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Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012
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Urban intelligence 9 - City Branding - November 2012

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Each month : an analysis from a Cities expert • A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month. …

Each month : an analysis from a Cities expert • A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month.

This month's subject: City branding
Next month's subject: The greatest city innovations and key events from 2012

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  • 1. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month November 2012 - City Branding Greg Clark, Moderator, MIPIM World Cities Blog. This month’s blogs have covered city branding and identity building. We have seen some amazing examples from Nordic cities, Glasgow, Vienna, Sydney, New London, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Barcelona and Aarhus. We have heard from Simon Cotterall about the importance of real brand execution, from David Adam about city brand commercialisation, and from Juan Carlos Belloso on how image and identity must be fused with authenticity. Stimulating demand side interest in cities remains an important challenge for many cities, and so the enthusiasm for brand strategies continued. Cities increasingly compete in contested international markets for a wide range of beneficial assets, opportunities, and investments that help the city to develop and generate opportunities and resources for their citizens. Increasingly, cities are using thoughtful promotional brand strategies to better project their advantages, and to foster a clear identity and reputation, that will help them win the competition for mobile opportunities over time. These identities and reputations are much more than logos or strap lines, they communicate a ‘whole story’ about the value added that the city can offer to mobile activities that have a choice where they locate. The purpose of the brand is to provide an authentic and aspirational message about the city. Increasingly, city governments are investing in building the brand platform of their cities so that a consistent set of messages, and style of messaging, can be used to reinforce the positive elements of the city’s offer. City governments are also fostering partnerships with private companies and institutions within their city to jointly invest in and communicate the same messages through a shared brand platform. The brand platform becomes the property of the whole city, not just the city government, although the city government will often provide leadership to the brand partnership. When done successfully this enables the city government to leverage resources and investment from other parties into the brand platform thus enhancing its scope and reducing the proportion of the costs paid by tax payers. I think of cities as having 4 different realms in which brand and identity exist. These are: i. The visitor brand ii. The citizen or resident brand iii. The investor or business brand iv. The leader or innovator brand Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 1|
  • 2. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month Investor/Business Visitor Brand Brand Common Identity and Story Resident / Citizen Innovator / Leader Brand Brand These different ideas about the brand story have to work together and have a means to support each other. It is a significant leadership task to do that. It is also difficult to build these different aspects of brand together. For example it is quite common for visitor brand to dominate and reduce the space in which other brands can operate. It is also common to have brand stories that are not compatible across the different realms. This is also problematic. City branding efforts have emerged from less sophisticated forms of city marketing. The marketing of urban places has been practiced, at least, since the nineteenth century, although cities have only tended to rely on marketing methods in the latter decades of the twentieth century, when competition for inward investment, tourism revenues and residents at various spatial scales has intensified. In particular, the rise of the so-called ‘entrepreneurial city’ allowed city marketing to become one of the defining features of urban governance from the 1970s. The shift from city marketing to city branding has largely taken place due to a growing recognition that image formulation and communication play a key role in the city marketing mix. The manipulation of city images, cultures and experiences has arguably become the most important part of the political armoury of urban governors and their coalition partners in the entrepreneurial era. Since branding endows a product with a specific and more distinctive identity, and that is, in many ways, what city marketing sought to do for cities, it is only appropriate that city authorities have increasingly moved towards creating a recognisable city brand, rather than a more generic city marketing mix. The key difference between marketing and branding is that marketing uses consumer wishes and needs as its guiding principle for the operations of an organisation, while in the case of branding, a chosen vision, mission and identity play that role.i When and why do city brands fail? Bill Baker, President, Total Destination Management, has prepared a summary of the key reasons behind the failure of city branding exercises. These are identified and make sober reading: 1. Insufficient understanding of branding: a branding partnership that has an understanding of brand management, and the concepts and techniques needed for a brand strategy, has a much better chance of defining its strongest positioning and brand elements. Briefings should be built into the planning phases to ensure that stakeholders are well informed about the strategic nature of branding and its benefits. Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 2|
  • 3. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month Central to this is an understanding that branding is much more than a new logo, slogan or advertising campaign. 2. Lack of stakeholder buy-in: sustaining a brand once it is launched requires the broad adoption and correct use of the brand by all stakeholders who have an influence over its most important points of contact with customers. If the brand is only used through advertising and stationery, its impact will be limited. The most effective approach is to build stakeholder buy-in from the earliest stages of the planning process and then maintain regular communications with those stakeholders. 3. Failure to grasp the scope of branding: also referred to as ‘logo and tagline fixation’. Many communities forget to ensure that they are able to orchestrate outstanding visitor experiences before they roll-out a publicity and advertising campaign. This is vital, since branding is about delivering on a promise and is based on differentiation, focus, and organisation. Supporting this idea is a statement by Paul O’Connor, Executive Director, World Business Chicago, who has stated that: ‘the greatest piece of advice I can give to other cities is to accept taglines only as a last resort. A tagline passes for branding, but it is not the same thing. Taglines are fragile, limited or too broad. They do not represent who you really are. A brand is the DNA of a place, what it is made of, what it passes from generation to generation. It is authentic and indicates what makes a place different from others.’ ii 4. Focusing on short-term results: ‘heads in beds’ is vitally important to the viability of cities and their tourism partners. However, setting brand objectives focusing on short-term traffic alone is unlikely to support the long-term health of the city’s brand image. An over-emphasis on tactical and price driven initiatives restricts the communication of the core brand messages which shape perceptions and positioning - it takes time to build positive awareness, associations, name recognition and reputation. 5. Forgetting the customer’s view: insufficient customer focus and undue political influence and self-interest will mean the brand is almost bound to fail. The preference by some political and opinion leaders to adopt risk averse, parochial, inclusive, self-interest, or popular positions can run counter to the best interests of a city trying to promote its competitive edge. The focus should be on distilling the single strongest competitive advantage that will resonate with the external customer. Too many city branding efforts fail because they are based on what locals like and how they see themselves, rather than on what will be meaningful and valued by their external customers. 6. Not agreeing what is being branded: what are the spatial boundaries of branding? Is it just the downtown or the entire city? Is it the overarching brand for all marketing efforts on behalf of the city? There is a delicate balance in the geographical and political scope of a brand. If the brand tries to cover too wide an area and address too many different audiences, it may become diluted. All stakeholders should be clear from the outset about the parameters of the assignment, ensure the correct problems are being solved, and be prepared to pay attention to the underlying issues. 7. Insufficient or irrelevant research: research, particularly consumer attitudinal research, will provide an insightful view in determining perceptions and the strongest competitive positioning. Importantly, cities need to understand how prospective customers view the city compared to competitor cities. Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 3|
  • 4. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month 8. The ‘we have it all’ trap: cities should not try to be all things to all people. Claiming that a city ‘has it all’ may appease various local groups and avoid difficult positioning decisions, but will invariably lead to very weak positioning. Failing to base the brand on its strongest and most distinctive benefits from the customer’s perspective will result in a weak and irrelevant proposition. In support of this concept, CEOs for Cities notes that target audiences need to be minimised in number and prioritised based on importance.iii 9. Not following the strategy: when no-one has been given the responsibility to actively manage or protect the brand, the effort can be patchy and will usually stray from the prescribed strategy and guidelines. Successful brands are closely managed and protected, but responsibility for this is sometimes not well defined. If the guidelines are not closely followed, the brand will be presented in an ad hoc and inconsistent manner. A significant part of city branding is about change management and transitioning to a more effective focus for leadership, messages, resources and behaviour. 10. The lure of ‘bright shiny objects’: advertising is important, but designing a brand with an over-emphasis on an advertising theme is a recipe for failure. CEOs for Cities suggests that rather than spending limited resources on an expensive advertising campaign, integrating grassroots tactics such as events, city tours and PR success stories as ways to build awareness and word of mouth 11. Forgetting about the brand experience and the city’s ‘reality’: a city brand is a promise of the city’s performance. It must be grounded in truth and reality; if the city does not live up to the promise, the brand will be weak and unsustainable. 12. Unhelpful mindsets: cities which are prepared to ‘think outside the box’ are the most likely to develop potent brand positioning and outcomes. Creating community-based brands is most effective when participants have an open and collaborative attitude in contributing to the common good. 13. Brand fatigue: it is an old marketing truism that marketers get tired of marketing long before customers do. Some organisations depart from their brand strategy a small step at a time because they get tired of it, and over a year or so, become considerably off-strategy. An important key to successful place branding is to maintain consistency in all creative executions and in delivering the brand experience. Branding is long-term and cumulative. It is an ongoing organising and management principle that needs continued focus to shape and deliver the brand over time. 14. Making brand planning a ‘DIY’ project and not engaging specialist skills: even though engaging professionals means paying more, the overall results for the city’s reputation will more than pay for itself. An outside agency or consultant can guide the city branding partnership through the difficult analysis and decisions that may be overlooked by individuals without specialist skill and previous experience. i. European Institute for Brand Management website (http://www.eurib.org/en/home.html) ii. cited in ‘Branding Your City’ CEOs for Cities (March 2006) (http://www.globalchicago.org/reports/pdf/CEOsforCitiesBrandingYourCity2006.pdf) iii. ibid Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 4|
  • 5. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month Discover this month’s articles: October 15, 2012 City Branding: The seven habits – Page 7 The Seven habits of highly effective cities: providing urban leaders with the magnet that combines people and institutions together in a common identity and purpose. October 23, 2012 Glasgow: Where more really means more – Page 11 Conference and major event organisers are increasingly choosing Glasgow as they discover that it’s a great place to do business and a city which keeps its word… October 24, 2012 City Brand Success: Vienna – Page 13 In the year 2009 the Vienna Tourist Board carried out a relaunch in the wake of an extensive survey and analysis of about 11,000 guests. This resulted in the development of an advertising strategy that sets out to convince not only at a rational level using side-by-side evidence, but also at an emotional level. October 30, 2012 Commercialisation of place brands – 16 Cities must build active marketing partnerships and go beyond extensive product lines in order to better exploit the city brand. October 31, 2012 City Branding in Nordics: A framework of success factors– Page 18 Analysing the success factors and road map of the city branding programs of Helsinki, Stockholm, Copenhagen and Chicago. November 5, 2012 Executing a City Brand Strategy – Page 21 The need for developing a city brand is understood, the difficulty lies in bringing that brand to life in the most physical way possible. November 5, 2012 Hong Kong: Asia’s World City – Page 23 ‘Asia’s world city’ slogan is defined by its core values: free, enterprising, excellence, innovative and quality living. Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 5|
  • 6. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month November 6, 2012 Singapore: A City in a Garden – Page 25 Singapore will find global success by promoting Singaporean science, know how, firms, services, and products, in addition to its strengths as a location and destination. November 9, 2012 New York City: The Big Green Apple? – Page 27 New York needs to continue to promote the city internationally as an ideal place for start-up ventures, while ensuring that public policy continues to be pro-business. November 12, 2012 Sydney: Asia Pacific World City – Page 28 Sydney must leverage its inherent strengths as a visitor destination to build a broader business and knowledge offer. November 12, 2012 Tokyo: Identity and Reputation and a Resilient Brand, but is Tokyo an Open City? – Page 30 Tokyo intends to promote its brand to the world, “presenting the world with a vision of how cities should be.” Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 6|
  • 7. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month City Branding: The seven habits The Seven habits of highly effective cities: providing urban leaders with the magnet that combines people and institutions together in a common identity and purpose. By Greg Clark Image: Flickr-Ed Coyle Photography This month series of blogs will cover city branding. makes investors and firms reluctant to leave us There is now a global conversation on cities and even when competition is fierce. A city identity branding that is worthwhile reviewing. We know helps people to embrace the soul of the city and to that cities have reputations and identities that they become a friend, not just a customer. want to protect and enhance, but does this mean that city branding will work? And is city branding a Twenty five years ago we thought that cities needed different activity from product or company brands largely in order to attract tourists. But now, branding? in 2012 we realise that much more of the content of what makes up a city is mobile, and is contested Building a lasting city identity and reputation is through international competition. For example, one of the profound, but often mysterious goals these days it is not just tourists, but also students, that city leaders face. If we can build a city identity researchers, innovators, investors, entrepreneurs, that is attractive, powerful, commanding affection knowledge workers, institutions, sports and and wonder with a sense of belonging, confidence business events, film shoots, festivals, summits, and trust, that identity will help us to solve many of technology facilities and a host of other activities the other challenges that cities face. A positive that are mobile. Cities do compete to win or retain identity can give us the ‘benefit of the doubt’ when such activities. It is not enough for a city to have a choices are made; it can maintain outside interest in brand that attracts tourists, cities must have an our city even when we go through rough times and identity that reaches across different markets and compel people to help us even without evidence of customers and tell a unifying story about the value their own likely return. A positive identity also the city can add to the activity that is looking for a Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 7|
  • 8. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month home. We cannot tell one story to the students and want to show what the city can do as well. Without another to the business people, for example, a common city identity there is only the individual because the students may become business people, stories of each separate organisation or each and the business people sometimes also study. We individual, and this is too diffuse to communicate need an organising story across many markets, not with confidence. Cities need one song even if they just a sales campaign within one of them. have many voices. Looking at the competition to host Olympics So what do the successful cities do to find and to Games and World Cups is very instructive. communicate their identity. What are the habits of Increasingly we hear that: ‘the city with the best success that make cities winners in the personality technical bid was not the winner’. The untold rule is war that happens between cities, often that the technical bid is only part of the process. unnoticed? Steven Covey’s wonderful The identity and story that the bidding cities book[i] taught us that here are always seven laws present are also a major part of the communication. of success, and here they are: At the heart of this is always how effective the cities are in aligning their own identity with the identity of 1. Prioritise city identity and reputation the event itself. The cities that win demonstrate and Almost obviously, cities must prioritise this kind of communicate shared values, aspirations, concerns, thinking, and way of communicating and relating and priorities with the event organisers, not just with the rest of the world. Deciding to build an through technical submissions, but also through identity and a reputation is an important step that personality. moves cities away from simply providing services and infrastructures into the realm of ‘winning London won the Olympics for 2012 without the best friends sand influencing people’. technical bid. Barcelona did not make a strong case This is difficult to do because media, political to be Capital Secretariat of the Mediterranean opposition, and citizens are sometimes sceptical Union but was given the role anyway, despite a about the value of city identity. City mayors face strong bid from Marseilles. Once Brazil bid for the ‘trial by headlines’ if they spend too much on a logo, FIFA 2014 World Cup, the others realised they a strap line, or hosting an expensive event. But could not win. Some places simply have such strong prioritisation of this way of working also means identities that they have a head start in doing things the right way and doing them well. It competitions of this kind. requires deep thinking, analysis, and wisdom. There are good ways and bad ways to do it and you must Having a clear identity means that a city can align its know the difference. The bad ways are an expensive identity with the identity of others and create a waste. powerful sense of alliance, compatibility, and Singapore and Abu Dhabi have invested decisively shared destiny. So, without a clear identity it is hard in building globally appealing identities that have to win the contests for mobile activities. won them extensive popular interest and support, because their identities are based on deep self This does not just go for hosting global events. knowledge and a rigorous assessment of what the Exporting a city’s business products, attracting world wants now and will seek in the future. inter-governmental funding, and becoming the location for a film shoot or summit are also subject 2. Know our city deeply. to the basic and primary law of relationship The first task for a city leader is to know our city, to building, and the emotional communication that know ourselves. This means connecting past, goes with it. present, and future and understanding the origins of the city, the journey it is on, the people who have A city identity can also be a collaboration made it, the decisions that were taken, the values mechanism for the many stakeholders in a city that and vision that led the city in the past, and the role Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 8|
  • 9. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month the city has played, and can play, in the lives of the are the ingredients for successful pharmaceutical people who live here, or visit. The unique story of locations and we see an example of the science of the city must be clear and be well told. understanding both the global demand, and the Many cities have more than one story, cities have global best practice. the ability to simultaneously be different things, they can offer great ‘alternatives’ in unique 4. Build a family for the city combinations. They can accept and integrate A city is a dispersed network of different ambiguity. Consider Jerusalem or Istanbul. organisations that make up its governance and its It is essential to be honest and robust, to see history stakeholders. The city government is one of these, fully, and to know precisely, the unique but does not have a monopoly over resources or characteristics that our city has. We must celebrate assets, and it must therefore be a good leader of the city in order to see what lies behind the the others. The city government must build a family history. We have to know and articulate the DNA of organisations where each have their own identity of the city. but are a part of the collective identity that is the Cape Town hosted the 2010 FIFAS World Cup along family. This is not easy, key organisations and with other South African Cities. Despite a history of stakeholders are also part of other families (like colonisation and racial strife, Cape Town emerged global firms, national or regional governments, as a distinctive and diverse city with great spirit and sectored institutions, etc). They have other loyalties purpose, and an extraordinarily diverse population too. They use different ‘surnames’ and cannot see and appeal, well placed to leap forwards in the next themselves as members of the city’s family too 20 years. easily. But they must be ‘adopted’ and this often means that the city must also become part of their 3. Know other cities very well other families too, making a contribution to success Knowing ourselves also means knowing others very of that family into the bargain. well, and being willing to be humble; to see that Amsterdam and Berlin have built ‘partners clubs’ to others are better than us in some respects and we manage their identity and brand. Amsterdam have to learn. Unless we deeply understand the Partner and Berlin Partner own and manage the ‘I strengths of other, it is hard to see our weaknesses. Amsterdam’ and ‘Be Berlin’ identities on behalf of a City leaders often say that reading the many city large family of followers. These organisations co-opt rankings and indexes is partly about seeing how ‘partners’ into their city identity family and share their city is doing compared to others, but also, resources with them. importantly, it is about seeing which other cities are making progress and doing well, so that we can 5. Make the city’s promise personal learn from them. Once a clear identity emerges and is crystallised, Knowing and understanding the strengths of other and we know what the outside world is looking for, cities is key, but it is also essential to know what it is essential to make it personal for people we mobile investors and talents want. What does the want to attract, or retain, in the city. Institutions demand side really tell us? What do they need, how and companies and events are led by people. This can we communicate our offer? For many cities, the means knowing what part the city cam play in their failure to understand their offer from the informed success or wellbeing and showing how effectively perspective of understanding global demand is the we can add value to them. Our city might be a place big weakness: they cannot see themselves ‘from of opportunity, a melting pot, a junction box, or an the outside in’ because they do not know what ‘the open city with freedom of thought, or it might have outside’ is thinking. deep entrepreneurial spirit, or a place of invention, Our Swiss Cities have learned a great deal about a sanctuary or haven, a seat of learning. It may be what makes a successful location for advanced many of these things. The city’s personality comes industries by studying what others are doing. Look to life when we describe what it can offer to at the work that Basel has done to understand what others in ways that are meaningful to them. How it Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 9|
  • 10. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month can be a friend to them? How can the city help that their part in history is secure if they move the them fulfil their potential or aspirations? city forwards. Barcelona’s initiative ‘Do it in Barcelona!’ is not just Turin has had two great leaders since it fought back a way to attract entrepreneurs, it is way to suggest against the industrial crisis in the early 1990s. that Barcelona provides a special platform for Both Valentino Castellani and Sergio entrepreneurial success. Champiarino have built the city identity and renewed its offer, and those who follow will do the 6. Renew the city and align the experience with same. Turin is on a long term road to recovery that the identity. will take several business cycles to complete. So it is The fabric of cities can get worn or depleted. People too with emerging cities. Sao Paulo can be the most grow tired of tourists or the road and rail networks important city in the Southern hemisphere, but it is become over used, or the service goes bad. This is not there yet, so patience will be required. normal, and to be expected. But once we have city Overall, we know that city identity can be an identity, we have also made a promise that our city essential asset for city builders, and it is not will be the way we say it is. It is essential therefore possible to succeed if we ignore it. But getting there to consistently upgrade, renew, and refresh the requires great skill and a willingness to work hard at experience that people have of our city. Identity it consistently. and reputation will help us get the extra good will One big challenge that cities face comes from the we need for a while, but in the end the experience dominant role of national governments. In the last of city must be aligned with our story. We need the century, Nation States offered an important identity whole family to help us do that. for making choices between competing alternative We must therefore solve problems rigorously as locations for mobile activity. In this century, we they arise and get the point where we prevent know that cities and metropolitan regions offer the problems from emerging because we know we are competitive platform that nations need, and yet protecting our identity from corrosion or sabotage. some confusion between national identities and city Maintaining a good climate, having open access, identities abounds. Is Hong Kong a Chinese city or and good infrastructure will all require consistent not? How English is London? Is Milan part of Italy or attention. We cannot just focus on promoting the a reaction against it? Will Mumbai or Delhi be assets; we must keep the climate good. India’s great business city? These ambiguities have When New York fixed its crime problem in the to be finessed so that National Governments can 1990s, it was renewing its identity as a great city for help to build and promote city identity, and people and entrepreneurs, and it has not looked reinforce the promise that they make, and the back since. dividend they provide to the country as a whole. Aligning national and city identities is a key 7. Build of the next generation of the city with challenge for our next decade. integrity and consistency. A city identity is not enough to succeed on its own, Building a city identity is a long term game. The but it is an essential ingredient. Cities must also rewards come in the longer term but they build up have ambitious and capable citizens, good services, over time. So city leaders must be recognised for healthy governance, efficient infrastructure and the ‘lap they have run’ and not be encouraged to resource management and a good climate for try to win the gold medal before the race is investment. These things have to be brought over. ‘Quick wins’ must never be taken at the together with wise strategy and a strong base of expense of long term gains. Because a city identity support. builds up over time, it is a legacy that is given to the Cities have to manage change, adjust to dynamic next generations, and city leaders should be judged, trends, and shape the future. But without city not by whether they got immediate return, but by identity this is much harder to do, and the outcome whether the identity and reputation improved is less effective. The key point is this, identity does under their leadership. City leaders can rest assured not just sell our city, it is also critical to shaping and Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 10 |
  • 11. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month building our city, providing for city leaders the the deep story of how the cities can be the leaders magnet that can combine people and institutions of the 21st Century, as they were in centuries past, together in a common identity and purpose. What can we discover their future role in leading nations we call city leadership is a more pressing imperative and citizens to the next frontier. than most of us are willing to say. Only by narrating Glasgow: Where more really means more Conference and major event organisers are increasingly choosing Glasgow as they discover that it’s a great place to do business and a city which keeps its word… By Scott Taylor Image: Flickr-Rupert Brun We are entering a key period in Glasgow’s events. Glasgow entered the sporting limelight five economic history; one where it is important to years ago when we won the right to host forge ahead during challenging times by building on the Commonwealth Games in 2014. And while the the city’s many strengths and the opportunities that global focus is now turning towards those Games in are coming our way. the wake of London’s successful Olympics and Paralympics, as a city we are continuing to work A real strength is the resilience of Glasgow’s hard at attracting more major events beyond 2014. tourism sector which continues to lead the city’s economic resurgence, thanks in part to our strategy This process really began two years ago when we of attracting a diverse portfolio of international became the first city in the UK to launch a conferences and major sporting and cultural formal Major Events Charter, which guarantees the Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 11 |
  • 12. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month provision of support for organisers considering London’s 02 Arena. When an artist lands in the UK bringing major sporting and cultural events to they will come to The Hydro, and to Glasgow. As Glasgow. We followed on from that earlier this year a UNESCO City of Music, Glasgow stages an average when we unveiled our specific Major Sports Events of 130 music events every week. We’re a very lively Strategy, which is aimed at positioning Glasgow as city, which is probably a result of our very youthful one of the world’s leading destinations for sport population. through to 2018 – reflecting our bid to host the 2018 Youth Olympic Games. As well as acting as a magnet for young people, Glasgow’s five universities also drive forward the Our ambitions were recognised at this year’s Sport city’s reputation as a world-leading centre Accord Convention in Quebec, Canada, when for academic excellence and quality research, Glasgow was named one of the world’s top 10 particularly in the fields of medicine and life sporting cities ahead of major destinations sciences –we’re currently building Europe’s largest including Paris, Tokyo and Moscow. We also hospital. It’s little wonder then that conventions are retained our position as the number one city in the intrinsic to our events strategy. Business tourism world in terms of sports marketing and secured over the past seven years has been worth branding. As well as the 2014 Commonwealth more than £800 million to the city’s economy; Games, Glasgow will host the 2012 UCI Track generating three million conference delegate hotel Cycling World Cup in November; the 2013 IFNA room bookings – and we’re on target to achieve World Youth Netball Championships; the 2013 UCI the £1 billion milestone in 2013. World Junior Track Cycling Championships; the 2015 IPC European Swimming In the first seven months of the current financial Championships and the 2015 World Artistic year alone (April to October 10 2012), 324 new Gymnastics Championships. conferences have been won – securing around 425,000 hotel delegate room nights – which are It’s a virtuous circle. As a city, we have invested worth £131 million. Looking ahead, we have some £300 million in infrastructure for sporting confirmed conference business on our books facilities and we have developed a reputation for through to 2021 and we’re bidding for new hosting major events, which then gives us the conventions business as far out as 2024. In winning capacity to specifically, and deliberately, bid for this business, Glasgow has beaten off strong some of the biggest events in the world, like the competition from San Francisco, Tokyo, Paris, Youth Olympics. Rome, Bucharest and Berlin. Alongside our packed schedule of sports events is Today, conference delegates account for one in five an equally vibrant calendar of cultural events. The hotel beds sold in Glasgow, underscoring the new Scottish Hydro Arena – or ‘The Hydro’ as it has importance of conventions to the city and further become known – is currently being built as part of strengthening our reputation both as the Scottish Exhibition + Conference Centre the conference capital of Scotland and a major (SECC) in Glasgow in partnership with AEG. With a player within the international conventions total capacity of 13,000, this impressive venue will market. One of the keys to this success is a clever open next September and play host to around 140 approach to sponsorship. It can be difficult for our events every year, from national and international conference clients to raise sponsorship revenue music mega stars to global entertainment and around their events, particularly within the medical sporting events –injecting approximately £131 sector. So what we’ve done in Glasgow is come up million into the city’s economy. Moreover, it’s with a series of sponsorship platforms for our expected to be in the top five busiest indoor music clients, all based on opportunities we either create arenas in the world, alongside such iconic venues or leverage within the city. As a result, we recently as Madison Square Garden in New York and generated a seven percent share of the Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 12 |
  • 13. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month sponsorship revenue for one of our major UK We’ve also learned how to negotiate with the conference clients. hospitality industry for the benefit of conference and event organisers. We’re not here to make a At the Diabetes UK professional conference in profit out of organisers; they can be secure in the Glasgow earlier this year, for example, sponsorship knowledge that their brand equity, their revenue support was secured from a medical company streams and their client base are considered through a bespoke conference iPhone app; a paramount. product which was initiated and developed Glasgow recognises that by making the city an by Glasgow City Marketing Bureau. We’ve found attractive place to do business then conference that you can make yourself quite a popular and event organisers will return. The Glasgow destination if you can create innovative revenue business model is based on service and loyalty – the streams that previously did not exist for event city’s reputation is built on delivering on our organisers. promises! As well as maximising revenues, Glasgow offers reduced cost. Global financial adviser Mercer’s Scott Taylor is Chief Executive of Glasgow City 2012 Cost of Living Survey found that the city was Marketing Bureau (GCMB) – Glasgow’s official one of the least expensive to visit, ranking 161st in destination marketing organisation. As custodian of the world. Unashamedly, Glasgow is a price fighter the Glasgow: Scotland with style brand, GCMB in Europe, and the cost of our accommodation, works to position and promote Glasgow across visitor attractions, restaurants, museums and national and international markets as one of galleries provide excellent value. The price points of Europe’s most vibrant, dynamic and diverse cities in our restaurants are geared towards a younger which to live, work, study, invest and visit. For more audience and with 40,000 covers you can dine information, visit www.seeglasgow.com. extremely well for not a lot of money. City Brand Success: Vienna In the year 2009 the Vienna Tourist Board carried out a relaunch in the wake of an extensive survey and analysis of about 11,000 guests. This resulted in the development of an advertising strategy that sets out to convince not only at a rational level using side-by-side evidence, but also at an emotional level. By Norbert Kettner Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 13 |
  • 14. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month Image: Flickr- Krister462 A framework without constraints However, this presupposes a frank and critical Brand leadership is not a grassroots democratic attitude towards one’s own strengths and process, but is based on the free / standing leg weaknesses. As a city, it does help to be the best in principle. The resulting activities are based on at least one area (and this applies to Vienna in careful analysis of the facts. Once the basic many respects!). But a city and its marketers should guidelines have been developed, calculated and at least be familiar with their weaknesses, too, and carefully controlled deviations from these know how to deal with them. There is nothing more guidelines offer a mature and self-confident access dreary than ill-considered clichés presented in a to the theme of brand leadership in accordance mistakable way – both for the general public and with the motto: you can break any rule as long as for oneself. you know it. To this extent, Vienna does not view the resulting brand process as a constraint, but as a  Vienna’s standing leg: brand analysis framework within the confines of which the Brand image can only be controlled to a limited occasional “transgression” is admissible. extent, and is nothing more or less than a prejudice, ideally a positive one. If many people share the Without such transgressions, one rapidly ends up same prejudice about a thing – such as a in an international branding no man’s destination, for instance – then we can already land, depending on which branding philosophy refer to a “brand”. However, as the individuals (“guru”) the city places its faith in. We are all green, responsible for advertising for the destination modern, creative and cool. So far, so mistakable. Vienna, there are only very few instances in which However, the uncoolest thing of all is to claim that we can control the factors leading to image building one is green, modern, creative and cool. All this can – and in point of fact this never works with a large be proved entirely by facts or the manner in which metropolis. And this is a good thing, too, since it is one does things. The observer’s emotions are then precisely this uncontrollability that gives a city its involuntarily aroused. charm. Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 14 |
  • 15. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month However what we can certainly do is to know the characteristics belonging to the “imperial image of our destination and the concrete factors Vienna” brand module. Vienna is also perceived as underlying it; in other words, the characteristics of a world capital of music and culture. The underlying the destination that produce a correspondingly factors here include the variety of classical concerts, positive resonance. The important thing is to focus three opera houses, world-famous theatres, and on these in one’s communication. This is more the Vienna Boys’ Choir. However, the city of Vienna productive than simply racking one’s brains over a also stands for a unique “lifestyle”: the culture of new logo, putting out a new image brochure, or enjoyment and Viennese “savoir vivre”. This image pumping financial resources into a new advertising is underpinned above all by a unique and very campaign. special coffee-house culture, the city’s viniculture with its heuriger wine taverns, and by Viennese In 2009, the Vienna Tourist Board conducted an cuisine – from wiener schnitzel to Sachertorte and extensive market analysis in order to establish what gugelhupf. Moreover Vienna is regarded as a very the destination brand Vienna stands for clean, safe, walkable, friendly and clearly arranged internationally, what its success factors are for city – in other words, as a smoothly functioning city, tourism, and the concrete measures that should be which is an important factor in city travel for taken to successfully position the destination tourists the world over. And finally, Vienna has a Vienna. As part of a new marketing strategy, this very high proportion of parks and gardens – the international study did not involve looking at the fifth brand module. Parks, gardens, recreational question of “old, traditional Vienna” versus “new, areas such as the Danube Island and the Prater and modern Vienna”, but focused instead the vineyards give the city a harmonious balance of on understanding the destination in its entirety, urban and green areas. interpreting it as a brand, and defining the most important elements of its identity. The results of  From marketing analysis to advertising this analysis provided the basis for Vienna’s concept: VIENNA – NOW OR NEVER! worldwide tourism advertising line and for Thanks to our brand analysis, we also know both marketing activities designed to reflect the the factors that create a positive Vienna image, and destination optimally in tune with the times. the weighting of the individual modules and brand drivers. This makes the Vienna brand “manageable”  Vienna’s brand modules – and hence we were able to clearly define the A total of 11,000 guests and potential guests in nine commission for our advertising agency, with the different countries were asked about their reasons following result: the newly developed logo (the for taking a Vienna vacation – in other words, about design of which evolved from the previous one, but their positive prejudices. The result can be stripped down and in a more modern style) and the condensed into a total of five brand images (also “VIENNA” lettering together with the new claim and referred to internally as brand modules): web address are placed inside a square, though the  Imperial heritage red typeface on a white background has been  Profusion of music and culture retained. As far as the claim is concerned, we came  Viennese “savoir vivre” to the realization that the city’s manifold  Functional efficiency attractions and activities cannot be reduced to a  Balance of urban and green areas single statement. This would inevitably be abstract Vienna is a city with an impressive imperial and ineffective. Instead, with the new claim the heritage. Especially in the historic city centre, this is basic strategic challenge is to transform Vienna what characterizes the streetscape. There are from a “once in a lifetime” destination to a “now several factors determining this image behind the and forever” destination, condensed in a saying first brand module: the brand drivers. For that is common in languages around the world and example, Schönbrunn Palace, the Ringstrasse that every toddler learns is a call to action: “NOW boulevard and the Imperial Palace are OR NEVER!” In order to achieve greater Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 15 |
  • 16. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month differentiation and recognisability, we also they could be experiencing in Vienna “at this very developed a new imagery incorporating elements moment”. A comparison of these two situations is such as image detail, perspective, light, colouring, the structural element that is rounded out by the choice of theme, etc., which at the same time claim: “VIENNA – NOW OR NEVER!” It is therefore a presents Vienna as a modern, cosmopolitan, comparison of moments: “At this very moment, you international and living metropolis. The images are missing…” The campaign incorporates a show exciting perspectives with a modern persuasion strategy built on facts. Because it is photographic aesthetic that does not look artificial. infinitely variable, the strategy behind it can be used and extended in many different ways. At this  The persuasion strategy very moment, you can experience something more We were clear about the development process for exciting in Vienna than you can at home: a visit to the Vienna brand: since each brand component and Schönbrunn Palace, to the Vienna State Opera or a the communication goals formulated for it festival, a glass of Viennese wine at a heuriger wine represents a claim that has not been verified, some tavern, a slice of guglhupf at a coffee-house, etc. persuasion is also needed. Proof is needed to persuade the public that our claims are true. Our At b2b.wien.info/en/media/pictures, you can form strategy is designed to cause consumers to think an impression of the way in which Vienna advertises they have come up with the desired ideas and attempts to persuade visitors to come here. I independently and of their own accord. A variety of hope that you, too, will come to the conclusion that different strategies are used to this end. Side-by- your (next) visit to Vienna had better be “NOW OR side evidence is one such persuasion strategy NEVER!” deployed in Vienna’s new advertising line. Consumers can form their own opinions based on Further information: an objective, observable comparison: they can B2C website: www.wien.info B2B website: b2b.wien.info compare their current situation with what is Vienna brand: b2b.wien.info/en/brand available in Vienna at the same time. Around the globe, people in everyday situations can see what Commercialisation of place brands Cities must build active marketing partnerships and go beyond extensive product lines in order to better exploit the city brand. By David Adam Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 16 |
  • 17. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month Image: Flickr-raketentim  Can a city brand make money and pay for expansion is almost like a franchise as it is now itself? moving into previously independent toy lines such The commercialisation of place brands is in its as ‘GoGos’, Top Trumps, and classics such as infancy. If we look at the commercial sphere – Monopoly. The extent of the franchise and the where branding is at its most sophisticated – and ease with it forms commercial partnerships compare a city to a product such as MindCandy’s demonstrates the true power of the brand. Moshi Monsters or a famous personality like David Beckham, it is clear in both instances that both But there are few places, cities or regions that have ‘brands’ stretch across multiple products and have a truly set out on a strategy to commercialise and sprawling brand architecture which grows exploit their brands and those that have are still in seemingly effortlessly into all that they touch. the early stages of their approach. New York has actively pursued an approach of commercialising Beckham’s is the exemplification of the modern- its brand and brand logo, carefully taking an day branding strategy in that the brand came first inventory of its assets – and where possible creating and the commercialisation followed, forming brand product lines such as NYPD and FDNY hats and partnerships with major labels such sweatshirts. This has been much more difficult of as Adidas and Pepsi as well as creating new course with the classic I ♥ NY symbol being owned independent products such as his own brand of by New York State. But maybe the city of New men’s fragrance. York’s greatest success is not in logo commercialisation but in the spirit and heart of Anyone in the UK with young children will be New York being alive and seen in every film that is familiar with Moshi Monsters – originally a digital produced there. What bigger commercialisation pet based in an online world – and its extraordinary success can be achieved by a city than to be expansion into multiple product-lines. It’s usual for portrayed in films such as the Spiderman franchise a brand like this to reach the school lunch-boxes where an active marketing partnership exists? and duvet covers, but the brand’s continued Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 17 |
  • 18. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month London has made some forays into this area of  Commercial Partnerships of the Future product brand lines, with various product lines On the matter of commercial partnerships however, created by Visit London to try and exploit the cities are trailing. Not in comparison with each natural desire of every tourist to prove they’ve other, but failing to match the speed at which the visited a major world city. But in the area of private sector is exploiting city brands. Nowhere commercial partnerships, surely the most effective can this be seen more than in the case of Olympic method to gain visibility, by leasing the brand and Games. Cities are yet to truly win from this holy letting the commercial partner undertake the grail of a brand partnership in which the power of marketing, London now has the architecture and the Olympic Rings, the power of global brands and approach in place. The marketing organization the power of the city brand come together. That’s London & Partners was created specifically to build why most commercial brands are willing to pay an brand and commercial partnerships and has now ‘entry fee’ of $70m before even beginning to build put in place a series of brand ‘kite marks’ to work advertising and product marketing campaigns to with tourism and business partners offering services plaster the city and reach consumers. to tourists or inward investors which enable them to exploit the power of the London brand and Yes, cities have got wise and are creating extensive capture the benefits of ‘officialness’. London & product lines which exploit the city brand and go Partners benefits as its inward investment or towards paying for the Games – London will prove tourism promotion is undertaken directly by a to have been extraordinarily successful in this partner. strategy when the post-Games reckoning is complete – but no-one has yet been able to ensure London has not been able to develop this model as that when THE greatest commercial circus arrives in swiftly as Berlin, where Berlin and Partners has town, they have created immediate economic created a brand architecture which allows lead benefit for the city – not just funding the Games but partners such as Siemens or even foreign-owned paying for city legacy projects – or have built long- BAE Systems to co-brand in the “ich bin ein term economic partnerships that will ensure lasting berliner’ campaign thereby showing the specialist brand partnerships with mutual benefit. Imagine sectors that the city can host and enabling the the multiple advantages for the city that might grow commercial partner to set themselves as the leader from a structured commercial brand system like in that sector. Berlin’s. There is still time for Rio to be a trailblazer in this field. City Branding in Nordics: A framework of success factors Analysing the success factors and road map of the city branding programs of Helsinki, Stockholm, Copenhagen and Chicago. By Dr. Seppo K. Rainisto Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 18 |
  • 19. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month Image: Flickr- J. A. Alcaide marketing. World Business Chicago (WBC) as a public-private (non-profit) partnership had actively sought this status, with aggressive promotion for the region. CopCap, B.A.S. and GHP (HRM) are This framework is based on the analysis (2003) organised in a form of a private firm. about inward investment marketing and city branding programs of the Helsinki, Stockholm, THE FRAMEWORK OF SUCCESS FACTORS Copenhagen metropolitan regions and Chicago (USA). In Finland the cities of Espoo, The study can be found online here! Salo and Sastamala and the network of 50 regional The framework has three “dimensions” of success towns have carried out a city brand-road-map factors. The elements in the inner part (planning process (2008-2012) using this framework and group, vision and strategic analysis, place identity having the author as an outside advisor. and place image, public-private partnerships and Stockholm and Copenhagen had organised their city leadership) represent the core building stones in marketing according to the quite similar constructs. place marketing practices. The elements on the In Stockholm, there were two responsible sides of the “prism”, (political unity, global organisations: Business Arena Stockholm (B.A.S.), marketplace, local development and process as the official foreign inward investment agency for coincidences), meet the challenges in the the Stockholm Region, and the Economic network and in the macroenvironment where the Development Agency of the City of Stockholm place marketing practices are performed. The (S.N.K.). Copenhagen Capacity (CopCap) is the new “how and ability” factors – strategic official foreign inward investment agency of the exploitation, organising capacity, presence of Greater Copenhagen Region. In Helsinki Greater substance, measurement and follow up – bring Helsinki Promotion (GHP) coordinates the regional additional strain to the challenges of place marketing (after Helsinki Region Marketing Ltd marketing. All these “how and ability” factors need HRM). The organisations of place marketing are in to be present when practicing place marketing. In the Chicago Region complex, and there was not a fact, all the success factors of the framework are single organisation responsible for regional connected and interacting with each other Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 19 |
  • 20. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month supporting the process of successful place measure” is also true in place marketing and marketing practices. branding. There must be enough organising capacity for the Central in place branding is building the identity management of the strategic part of the process, as for the place, which is the active part of well as for the operational implementation of the management in the process. Strategic alliances with programmes. Organising capacity comprises the other locations can decisively increase the joint- capabilities of the management and the resources value of all the partners, who all could be in a win- of the place suggesting that political unity is also win-situation. Professionalism comes along with the needed to achieve the necessary organising work, as a positive “process coincidence”, and an capacity for the place. active effort is always better than putting one’s future in the hands of the keen place competition. A NORDIC BRAND ROAD-MAP-MODEL A city brand process is worked out in five phases. First, the place branding project needs to get organised. Then the planning group starts the research phase, when a SWOT-analysis is made in order to know how the place is perceived by the target groups. Based on these study results in the strategic phase, conclusions will be made, and the place identity built. After the strategic work, the implementation and action phase starts. This phase can typically last 5-10 years, and the follow-up and feed-back reporting steers the process simultaneously. The phases and the process include: 1. Organising Phase: Managing Group/Action Group- Coordination, Financing, Overall-strategies, Public-Private Partnerships. Presence of substance is also linked to the 2. Research Phase: Strategic Analysis (SWOT): organising capacity. Presence of substance is Homework of the place. Qualitative and the “state of affairs” that has been reached by Quantitative Studies. means of, for instance, organising capacity and the 3. Strategic Phase: Forming the Identity- process of the systematic strategic Conclusions from the Research Findings: Target analysis. Strategic exploitation of individual core Markets. Core Idea. Value Promises. Forming the issues in place marketing is essential. Without Strategic Plan: Constructure of the Offering. strategic thinking, the operative actions bring Segmenting. Positioning (Place Soul). Visualisation, success only by accident – or good luck. Also, both Graphics, Slogans. the strategic work and the implementation on the operative levels are needed for success. The 4. Implementation and Action: Phase Activity strategic work is the only demanding part of the Programs. Time Tables. Budgets. Responsibilites. place marketing challenge. Without measurement Coordination. and follow-up, no place marketing programme is executed in an ideal way. “You get what you 5. Follow-up, feed-back, reporting. Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 20 |
  • 21. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month The organising phase takes 1- 4 months, the What place? (Marketing language based definition) research stage 3-5 months, the strategy phase 3-5  Mission and vision months, altogether about 7 – 13 months before  Values starting the long implementation stage combined  Strategy supporting Peaks with systematic simultaneous reporting and follow-  Picture –vision 2020 up. In the cities normally three half-day workshops  Target groups with the stakeholders were organised: a kick-off  Umbrella-key messages seminar in the beginning of the process and before  Story Implementation, follow-up, the research stage, a research work-shop when the measurement study results were available and analysed in the  Enclosure materials (supporting the core middle of the branding process, and the closing presentation) seminar to publish the results. The residents and own people are “ambassadors” of the brand of the The brand road map can be used also distributed location, when they honestly accept the chosen in paper copies and placed on the site web-pages identity elements and marketing message. of the city. The planning group coordinates the  Place brand road map: content designing of the road-map during the sessions of This new technique to create a brand road-map “in the branding process. The picture-vision has proved a nut-shell” was developed during the pilot cases to be very useful. The group prepares 9 pictures to with Finnish cities. The target is to present the illustrate how the place looks today, and another brand strategy practically, with a power-point slide set of pictures illustrating the ideal identity of the presentation. With some 20 slides it is possible to place in 2020. Also, short marketing oriented texts illustrate the most important brand issues in a “open up” the meaning of each picture. convincing way. The titles and contents of this road- map presentation are the following: Executing a City Brand Strategy The need for developing a city brand is understood, the difficulty lies in bringing that brand to life in the most physical way possible. By Simon Cotterrell Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 21 |
  • 22. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month Image: Flickr-Amyeetx More than ever, there’s a race between cities for Look to the commercial world and you’ll find great financial and human capital. Businesses, students, brands like Apple and Virgin who focus their brand tourists and employees increasingly have the building efforts on experiences. The minimalism of freedom to choose where in the world they make the iPod interface, the commitment of Virgin their mark. If your city’s not on their map, you Atlantic to deliver ‘entertainment in the sky’ won’t get a look in. As a city’s profile becomes ever through every single touch point. Big or small, it’s more important, ‘standing out’ by standing for the physical things that work hardest to deliver. If I something is becoming the essential objective for tell you I’m funny you might believe me, if I make city leaders the world over. you laugh there’ll be no doubt about it. But if the need for developing a city’s brand is So if you’ve taken the time to distil a single-minded understood, how to go about developing a city’s city strategy, make sure your next steps serve to brand continues to be an area for debate. pour that strategy into every aspect of city life, not Mistakenly, many people believe that a city’s just to write it on the label. branding can be solved with little more than a new logo. Google “city positioning” and you’ll find a By way of example, last year we were engaged rogue’s gallery of trite, clichéd icons that attempt, by Aarhus, Denmark’s second city, to help them and fail, to encapsulate all the little, intangible develop their city’s brand. As Greg will have no things that make a city great. doubt discussed at some point in this blog, the need to create an idea for the city based on the Don’t get us wrong, brand identity can be collective truths of its residents was at the heart of tremendously powerful – it’s hard to put a figure on our approach. We interviewed members of the the huge value of ‘I heart NY’ for example – but municipality, the university, businesses and citizens relying on this alone to deliver city differentiation is alike to get a true flavour of what rational attributes somewhat misguided. Identity serves to announce and emotional values might set the city apart. change but it does not deliver change itself. What came to the surface was a city that held innovation and collaboration at the top of its list of Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 22 |
  • 23. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month virtues. Now, at this point you’re probably thinking staff, access to experts further up and down the to yourselves that these qualities are hardly the supply chain – with a small army of highly intelligent most differentiating, and, if we’d stopped there and and creative collaborators meeting you off the made a logo and a tagline about innovation and plane, suddenly intangible concepts like innovation collaboration, you’d probably be right. But what we and collaboration could become unmissable. did instead was to explain to the city that if they were going to create something differentiating In the case of Aarhus, therefore, the role of brand around these qualities, that they’d have to bring communication was less to announce the brand to them to life in the most physical way possible. the outside world, and more to give confidence to the city’s citizens that they could deliver on their So, as well as the visual identity and a snappy new promise, a couple of examples of which we’ve tagline – “Aarhus. Danish for progress” – we spent included below. the majority of our effort helping them establish a mechanism to activate their positioning. Our Activating a brand idea, within a company, is a premise was simple: if you’re to be known as a complex task that requires people from across the hotbed of innovation through collaboration, you’d organisation to work together in new ways. Put need to create a vehicle where newcomers, such a task on the scale of a city and you’ve a especially businesses, would be able to fast track different league of complexity. But with clarity of their immersion into these skillsets. The big purpose, clear leadership, considered activation idea was what we called “the city wide processes and, most of all, lots of exemplars of innovation network”. This was effectively an on- what you want people to do, it’s definitely not boarding system for start-up businesses to give impossible. We live in an experience economy them access to the best of the city. Imagine arriving where the difference between doing what you say somewhere to be given accommodation, access to you’re going to do, and merely saying it, is what the municipality, access to the university, access to matters most. Hong Kong: Asia’s world city ‘Asia’s world city’ slogan is defined by its core values: free, enterprising, excellence, innovative and quality living. By Greg ClarkUrban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012Cities Branding 1. 23 |
  • 24. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month Image: Flickr-Songkran While the reunification of the former British colony conceived as an umbrella brand and a brand with the Chinese mainland, in 1997, was seen by platform through which the city’s brand can be many at the time to be as a precursor to the end of communicated to all sectors. The tourism and the city as an international investment hub, the business brands are seen merely as sub-brands. Hong Kong brand has played an integral part in the city’s dynamic and continued prosperity. According  Brand leadership and custodian to ‘Location branding 2012’, published by Public The rights to the use of BrandHK are owned by Affairs Asia and Ogilvy PR in September 2012, the Hong Kong Government, while it is supervised Hong Kong has the second strongest brand in the and managed by the Information Services Asia Pacific region. Department, in particular the Brand Management Unit (BMU) of the External PR Division. There is BrandHK was developed and launched in 2001, also close cooperation between the BMU and with a revitalisation of the brand, including the Invest Hong Kong (IHK), Hong Kong Trade & updating of its core values, attributes, brand Development Council (HKTDC), and the Hong Kong platform and visual identity, taking place in 2010. Tourism Board (HKTB). The brand’s ‘Asia’s world city’ slogan is underpinned by its core values, developed through The BMU works with its partners to ensure that consultation with stakeholders and the public: free, BrandHK is communicated consistently across the enterprising, excellence, innovative and quality globe. While anyone, whether from the public and living. Hong Kong’s attributes are: cosmopolitan, private sector, can apply to use the brand, they secure, connected, diverse and dynamic. must follow a strict set of guidelines set out and monitored by the BMU. The two main objectives of BrandHK are to position Hong Kong in the international arena Specific campaigns include the web and for identity building purposes. Rather than platform, myhk2020.com, which was launched in having multiple brands, BrandHK has been 2008 as a means of allowing Hong Kong’s citizens Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 2. 24 |
  • 25. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month to express their vision in text, photos, that brand strategy should now more explicitly drawings and videos. In addition, the ‘Faces of work towards attracting talent, students, and Hong Kong’ campaign describes the lives of some innovators, and garnering the support of locals by of the city’s residents as a means of giving meeting their needs more fully. While the international visitors and businesses an insight reconsolidation of BrandHK that took place in 2010 into the ‘Asia’s world city.’ went someway to addressing these issues, such is the opportunity for Hong Kong in today’s global  The next step markets that it needs to solidify local support and The next step for BrandHK is to broaden the engagement and to develop a story that is broader appeal of the city in wider markets and to address than economic opportunity and address liveability, the needs and desires of the people of Hong Kong sustainability, and cultural offers more more explicitly. While investors and businesses emphatically. have been given much focus, it is widely believed Singapore: A City in a Garden Singapore will find global success by promoting Singaporean science, know how, firms, services, and products, in addition to its strengths as a location and destination. By Greg Clark Image: Flickr-AndyLeo@Photography Singapore’s remarkable story, and journey can be the platform to contribute to success for to success from an impoverished colony in 1965, to business, people, investors, and communities. a world leading city in 2012 offers a strong organising narrative for any brand strategy and ‘Location branding 2012’, published by presents many examples of how a successful place PublicAffairsAsia and Ogilvy PR in September 2012, Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 2. 25 |
  • 26. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month recognises Singapore as the strongest brand in the which focuses on using the internet and extensive Asia Pacific region. Singapore also finished 29th in social media, as well as the more traditional TV and the People section of the 2011 Anholt-GfK Roper hosted advertising campaigns. City Brands Index, while it also has the distinction of being one of only five cities in the overall top 30 The concept of the ‘Garden City’ has long been an Index list that is outside of North America, Western intrinsic part of Singapore’s brand. Koh Buck Song, Europe, and Australia. author of Brand Singapore, argues that the city- state, in recent years, has made the transition to a  Singapore’s brand platform ‘City in a Garden’; a concept which ‘redefines The city-state of Singapore is an important case. It the idea of an urban landscape in a natural exists as a city and a nation, projecting itself to the setting while aligning with the global trend of world as an Asian megacity, while also benefitting growing environmental consciousness.’ from many of the aspects associated with nationhood. Either way, it is a city-state which, with At the government level, the city’s ‘Renaissance the assistance of strong branding, has catapulted City Plan’ is also dedicated to creating a world-class itself from a Third World to a First World City in cultural and entertainment district. More only 47 years. Brand Singapore has helped to specifically, the most recent phase of the plan, RCP attract the investments, business, trade, tourism III (2008-2012), “seeks to develop distinctive arts and talented human resources that have made and culture institutions and content, nurture a Singapore such a success. dynamic arts and culture ecosystem, and cultivate culture-loving audiences, supporters, patrons and Singapore’s branding has Government led, more partners.” specifically by the Prime Minister’s Office. External marketing is undertaken by the Singapore Tourism  The next step Board (STB), but the overarching Singapore brand Singapore’s success at attracting international message of the government is disseminated by a firms, investors and talent will continue. Its next whole host of boards, state-owned companies and step is to balance this with more attention on community associations. mobilising Singaporeans behind the next steps in its global success and to promote Singaporean science, Singapore has employed a richly diverse set of know how, firms, services, and products, in addition initiatives to promote its brand over the last 30 to its strengths as a location and destination. years, including tourism campaigns, the hosting of major international events such as the Formula One Koh Buck Song, author of Brand Singapore, Grand Prix, the opening of integrated resorts, and furthermore argues that the city-state should focus exporting expertise to other Asian countries such as its attention on Singaporeans and how they China. perceive the Singapore brand. Song says that in order for the world’s image of Singapore to change, “Uniquely Singapore” was a campaign designed as a the reality has to change, arguing that the city-state means of demonstrating the “warm, enriching and needs to focus more on embedding Richard unforgettable” nature of Singapore to the rest of Florida’s three Ts, talent, technology and tolerance, the world. After five successful years, the campaign while simultaneously working to clarify and distil its was replaced by “YourSingapore” in 2010, an all brand message. encompassing, visitor-centric, media campaign Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 2. 26 |
  • 27. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month New York City: The Big Green Apple? New York needs to continue to promote the city internationally as an ideal place for start-up ventures, while ensuring that public policy continues to be pro-business. By Greg Clark Image: Flickr -kaysha New York City has one of the strongest brands of any  Investment attractiveness world city. The city finished fourth in the 2011 New York promotes its brand to potential investors Anholt-GfK Roper City Brands Index, which measures through the New York City Economic Development the image of 50 cities, based on Presence, Place, Pre- Corporation (NYCEDC). The NYCEDC is New York’s requisite, People, Pulse and Potential, based on economic development driver, charged with the interviews conducted with 5,105 participants. mission of leveraging the city’s assets to drive The city has successfully transformed its image over growth, create jobs and to improve the quality of life the last 35 years through a rebranding process which for New Yorkers. has its roots in Milton Glaser’s iconic “I Love New The organisation uses its expertise to develop, York” logo and campaign, forged in 1977. While the advise, manage and invest to strengthen businesses city’s brand has continued to strengthen over the and help neighbourhoods thrive. By developing a last three decades, branding has ultimately strong physical infrastructure, investing in its people, represented not only an image makeover, but also a and creating a strong entrepreneurial and business more business-friendly restructuring of political and environment, the city has made itself attractive to economic relations in the city. Urban sociologist Dr. investors. Miriam Greenberg asserts that, “branding Specific programmes such as World to NYC are transformed New York’s image from that of a gritty designed to help global entrepreneurs and working-class city to one that is business and businesses leverage New York City’s resources and tourist-friendly.” economic opportunities. The programme sees New Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 3. 27 |
  • 28. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month York host business delegations from cities around businesses, emphasised by New York City’s selection the world as a means of promoting trade and by President Obama as the only city to be investment between New York City and the global represented on the country’s new 11-member economy. national tourism board. In terms of tourism, New York must continue to  Tourism branding make headway in non-English speaking New York City’s primary means of communicating its markets. Plans are already afoot to develop visitor tourism brand to the world is through the efforts of guides, available on nycgo.com, in seven different NYC & Company. The organisation conveys, “New languages, targeted at eight different markets. In York City’s energy, excitement and diversity to a addition, the city is looking to push its brand further global audience.” through an extensive social-media strategy, with The organisation works tirelessly to promote the city additional international Facebook pages and through its award-winning website, nycgo.com, translated visitor guides, to reach a total of 13 social-media channels, a mobile site and markets. publications, such as the NYC Official Visitor Guide, The key change in the past 10 years has been the NYC Official Travel Planner and NYC Official Meeting promotion of a new kind of urban liveability in New & Event Planner. These various media channels are York. The PlaNYC document provides the framework used to disseminate information about events, for radically improving New York’s green credentials offers and travel opportunities throughout the five and human amenities. Projects like the High Line boroughs. provide tangible and visible progress in promoting New York’s liveability and walkability. The city hosts a wide range of events and New York City is currently one of the most popular programmes as a means of attracting both domestic cities in the world for starting a business. Over the and international visitors, including NYC Restaurant last four years, there has been a 40% spike in start- Week, Fashion’s Night Out, Get More NYC, up financing in “Silicon Alley”; a larger increase than Broadway Week, Off-Broadway Week, Comedy anywhere else in the U.S. A mixture of “luck”, with Week and Culture Spot. the financial collapse leading to a dearth of The work of NYC & Company saw New York welcome programmers looking for new opportunities, and an estimated 50.5 million visitors in 2011, a 4% intelligent public planning and policymaking have increase over 2010, while the Tourism industry conspired to create an ideal start-up environment. supports over 320,000 jobs, generating $32 billion in New York needs to continue to build on this direct spending across the City. foundation, working to promote the city internationally as an ideal place for start-up  The next step: liveability and economic ventures, while simultaneously ensuring that public diversification policy continues to be pro-business. New York has already established itself as one of the world’s most attractive cities, both for tourists and Sydney: Asia Pacific World City Sydney must leverage its inherent strengths as a visitor destination to build a broader business and knowledge offer. By Greg Clark Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 3. 28 |
  • 29. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month Image: Flickr - Becky E Sydney’s efforts to re-position itself as an Asia  Visitor brand Pacific city have succeeded and it is ready to face The New South Wales (NSW) Government the next step in building a business brand to rival established Destination NSW (DNSW) as a its visitor destination identity. statutory authority in July 2011 as a means of supporting the growth of the state’s tourism and ‘Location branding 2012’, published by events brand. The authority consolidated the PublicAffairsAsia and Ogilvy PR in September 2012, activities of four previously separate organisations, sees Sydney as the third strongest brand in the Tourism NSW, Events NSW, the Homebush Motor Asia Pacific region. The report’s findings are based Racing Authority and the Greater Sydney on the analysis of responses taken from 300 Asia Partnership. Pacific communications experts, with over 3,000 years of collective professional experience DNSW is the body charged with devising between them. and implementing strategies to grow NSW’s The report highlights the widely held belief visitor economy, with a strong focus on driving that countries within Asia Pacific, in general, face tourism and acquiring and developing major a growing struggle to define their brand, but that sporting and cultural events for Sydney and Sydney is one of the few cities in the region that regional NSW. The organisation is furthermore the has successfully overcome this hurdle. The city has primary investor in Business Events Sydney, which, indeed been one of the world’s most dynamic amongst other activities, aims to attract more performers in a wide range of international international conventions, corporate events and benchmarking indexes in recent years, although exhibitions for Sydney and regional NSW. there is still much work to be done. The ‘Location DNSW’s strategy, which is still in the development branding 2012’ report focuses its research process and is being coordinated by the Visitor primarily on two aspects of location branding, Economy Taskforce, will receive in excess of $400 namely investment attractiveness and desirability million of funding over the next four years in order as a visitor destination for tourists. to ensure its effective implementation. Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 3. 29 |
  • 30. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month  Investment attractiveness  The next step Founded in April 2011, New South Wales Trade & With nearly half of the world’s urban population Investment is the driver of sustainable economic now living in Asia Pacific, and a majority of the growth across the State of NSW, of which Sydney is world’s megacities predicted to emerge in Asia the capital. The newly formed organisation is the over the next decade, the competition for brand custodian which promotes Sydney and NSW investment and tourism continues to to the world as a location for doing business. NSW intensify. Given its small size and relatively remote Trade & Investment do this by working with, and position, Sydney must work hard to consolidate its supporting, a wide variety of businesses and business brand and communicate effectively with industries to advance investment, innovation, the world. activity and improvements. The organisation acts Business operating environment, political stability as a unifying entity for the efforts of the key NSW and the built environment are the top three Government economic development agencies, priorities for campaigns to attract business offices and authorities. investment. Sydney’s cultural offering, the natural environment, hotel leisure facilities and transport The organisation’s first strategic plan (2012-2015), are critical in successfully attracting while complementing NSW 2021,“sets the tourists. Sydney’s task now is to leverage its overarching direction of the department for the inherent strengths as a visitor destination to build next four years. It articulates our vision and a broader business and knowledge offering in values, defines our key results, the intended order to differentiate itself from other Asia Pacific, outcomes, and the strategies we will put in place and World, cities, while promoting itself through a to achieve those outcomes.” more diverse range of media-channels. Tokyo: Identity and Reputation and a Resilient Brand, but is Tokyo an Open City? Tokyo intends to promote its brand to the world, “presenting the world with a vision of how cities should be.” By Andrew Stevens and Greg Clark Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities and National Development 4. 30 |
  • 31. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month Image: Flickr -Marufish The Tokyo city brand is one of the least studied of from 1999 until October 2012, issued a 10 year all world city brands, although it is also one of the plan in 2006, “Tokyo’s Big Change”, which has the most embedded. Tokyo has been subjected to intention of improving and enhancing the city by some of the most destructive natural and human- 2016, the year in which they intended to host the made disasters in recent years, including Olympic Games. Although their bid for the Games an earthquake, tsunami and a nuclear accident. was ultimately unsuccessful, these improvements are still going ahead as planned, with some having The city’s brand, however, has proven to be being accelerated. extremely resilient. According to the 2011 Anholt- GfK Roper City Brands Index study, Tokyo’s brand In the Plan, the Governor highlights Tokyo’s has seen no significant erosion as a result of these intention to become globally known as a “beautiful phenomena, finishing 10th among the 50 cities and safe city.” More specifically, the plan measured in the Index. highlights goals such as: negating certain aspects of post-war urban development through Regarding Tokyo’s place in the Index, Simon the increased use of waterfront and greenery, Anholt, City Brands Index founder, commented, achieving a global reputation for sustainability and “the stability of Tokyo’s brand image comes as no disaster management, Tokyo becoming surprise, since the city consistently ranks the ‘cultural hub of Asia’ and ‘attracting people impressively on welcoming people, amenities, from around the world.’ The plan was formulated cultural richness, education and business by the Headquarters of the Governor and climate…the reputations of countries and cities are approved by the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly. never affected by acts of god, only by acts of men.” Tourism Promotion, City Promotion and Sister  Tokyo’s brand platform Cities relations, as well as the Asian Network of Tokyo’s brand is promoted externally, and Major Cities 21, are all overseen by various projected globally, by the Tokyo Metropolitan sections of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, Government, through its Governor, formerly while the Tokyo International Anime Fair and Shintaro Ishihara. The Governor, who was in power Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 5. 31 |
  • 32. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month Tokyo Marathon are also managed by publicly creating a society where anyone can strive for high owned enterprises. goals, and create a society where everyone can enjoy sports and provide children with dreams. In addition to “Tokyo’s Big Change”, and in response to the challenges facing the city in the  The next step light of the impact of the tsunami and One of Tokyo’s major brand weaknesses is the earthquake, Tokyo Vision 2020 has been developed perception of its cleanliness; the city ranks in the as a means of transforming the city, as part of the bottom half of all measured nations in the 2011 city’s bid for the 2020 Olympic Games. It is through Anholt-GfK Roper City Brands Index. Is Tokyo an achieving the following eight specific goals open city? There are many aspects of the that Tokyo intends to promote its brand to the cosmopolitan society in Tokyo but the perception world, “presenting the world with a vision of how of closed institutions and the city’s reputation for cities should be”: Achieve a sophisticated disaster- isolationism is an oft cited factor for Tokyo failing resistant city and demonstrate Tokyo’s safety to to compete with other cities on a regional, as well the world, create a low-carbon society with a as global level. highly efficient, independent and distributed energy system, restore Tokyo to a beautiful city Tokyo recognises both of these weaknesses and is surrounded by water and greenery, connect land, in the process of addressing them, but whether or air, and sea to raise Tokyo’s international not they can be overcome and Tokyo can begin to competitiveness, put Tokyo on a new track to compete with the likes of London, Paris and New growth by raising industrial power and the allure of York remains to be seen. the city, build and show the world an urban model for a society with a low birth-rate and aging Source: Developed with material from www.citymayors.com population, raise globally competent individuals by Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 6. 32 |
  • 33. Urban Intelligence byEach month : an analysis from a Cities expert  A compilation of all articles related to the Cities topic of the month Discover more articles on Cities and Infrastructures go to blog.mipimworld.com or scan the following code with your Smartphone. Read the previous Urban Intelligence issues:  March 2012 – Cities and sport events  April 2012 – Urban investment and the new cycle MIPIM® is a registered trademark of Reed MIDEM. All rights reserved.©2012  May 2012 – Planning the re-development of the world’s megacities  June 2012 – Asian Cities and the global growth map  July 2012 – Retail and cities: a new opportunity?  August 2012 – Investment in Cities  September 2012 – Urban demographics and Cities  October 2012 – Cities urbanization, and national urban policy  Next issue … December 2012 - City innovations and key events from 2012 Credits Contacts Contributors: Greg Clark  Johannah Cantwell  Jean-Marc André Any questions on Urban Intelligence? Want to advertise in Acknowledgement: Urban Intelligence wishes to thank the Urban Intelligence? contributors for their kind participation Design: Emilie Leblanc Please contact iris.terre@reedmidem.com Urban Intelligence n°9 – November 2012 Cities Branding 7. 33 |

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