Urbanization – Facts And Fundamentals
Planning History & Theory
1. Manoj Patel
Prof. Himanshu Padhya
SARVAJANIK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING &
1. Definition of Urbanization
2. Basics of Urbanization
3. Urbanization Rate For Some Country
4. Urbanization In South Africa
5. Comparison of Urbanization between
China & India
6. Causes of Urbanization
7. Top Magnet City In World
8. Graph of world population
Urbanization is the process by which there is an increase
in the proportion of people living in urban area.
• Urbanization occurs because people move from rural
areas (countryside) to urban areas (town and cities)
• Amongst the first countries to become urbanized were
Great Britain and some European countries
• Their urbanization was relatively slow, allowing
governments time to plan and provide for the needs of
increasing urban populations.
urban population: 100% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 100% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 30% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 92% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 98% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 96% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
urban population: 14% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
• The rate of urbanization in South Africa has been very Rapid since
URBANIZATION IN SOUTH AFRICA
1. huge demands on land, water, housing, transport and
2. Not all people enjoy the same standard of living
3. Many urban people live in closely built shacks made of
packing cases, sheets of plastic and corrugated iron
4. Some urban people have a good supply of water and
5. waste from bathrooms and toilets goes directly into the city's
6. Squatters, however, lack these benefits and are forced to use
open drains and pit toilets.
These can create health hazards
• In South Africa apartheid has made the problems of
urbanization more complex
• For generations, urbanization of black people was
made difficult by forcing them to live in areas far from
the main cities
• Separation of families created many social problems. In
addition, pass laws made it illegal for many black
people to live in the white cities.
Their illegal status made it impossible for them to rent
a house so they often lived in a shack.
• The shortage of accommodation in cities has
forced them to live in shack-towns or squatter
camps on open land.
• They settle on vacant land owned by somebody
Although squatter settlements are seen to arise
out of desperate need, the land owners are
often unhappy that squatters are living on their
The state will have to make provision for future
emergency housing for poor people.
• Recent statistics illustrate the problem of rapid
urbanization facing South Africa.
• In the early 1980s there was one formal house for 5
white people in South Africa, And only 1 formal house
for every 43 black people.
• In 1989 Gauteng contained 4,12,000 formal houses in
black townships, with 4,22,000 shacks in their backyards
and 6,35,000 shacks on vacant land.
• The housing shortage for blacks outside of the
homelands is at least 8,50,000. More than 7 million
people throughout the country live in shacks of one
kind or another.
SOUTH AFRICAN STATISTICS
• The slower urbanization occurs, the easier it is to Deal
• Urban conflicts will be greatest where urbanization is
In South Africa the most rapid urbanization is occurring
around the largest cities
‘‘ If The Problems Of Urbanization Are Not Solved Social
Unrest And Environmental Pollution Will Get Worse ’’
SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
• China and India are in the vanguard of a wave of urban
expansion that is restoring the global prominence that Asia
enjoyed before the European and North American industrial
• In 1950, India 17 % & China 13 %
• In 2005, India 29 % & China 41 %
• Never before in history have two of the largest nations (in
terms of population) urbanized at the same time, and at
such a pace.
COMPARISON OF URBANIZATION B/W CHINA &
China and India are both urbanizing rapidly, but China
has embraced and shaped the process, while India is still
waking up to its urban realities and opportunities.
• Urbanization is an index of transformation.
• It is concentration of population
• Quantification of urbanization is very difficult
• It is a long term process
• It is a finite process
• agrarian to industrial society
• Exciting new opportunities for investors
1. Urbanization occurs naturally from individual & corporate
efforts to reduce time and expense in commuting and
transportation while improving opportunities for jobs,
education, housing, and transportation.
2. Living in cities permits individuals and families to take
advantage of the opportunities of proximity, diversity, and
market place competition.
3. It is easy to see why someone living on a farm might wish to
take their chance moving to the city and make enough money
to send back home to their struggling family.
4. better basic services, job opportunity.
5. A greater variety of entertainment & better quality of
CAUSES OF URBANIZATION
World Urban population: 50.5% of total population
Rate of urbanization: 1.85% annual rate of change
Ten Largest urban agglomerations:
Sao Paulo (Brazil)
Mexico City (Mexico)
New York-Newark (US)
TOP MAGNET CITY IN WORLD