Arrays

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As a part of the course CSC-391, Data Structure and algorithm

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Arrays

  1. 1. Arrays, Records and Pointers Csc-391
  2. 2. 2 Data Structures and Algorithms Introductio nLinear data structure. Is used to store similar types of data. An array is a finite collection of similar elements stored in adjacent memory locations. Decleration of the Arrays: (In C) the array name, the element type and the array size. Examples: int a[20], b[3],c[7]; // one-dimensional arrays float f[5], c[2]; char m[4], n[20]; Initialization of an array is the process of assigning initial values. Examples: float, b[3]={2.0, 5.5, 3.14}; char name[4]= {‘E’,’m’,’r’,’e’}; int c[10]={0}; © SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT
  3. 3. 3 Data Structures and Algorithms Two- dimensional arrays ©SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT
  4. 4. 4 Data Structures and Algorithms Two- dimensional arrays ©SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT
  5. 5. 5 Data Structures and Algorithms Two- dimensional arrays ©SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT
  6. 6. 6 Data Structures and Algorithms Remarks Pointer arrays and pointers: Array of pointers is called pointer array. Details on pointers and arrays is discussed in Array, func, point document Jagged arrays: Arrays whose rows or columns begins with different numbers of data elements and ends with unused space, are called jagged array. Dynamic arrays: int *my_array; my_array = new int[10]; // array size is defined during run-time Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Evans Conrad Davis Baker Harris Felt Segal Cooper Lewis Glass Ford Shaw Hill Gray King Jones Penn Reed Silver Troy Wagner * * * * 0 0 0 0 0 * * * * * * * * * * * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * * * * * * 0 0 0 ©SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT
  7. 7. 7 Data Structures and Algorithms #include<iostream.h> int main () { int i,n; int * p; cout << "How many numbers would you like to type? "; cin >> i; p= new int[i]; // it takes memory at run-time from Heap if(p == NULL) cout << "Error: memory could not be allocated"; else { for(n=0; n<i; n++) { cout << "Enter number: "; cin >> p[n]; } int*k=p; // to hold the base address of dynamic array cout << "You have entered: n"; for(n=0; n<i; n++) cout << *k<< ", "; k++; cout<<"n"; delete[] p; // it release the memory to send it back to Heap } return 0; } Sample code for Dynamic Array declaration ©SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT
  8. 8. 8 Data Structures and Algorithms Records and structure (struct in C) Records may contain different types of information. Structures are used to store these records. A structure is a collection of logically related variables under a single unit/name. (In c++ we can create class to store records) Example: struct Rectangle // this is type/name for structure { float Length; float width; float area; }; A structure is usually declared before main( ) function. ©SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT
  9. 9. 9 Data Structures and Algorithms Travers, Insert, Delete on Arrays a) Traversing in Linear Array b) inserting in Linear Array ©SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT
  10. 10. 10 Data Structures and Algorithms Travers, Insert, Delete on Arrays c) Deleting from Linear Array ©SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT
  11. 11. 11 Data Structures and Algorithms Searching Linear Search The linear search compares each element of the array with the search key until the search key is found. To determine that a value is not in the array, the program must compare the search key to every element in the array. It is also called “Sequential Search” because it traverses the data sequentially to locate the element. ©SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT
  12. 12. 12 Data Structures and Algorithms Searching Binary Search It is useful for the large sorted arrays. The binary search algorithm can only be used with sorted array and eliminates one half of the elements in the array being searched after each comparison. ©SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT
  13. 13. 13 Data Structures and Algorithms Searching Binary Search ©SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT
  14. 14. 14 Data Structures and Algorithms Sorting Bubble Sort The technique we use is called “Bubble Sort” because the bigger value gradually bubbles their way up to the top of array like air bubble rising in water, while the small values sink to the bottom of array. This technique is to make several passes through the array. On each pass, successive pairs of elements are compared. If a pair is in increasing order (or the values are identical), we leave the values as they are. If a pair is in decreasing order, their values are swapped in the array. ©SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT
  15. 15. 15 Data Structures and Algorithms Sorting Bubble Sort ©SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT
  16. 16. 16 Data Structures and Algorithms Sorting Bubble Sort ©SMT, Faculty, CSE, IUBAT

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