SEWERAGE TREATMENT
PLANT

PREPARED BY : HADI ZAH BI NTI MOHD KAS
Understand Septic Tank and Oxidation Pond.
.1 Recognize methods of public sewage treatment
•aerated lagoons (AL)
•extended...
age is wastewater that consist of waste and wastewater from
es, indusrial Premises and agricultural areas. Sewage is
goris...
Understand Septic
Tank
and
Oxidation Pond.
Septic tank – Private tank








Structure constructed underground
according to some specifications for
sewage trea...


SCUM LAYER



-this layer contains waste such as
foam,cooking oil,grease.
MIDDLE LAYER



-consists of suspended soli...
Oxidation pond – Public tank







Oxidation Ponds (or Stabilization Ponds) are
a popular sewage treatment method for...


Aerobic digestion
+ aerated (diudarakan)
+ decomposition process of organic pollutants form (water
and carbon dioxide) ...


There are a few types :
•aerated lagoons (AL)
•extended aeration systems
•oxidation ditch
•rotating biological
contract...






Treat sewage by using a Larges surface
pond area as compare to Oxidation
Ponds or waste stabilizer pond.
The pond...
Aerated Lagoons (AL)
Aerated Lagoons (AL)
Aerated Lagoons are relatively simple plants to operate and maintain. However, they
require large land areas and are there...
Aerated Lagoons (AL)

advantages
Treat high volume of sewage

disadvantages
Require high maintenance cost

Require large l...
Extended aeration systems activated
sludge








Method of aerobic sewage treatment
Bacteria in the form of solids ...
Extended Aeration Systems
Fine Bubble Diffused Air Extended Aeration Systems (FBDAEA) are mechanical
secondary treatment systems. FBDAEA systems are...
advantages

disadvantages

Activated sludge is an efficient
treatment method because the sludge
produces is recycle to fac...
Oxidation Ditch
• oxidation ditch


Is a single or multiple shallow ponds designed to treat
domestic sewage.



The depth of the pond from the surface is ...
The Oxidation Ditch (OD) is a modified form of the activated sludge system. Oxidation
ditches are mechanical secondary tre...
ADVANTAGE

DISADVANTAGE

Easy to maintain and does not require high Do not have the capacity to treat high
technical skill...
Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC)
Using aerobic and facultative bacteria.
 Bacteria growth on the rotating discs in contact with the
sewage and decompose t...
advantages

disadvantages

Suitable for treatment of domestic Easily clogged due to rapid
sewage
bacterial growth

Require...
Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs) are mechanical secondary treatment systems, which are
robust and capable of withstan...
High Rate Trickling Filter (HRTF)


Aerobic sewage treatment method. The sewage is sprinkled
onto the filtering layer and trickles through the filtering me...
advantages
Rotating speed can be changed to
suit the required treatment level
Requires minimum detention time,
that is bet...
The modern trickling filter comprises a bed of highly permeable medium to which microorganisms are attached. Sewage is per...
High rate trickling filters remove between 65% to 85% of the organic load. They are
used where there is sufficient land av...
Recognize methods of individual septic tank
(IST)
Individual Septic Tank (IST)
 Sistem pembentungan yang banyak terdapat di
Malaysia ialah tangki septik individu.
 Dianggarkan lebih kurang 1.2 juta p...
 Kenapa Pengosongan Tangki Septik
Berjadual Penting?
• Tanpa pengosongan tangki septik secara
berjadual, air kumbahan yan...
Individual Septic Tanks is one of the simplest forms of sewage treatment
and dates back to the sewerage system development...
Typical figures for ISTs are as follows: -

Raw Sewage

Effluent

DOE
Standard B

Biochemical Oxygen Demand

200-400

150-...
The final disposal process being carried
out.






Sea
Rivers
Large surface water bodies
Smaller, closed surface wat...
Sewege treatment
Sewege treatment
Sewege treatment
Sewege treatment
Sewege treatment
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Sewege treatment

  1. 1. SEWERAGE TREATMENT PLANT PREPARED BY : HADI ZAH BI NTI MOHD KAS
  2. 2. Understand Septic Tank and Oxidation Pond. .1 Recognize methods of public sewage treatment •aerated lagoons (AL) •extended aeration systems •oxidation ditch •rotating biological contractors (RBC) •high rate trickling filter (HRTF) .2 Recognize methods of individual septic tank (IST
  3. 3. age is wastewater that consist of waste and wastewater from es, indusrial Premises and agricultural areas. Sewage is gorised into three types, which are : mestic sewage : sewage originates from residential house, public building a ommercial centre. ricultural sewage : sewage produced by agricultural and farming activities. ndustrial sewage : ewage produced by industrial activities.
  4. 4. Understand Septic Tank and Oxidation Pond.
  5. 5. Septic tank – Private tank      Structure constructed underground according to some specifications for sewage treatment. Its normally used in individual houses, schools, hotels and office buildings. The size if septic tank depends on the sewage generated by these premises. For building or premises with many occupants, such as school, the size of septic tank should be large enough to contain and treat the generated sewage. The minimum volume of septic tank is 2000 litres.
  6. 6.  SCUM LAYER  -this layer contains waste such as foam,cooking oil,grease. MIDDLE LAYER  -consists of suspended solid and bacteria. SLUDGE LAYER -sludge layer at the tank base consists of both decomposable and non-decomposable solids.
  7. 7. Oxidation pond – Public tank     Oxidation Ponds (or Stabilization Ponds) are a popular sewage treatment method for small communities because of their low construction and operating costs. Oxygen is supplied from natural surface.  The first pond reduces the organic material using aerobic digestion while the second pond polishes the effluent and reduces the pathogens present in sewage. After retention for several days, the flow is often passed into a second pond for further treatment before it is discharged into a drain.
  8. 8.  Aerobic digestion + aerated (diudarakan) + decomposition process of organic pollutants form (water and carbon dioxide) by bacteria with the aid of oxygen.  Anaerobic digestion + non-aerated (Bukan Diudara) + decomposition process of organic pollutants by bacteria without the aid of oxygen. + this process produces methane (flammable gas-gas yang mudah terbakar) and other gas as well as water and carbon dioxide.
  9. 9.  There are a few types : •aerated lagoons (AL) •extended aeration systems •oxidation ditch •rotating biological contractors(RBC) •high rate trickling filter (HRTF)
  10. 10.    Treat sewage by using a Larges surface pond area as compare to Oxidation Ponds or waste stabilizer pond. The pond is also deeper(lebih dalam), having a depth of 3m to 5m. These operation aid the aeration process by dissolving and decomposing organic matter. (proses pengudaraan dengan melarutkan dan penguraian bahan organik.)
  11. 11. Aerated Lagoons (AL)
  12. 12. Aerated Lagoons (AL)
  13. 13. Aerated Lagoons are relatively simple plants to operate and maintain. However, they require large land areas and are therefore rarely found in densely populated urban areas. The AL process normally comprises two or three lagoons in a sequence. The first lagoon has surface aerators, which are like large "paddle mixers". The aerators float on the surface of the pond and continuously stir the incoming sewage, serving to maintain oxygen content in the sewage and preventing any solids from settling. Sewage has an average retention in the first pond of five days. During this time, bacteria consumed the oxygen to breaking down the organic material in the sewage. Effluent is passed into the second pond where the degraded organic matter and sediments are settle out to form sludge. The effluent may then pass to a third pond for polishing or be discharged to a receiving waterway. The average retention time in the second pond is one day. Care must be taken in managing the settling pond in warm climates. These ponds can suffer from algal growth and/or odour generated by anaerobic digestion of the sludge at the bottom of the pond. Depending upon their design these ponds must be desludged approximately every 10 years. There are approximately 40 AL sewage treatment plants in Malaysia.
  14. 14. Aerated Lagoons (AL) advantages Treat high volume of sewage disadvantages Require high maintenance cost Require large land area Require short detention time Require skills work force
  15. 15. Extended aeration systems activated sludge      Method of aerobic sewage treatment Bacteria in the form of solids is suspended in sewage and decompose the organic matters with the aid oxygen The activated sludge system consists of activated sludge treatment tank, clarification pond and disposal site Activated sludge treatment tank is normally rectangular, but there is cylindrical tank too. Air or oxygen is supplied into:+ Using agitator(pembiak/penghasut) at the tank surface + Using air diffuser(penyebar diudara) at the
  16. 16. Extended Aeration Systems
  17. 17. Fine Bubble Diffused Air Extended Aeration Systems (FBDAEA) are mechanical secondary treatment systems. FBDAEA systems are robust and can withstand surges in hydraulic or organic load. To breakdown the organic material in sewage, bacteria require oxygen. This may be introduced by agitation (using surface aerators) or by submerged "diffusers". Sewage entering a plant in passed through primary treatment where coarse material and grit is removed. The sewage then passes to secondary treatment in the form of any aeration tank where it is injected with fine bubbles of air from submerged diffusers. Solids in the sewage are held in suspension by the bubbles and bacteria in the sewage break down organic materials. Sewage is held in the aeration tank between 18-24 hours. The effluent with suspended material is then passed into a "clarifier" (sedimentation tank) where the material settles as a sludge. The sludge is drawn off with some being returned to the aeration tank to ensure enough bacteria are present in the tank to continue the process of breaking down newly introduced sewage. The effluent is then polished and/or discharged to the receiving environment. These plants only require moderate areas of land. There are currently approximately 60 extended aeration systems in Malaysia and this is expected to significantly increase to some 200 plants as older systems are phased out.
  18. 18. advantages disadvantages Activated sludge is an efficient treatment method because the sludge produces is recycle to facilitate further treatment High maintenance cost due to the utilization of electrical agitator or diffuser to supply diffused air It does not required large area Require technical skills maintain and operate the system
  19. 19. Oxidation Ditch
  20. 20. • oxidation ditch
  21. 21.  Is a single or multiple shallow ponds designed to treat domestic sewage.  The depth of the pond from the surface is 0.5m to 1.0m for aerobic process, 1m to 2m for facultive process and 2m to 4m for anaerobic process.  Oxygen dissolve readily in the water through natural wind induction process.  Oxygen is the main component in the degration of pollutants using aerated bacteria.
  22. 22. The Oxidation Ditch (OD) is a modified form of the activated sludge system. Oxidation ditches are mechanical secondary treatment systems which are tolerant of variations in hydraulic and organic loads. The OD consists of a "ring or oval shaped channel" equipped with mechanical aeration devices. Screened wastewater, which enters the ditch is aerated and circulated. ODs typically have long detention times and are capable of removing between 75% and 95% of the Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). The proprietary "Orbal System" uses three channels or ditches concentrically placed. Each channel is independently aerated and can be configured to act in parallel or series with the other channels, depending upon the degree of treatment required. After screening and grit removal, sewage enters the outer channel where most of the biological reaction takes place. The second channel is held at a slightly higher dissolved oxygen content for further BOD and nutrient reduction. The innermost channel is used for polishing the effluent before it passes to a clarifier. ODs require more land than other processes but can be cheaper to construct and operate. There are currently approximately 30 ODs in Malaysia. The new modified ODs in Malaysia are located in Sg. Besi - Kuala Lumpur, Bayan Baru - Penang and Cyberjaya.
  23. 23. ADVANTAGE DISADVANTAGE Easy to maintain and does not require high Do not have the capacity to treat high technical skill concentration industrial sewage. Effiency of the treatment can reach up to 90% Not suitable for urban area due to high land cost Require large land area
  24. 24. Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC)
  25. 25. Using aerobic and facultative bacteria.  Bacteria growth on the rotating discs in contact with the sewage and decompose the organic matter in it.  The rotating biological contactor consists of these parts:+ circular discs made of plastic or other non-corrosive and durable materials. + Shaft rod assembled to the circular discs for rotation. + Durable motor is required to rotate the shaft at a low speed, which is 2 to 4 rotation per minute. + Tank to retain sewage. 
  26. 26. advantages disadvantages Suitable for treatment of domestic Easily clogged due to rapid sewage bacterial growth Require small construction areas Suitable in urban areas Require technical skills maintain the system
  27. 27. Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs) are mechanical secondary treatment systems, which are robust and capable of withstanding surges in organic load. Sewage entering a plant is passed through primary treatment where coarse material and grit is removed. The sewage then passes through one or more RBC units, which have historically been built in a variety of configurations. An RBC unit comprises a series of closely spaced "circular disks" normally made from a plastic material. The disks are partially submerged in the sewage and are slowly rotated through it. The rotating disks support the growth of bacteria and micro-organisms present in the sewage, which breakdown and stabilise organic pollutants. To be successful, micro-organisms need both oxygen to live and food grow. Oxygen is obtained from the atmosphere as the disks rotate. Effluent from the RBC is then passed through final clarifiers where the micro-organisms in suspension settle as a sludge. The sludge is withdrawn from the clarifier for further treatment. The Submerged Biological Contactor (SBC) is the modified version of the conventional RBC where the disks are 80% -100% submerged and forced air is introduced. RBC units are suitable where land is restricted. They are quite and consistently produce a high quality effluent. Because they are modular they are also suitable for a staged development. Operations and maintenance costs are lower than for other forms of mechanical treatment. There are currently approximately 40 RBC plants in Malaysia
  28. 28. High Rate Trickling Filter (HRTF)
  29. 29.  Aerobic sewage treatment method. The sewage is sprinkled onto the filtering layer and trickles through the filtering media.  The bacteria grows and cover the filtering media, trap and decompose the organic matter in the sewage when its passes through the trickling filter.  trickling filter consist of a circular tank which contains filtering media such as gravel or plastic synthetic medium, with a dimension of 50mm to 100mm. This recommended size keeps filtering media from clogging.  The filtering media is 2m to 3m thick
  30. 30. advantages Rotating speed can be changed to suit the required treatment level Requires minimum detention time, that is between 3 to 6 hours Can eliminate up to 95% contaminant in the sewage Do not require frequent maintenance because the slow rotating speed will only causes minimum damage disadvantages Efficiency drops when temperature of the sewage decreases
  31. 31. The modern trickling filter comprises a bed of highly permeable medium to which microorganisms are attached. Sewage is percolated or trickled through this media which is made from rocks (2cm to 10cm in size) or specially designed plastic. Rock beds are typically 2 meters deep and are circular. A revolving arm is used to distribute the sewage over the media. Plastic media varies in design with depths ranging from 4 to 12 meters depending upon the organic load. Filters under the media drain the effluent and biological solids, which have become detached from the media. Air is circulated back through the drainage system to the media. The effluent from the drain is settled before discharge to the receiving environment. Some effluent from the drain is recycled to dilute the strength of the incoming sewage and to ensure the media remain moist. As the effluent passes through the media organic material is absorbed onto the biological film or slime layer covering the media. Here is it degraded by aerobic microorganisms. As the slime layer grows an anaerobic environment is created near the media interface. Filters are classified by hydraulic or organic loading rates. Classifications are low rate, intermediate rate, high rate, super high rate and roughing. Re-circulation of filter effluent permits higher organic loadings in high rate filters.
  32. 32. High rate trickling filters remove between 65% to 85% of the organic load. They are used where there is sufficient land available and where a quiet operation is required. They can sustain some variation is hydraulic or organic load.
  33. 33. Recognize methods of individual septic tank (IST)
  34. 34. Individual Septic Tank (IST)
  35. 35.  Sistem pembentungan yang banyak terdapat di Malaysia ialah tangki septik individu.  Dianggarkan lebih kurang 1.2 juta premis mempunyai tangki septik individu.  Tangki septik individu yang sempurna iaitu mengikut piawaian Malaysia-MS 1228.  3 hingga 4 penutup segi empat tepat dan pada lazimnya berada di luar kawasan premis.  Kumbahan najis yang mengalir kedalam tangki septik tidak menjalani rawatan sepenuhnya dan tangki septik tersebut perlu dikosongkan secara berjadual lebih kurang setiap 2 tahun sekali agar ia berfungsi dengan lebih efisyen.
  36. 36.  Kenapa Pengosongan Tangki Septik Berjadual Penting? • Tanpa pengosongan tangki septik secara berjadual, air kumbahan yang tidak dirawat serta pepejal enap cemar najis akan mengalir ke saliran longkang seterusnya ke dalam sungai. • Ini akan menyebabkan kandungan oksigen yang terlarut di dalam sungai berkurangan dan mengakibatkan kematian hidupan akuatik • Air kumbahan yang tidak dirawat juga mengancam kesihatan awam kerana ia mengandungi bakteria dan virus patogenik yang boleh menyebabkan penyakit bawaan air
  37. 37. Individual Septic Tanks is one of the simplest forms of sewage treatment and dates back to the sewerage system development in France in 1860. An IST comprises two chambers connected in a series. In the first chamber, solids from the incoming sewage settle forming a "sludge", while greases and oils float to the surface forming a "scum" layer. Effluent from between the scum and sludge layers then passes into the second chamber where further sedimentation occurs. Finally, the effluent leaves the second chamber and is discharged into a drain or allowed to percolate into the soil. The sludge in the tank undergoes anaerobic digestion and is converted into more stable organic compounds and gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S). ISTs are usually designed for a 24-hour retention time. Enough storage capacity is provided so that scum and sludge can be deposited in the tank for up two years after which it must be desludged to keep the tank operating satisfactory. ISTs are suitable for single dwellings or individual buildings with a population equivalent (PE) up to 150 and installed where there is no central sewerage systems and where effluent discharges will not adversely effect the environment. It is a cheap solution to disposing of sewage. However, ISTs only partially treat sewage and concentrated groups oftanks can overload the capacity of the receiving environment creating health and odour problems. There are currently over one million ISTs in Malaysia, making it by far the most
  38. 38. Typical figures for ISTs are as follows: - Raw Sewage Effluent DOE Standard B Biochemical Oxygen Demand 200-400 150-200 50 } not applicable to Suspended Solids 200-350 50-100 100 } ISTs. (mg/L)
  39. 39. The final disposal process being carried out.      Sea Rivers Large surface water bodies Smaller, closed surface water bodies Wetlands and lagoons
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