alveolar sacs
    • …then in to alveoli
    • The end result is a respiratory surface area of approximately 70 square metres
  • 4. Diffusion of gasses
    • Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries.
    • Carbon dioxide diffuses from the pulmonary capillaries to the alveoli.
  • 5. Respiratory animation
  • 6. Gas exchange in fish
  • 7. Gas exchange in fish
    • Due to the buoyancy and moisture provided by water, fish require less energy and therefore less oxygen than terrestrial animals.
    • Water flows in the mouth
    • …through four gill arches
    • …over a multitude of flattened lamella plates
    • …and out through the operculum
  • 8. Lamella plates – countercurrent exchange
    • As water moves over the plates, blood travelling in the opposite direction collects oxygen from it.
    Back
  • 9. Gaseous exchange in insects
    • Air enters via special openings called spiracles
    • Oxygen rich air travels around the body via tracheal tubes that branch in to trachioles.
    • As needed oxygen diffuses in to cells from the trachioles and carbon dioxide is taken away,
  • 10. Lining of the trachea Back

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