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  1. 1. Urbanization – Facts And Fundamentals Planning History & Theory 1 Presented By: 1. Manoj Patel Guided By: Prof. Himanshu Padhya SARVAJANIK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY ATHWALINES, SURAT
  2. 2. CONTENTS 1. Definition of Urbanization 2. Basics of Urbanization 3. Urbanization Rate For Some Country 4. Urbanization In South Africa 5. Comparison of Urbanization between China & India 6. Causes of Urbanization 7. Top Magnet City In World 8. Graph of world population 9. References 2
  3. 3. URBANIZATION Urbanization is the process by which there is an increase in the proportion of people living in urban area. • Urbanization occurs because people move from rural areas (countryside) to urban areas (town and cities) • Amongst the first countries to become urbanized were Great Britain and some European countries • Their urbanization was relatively slow, allowing governments time to plan and provide for the needs of increasing urban populations. 3
  4. 4. Anguilla urban population: 100% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 1.7% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) Hong Kong urban population: 100% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 0.9% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) India urban population: 30% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 2.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) Israel urban population: 92% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 1.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) Kuwait urban population: 98% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 2.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) Qatar urban population: 96% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) Sri Lanka urban population: 14% of total population (2010) rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) 4
  5. 5. • The rate of urbanization in South Africa has been very Rapid since the 1950s. URBANIZATION IN SOUTH AFRICA 5
  6. 6. 1. huge demands on land, water, housing, transport and employment 2. Not all people enjoy the same standard of living 3. Many urban people live in closely built shacks made of packing cases, sheets of plastic and corrugated iron 4. Some urban people have a good supply of water and electricity 5. waste from bathrooms and toilets goes directly into the city's sewers 6. Squatters, however, lack these benefits and are forced to use open drains and pit toilets. These can create health hazards DRAWBACKS 6
  7. 7. • In South Africa apartheid has made the problems of urbanization more complex • For generations, urbanization of black people was made difficult by forcing them to live in areas far from the main cities • Separation of families created many social problems. In addition, pass laws made it illegal for many black people to live in the white cities. Their illegal status made it impossible for them to rent a house so they often lived in a shack. APARTHEID 7
  8. 8. • The shortage of accommodation in cities has forced them to live in shack-towns or squatter camps on open land. • They settle on vacant land owned by somebody else. Although squatter settlements are seen to arise out of desperate need, the land owners are often unhappy that squatters are living on their land. The state will have to make provision for future emergency housing for poor people. SQUATTERS 8
  9. 9. • Recent statistics illustrate the problem of rapid urbanization facing South Africa. • In the early 1980s there was one formal house for 5 white people in South Africa, And only 1 formal house for every 43 black people. • In 1989 Gauteng contained 4,12,000 formal houses in black townships, with 4,22,000 shacks in their backyards and 6,35,000 shacks on vacant land. • The housing shortage for blacks outside of the homelands is at least 8,50,000. More than 7 million people throughout the country live in shacks of one kind or another. SOUTH AFRICAN STATISTICS 9
  10. 10. • The slower urbanization occurs, the easier it is to Deal with. • Urban conflicts will be greatest where urbanization is greatest. In South Africa the most rapid urbanization is occurring around the largest cities ‘‘ If The Problems Of Urbanization Are Not Solved Social Unrest And Environmental Pollution Will Get Worse ’’ SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS 10
  11. 11. • China and India are in the vanguard of a wave of urban expansion that is restoring the global prominence that Asia enjoyed before the European and North American industrial revolution. • In 1950, India 17 % & China 13 % • In 2005, India 29 % & China 41 % • Never before in history have two of the largest nations (in terms of population) urbanized at the same time, and at such a pace. COMPARISON OF URBANIZATION B/W CHINA & INDIA China and India are both urbanizing rapidly, but China has embraced and shaped the process, while India is still waking up to its urban realities and opportunities. 11
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  13. 13. • Urbanization is an index of transformation. • It is concentration of population • Quantification of urbanization is very difficult • It is a long term process • It is a finite process • agrarian to industrial society • Exciting new opportunities for investors TRAITS 13
  14. 14. 1. Urbanization occurs naturally from individual & corporate efforts to reduce time and expense in commuting and transportation while improving opportunities for jobs, education, housing, and transportation. 2. Living in cities permits individuals and families to take advantage of the opportunities of proximity, diversity, and market place competition. 3. It is easy to see why someone living on a farm might wish to take their chance moving to the city and make enough money to send back home to their struggling family. 4. better basic services, job opportunity. 5. A greater variety of entertainment & better quality of education. CAUSES OF URBANIZATION 14
  15. 15. World Urban population: 50.5% of total population (2010) Rate of urbanization: 1.85% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.) Ten Largest urban agglomerations: Tokyo (Japan) Delhi (India) Sao Paulo (Brazil) Mumbai (India) Mexico City (Mexico) New York-Newark (US) Shanghai (China) Kolkata (India) Dhaka (Bangladesh) Karachi (Pakistan) TOP MAGNET CITY IN WORLD 15
  17. 17. •http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Comparing_urbaniz ation_in_China_and_India_2641 •http://www.bcb.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/urbanisation.h tm •Central Intelligence Agency https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world face book/fields/2212.html#top • http://www.scribd.com/doc/46472461/Urbanization REFERENCES 17
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