15 Respiratory System

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15 Respiratory System

  1. 1. The human respiratory system
  2. 2. The human respiratory system <ul><li>Air enters via the nasal cavity or mouth </li></ul><ul><li>It continues down through the pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>The cartilaginous larynx acts as a filter </li></ul><ul><li>The goblet cells and cilia of the trachea remove more foreign particles </li></ul><ul><li>Greater surface area for gas exchange is created by the branching of the bronchial tubes in the lungs. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Lungs <ul><li>Air from the trachea is slit in to two bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>…then in to secondary bronchi </li></ul><ul><li>…then in to bronchioles </li></ul><ul><li>…then in to terminal bronchioles </li></ul><ul><li>… then in to alveolar ducts </li></ul><ul><li>… then in to alveolar sacs </li></ul><ul><li>…then in to alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>The end result is a respiratory surface area of approximately 70 square metres </li></ul>
  4. 4. Diffusion of gasses <ul><li>Oxygen diffuses from the alveoli to the pulmonary capillaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide diffuses from the pulmonary capillaries to the alveoli. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Respiratory animation
  6. 6. Gas exchange in fish
  7. 7. Gas exchange in fish <ul><li>Due to the buoyancy and moisture provided by water, fish require less energy and therefore less oxygen than terrestrial animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Water flows in the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>…through four gill arches </li></ul><ul><li>…over a multitude of flattened lamella plates </li></ul><ul><li>…and out through the operculum </li></ul>
  8. 8. Lamella plates – countercurrent exchange <ul><li>As water moves over the plates, blood travelling in the opposite direction collects oxygen from it. </li></ul>Back
  9. 9. Gaseous exchange in insects <ul><li>Air enters via special openings called spiracles </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen rich air travels around the body via tracheal tubes that branch in to trachioles. </li></ul><ul><li>As needed oxygen diffuses in to cells from the trachioles and carbon dioxide is taken away, </li></ul>
  10. 10. Lining of the trachea Back

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