Self-governing village communities
existed in India from earliest times.
They are mentioned in the Rig
Vedas which dates f...
Existence of village „Sabhas‟ & „gramins‟
until 600 B.C.
 Trace of „village assembly‟ & „elder‟s
council‟ & village headm...
Characteristic of village Panchayats
remained unchanged.
 Local affairs were regulated by the
Panchayats and village offi...
British Colonial Period
With the advent of British, self-contained
village communities and their Panchayats
ceased to get ...
British colonial period
They were mainly concentrated around the
trading centres, so their interest was limited
to creatio...
Formation of Local Bodies
With the passage of time similar bodies
were set up in other major towns and their
taxation powe...
Lord Mayo‟s Resolution
In 1870 the Viceroy Lord Mayo got a
resolution passed by hi council for
decentralization of power w...
The Bengal Chowkidari Act,
1870
In the wake of this resolution “The Bengal
Chowkidari Act, 1870” was passed to revive
trad...
Lord Ripon‟s Resolution
The system of Chowkidari panchayat
became very unpopular.
 Lord Ripon appeared as new Viceroy &
o...
The Bengal Local Self-Govt.
Act, 1885
The resolution of the liberal Viceroy
heralded the dawn of a new era in the
history ...
Instrument of political education
In most cases the names of persons
nominated by the Govt. were made known
to the village...
Fusion of Chowkidari & Municipal
Functions
Govt. of India‟s Resolution, 1918 endorsed
the view of the Commission and wante...
Functions of Union Board under the
Bengal Village Self-Govt. Ac,1919
Union Board was vested with, apart from
police functi...
Local Board & District Board
Post of Circle Officer was created to serve as
a link between the village administration and
...
District Boards
Its 2/3 members were elected by members
of Local Boards & 1/3 members were
nominated comprising both offic...
Govt. of India Act, 1935
Inauguration of Provincial autonomy under
the Act marked another important stage in
the evolution...
Post Independence Panchayats
Provision for organizing village panchayats as units of selfgovt. was laid down in Art. 40.
...
Four tier PRI in West Bengal
3-tier PRI was first adopted by Rajasthan
on 2 October 1959.
 The West Bengal Panchayat Act,...
The West Bengal Panchayat
Act,1973





The West Bengal Panchayat Act,1973 was passed
with provision of 3-tier PRI & di...
Implementation of 3-tier PRI






The Left Front came to power in the State in 1977
& the State Govt. immediately deci...
Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act,1992





L.M.Singhvi Committee recommended
constitutional status for panchayats in 1...
Salient points of Constitution Amendment Act, 1992

Every Panchayat shall constitute Gram Sabha
comprising all registered ...
Salient Points
Not less than one-third offices of chair-persons in all
tiers shall be reserved for women.
 Every panchaya...
Salient Points
Authorizing powers to impose taxes by the
panchayats.
 Assigning to panchayats such taxes, duties, tolls &...
Incorporation of amendments in the State
Act.




These amendments brought about a fundamental
change not only in the re...
Gram Unnayan Samiti
Further amendment of the Act in 2003 has
paved the way for constitution of GUS at
Gram Sansad level.
...
Thus the journey from the idea of Local SelfGovernment of Lord Ripon to the institutions of SelfGovernment or Local Govt. ...
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Historical perspective of panchayats west bengal

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Transcript of "Historical perspective of panchayats west bengal"

  1. 1. Self-governing village communities existed in India from earliest times. They are mentioned in the Rig Vedas which dates from 1200 B.C.
  2. 2. Existence of village „Sabhas‟ & „gramins‟ until 600 B.C.  Trace of „village assembly‟ & „elder‟s council‟ & village headman „gramika‟ in Maurayan / Gupta age.  Gradually village bodies took the form of Panchayats (an assembly of five persons) & elevated to a sacred position of authority.  They were vested with police & judicial powers. 
  3. 3. Characteristic of village Panchayats remained unchanged.  Local affairs were regulated by the Panchayats and village officers were answerable to them.  Under the Mughals, their judicial powers were curtailed, but local affairs continued to be regulated by them. 
  4. 4. British Colonial Period With the advent of British, self-contained village communities and their Panchayats ceased to get sustenance.  In course of time they were replaced by formally constituted institutions of village administration.  The Local Self Govt. in India was the creation of the British though village panchayats were not their first priority. 
  5. 5. British colonial period They were mainly concentrated around the trading centres, so their interest was limited to creation of local bodies of nominated members in major towns.  Municipal Corporation was first formed in Madras in 1687 on the British model of a town council.  It was empowered to levy taxes for building a guild hall and schools. 
  6. 6. Formation of Local Bodies With the passage of time similar bodies were set up in other major towns and their taxation powers were widened.  But they continued to comprise nominated members only with no elective element.  The revolt of 1857 put imperial finances under considerable strain. It became necessary to finance local services out of local taxation. 
  7. 7. Lord Mayo‟s Resolution In 1870 the Viceroy Lord Mayo got a resolution passed by hi council for decentralization of power was passed in 1870.  Objective was to bring about efficiency in administration to meet the demands of the people & to mobilize further fund for the growing wants of the country.  The revolt of 1857 had put imperial finances under considerable strain, so it was found necessary to finance local services out of local taxation. 
  8. 8. The Bengal Chowkidari Act, 1870 In the wake of this resolution “The Bengal Chowkidari Act, 1870” was passed to revive traditional village panchayat system in Bengal  This Act empowered D.M. to set up panchayats of nominated members (not less than five members) in the villages.  These nominated Panchayats could levy and collect taxes to maintain Chowkidars.  This Act did not create any local authority in the village to take care of local sanitation, communication, education or other function. 
  9. 9. Lord Ripon‟s Resolution The system of Chowkidari panchayat became very unpopular.  Lord Ripon appeared as new Viceroy & on18 May,1882 Lord Ripon‟s Resolution on Local Self-Govt. was adopted which emphasized four fundamental principles :(a) elected non-official majority, (b) nonofficial chairman, © to exercise govt. control over local bodies not from within but from outside, (d) elastic & sufficient financial resources for local bodies. 
  10. 10. The Bengal Local Self-Govt. Act, 1885 The resolution of the liberal Viceroy heralded the dawn of a new era in the history of Indian administration.  The Bengal Local Self-Govt. Act,1885 was passed to establish a net work of rural local bodies at two levels - district and subdivision.  The Act also established Union Committees to perform municipal functions in rural areas.  These bodies were constituted by the Govt. on the basis of informal election. 
  11. 11. Instrument of political education In most cases the names of persons nominated by the Govt. were made known to the village folk in a meeting presided over by the Sub-divisional Officer and People were expected to approve those names.  Within a few years the experiment failed. The Royal Commission on Decentralization in India (1907) recommended merger of Chowkidari function and welfare function in the locality and placing them in the hands of same local body. 
  12. 12. Fusion of Chowkidari & Municipal Functions Govt. of India‟s Resolution, 1918 endorsed the view of the Commission and wanted to make village panchayats living units by giving villagers an interest in and some control over local village affairs.  The Bengal Village Self-Govt. Act, 1919 was passed which achieved the fusion of Chowkidari & Municipal functions into a newly created body - known as the Union Board. Other two bodies at District and Sub-division levels remained unaltered. 
  13. 13. Functions of Union Board under the Bengal Village Self-Govt. Ac,1919 Union Board was vested with, apart from police function, powers & functions necessary for village community affairs, minor roads, water works, public health & sanitation.  It had powers of taxation necessary for discharging the duties assigned to it.  The staple of the Union Board‟s finance was Chowkidaricess which had been levied for half a century and provided a secure basic income. 
  14. 14. Local Board & District Board Post of Circle Officer was created to serve as a link between the village administration and the Sub-divisional administration.  Local Board at the sub-division level and District Board at the district level had no organic linkage with the Union Board.  Local Board had no power to raise money on its own account. It was designed to act as agent of District Board for undertaking the public works and duties assigned to it.  All powers were vested in the District Board. 
  15. 15. District Boards Its 2/3 members were elected by members of Local Boards & 1/3 members were nominated comprising both officials & nonofficials.  The nomination was to be done by Divisional Commissioner; but under amendment of the Act in 1932 it was given to the MIC of LSG  Up to 1921, D.M. used to be Chairman; thereafter Dist. Board elected its own Chairman.  Still Govt. exercised a good control over election from Local Boards. 
  16. 16. Govt. of India Act, 1935 Inauguration of Provincial autonomy under the Act marked another important stage in the evolution of Panchayats.  Popularly elected Govts. in Provinces felt duty bound to enact legislation for further democratization of LSG Institutions including village Panchayats.  But due to declaration of Second World War in 1939 the position remained unaltered. 
  17. 17. Post Independence Panchayats Provision for organizing village panchayats as units of selfgovt. was laid down in Art. 40.  Balwantrai Mehta Committee was appointed in Jan.1957 to suggest measures for better working of CD Program & NES.  Committee suggested: - (a) three tier PRI, (b) genuine transfer of power & responsibility to PRI, © adequate resources to PRI & (d) channelizing all social & economic development through PRI.  It did not insist on uniform structure of PRI throughout the country. States were free to evolve their own pattern suitable to them. 
  18. 18. Four tier PRI in West Bengal 3-tier PRI was first adopted by Rajasthan on 2 October 1959.  The West Bengal Panchayat Act,1957 introduced Anchal Panchayat at cluster level & Gram Panchayat at village level.  The West Bengal Zilla Parishad Act,1963 introduced Zilla Parishad at district level & Anchalik Parishad at Block level.  Thus 4-tier PRI was established in W.B. on October 2, 1964. 
  19. 19. The West Bengal Panchayat Act,1973    The West Bengal Panchayat Act,1973 was passed with provision of 3-tier PRI & direct election to each tier on adult franchise, but its implementation could not take place. In Dec,1977 Asoke Mehta Committee was constituted to review working of PRIs. The Committee submitted report in Aug, 1978 suggesting - (a) reduction of dependence of PRIs on State Govt. (b) providing power of taxation to PRIs © transfer of certain taxes like profession tax, entertainment tax, tax on land & building to PRIs (d) open participation of political parties in Panchayat election.
  20. 20. Implementation of 3-tier PRI    The Left Front came to power in the State in 1977 & the State Govt. immediately decided to go in for popular panchayats. Direct elections were held in June, 1978 to Zilla Parishads at district level, Panchayat Samitis at block level & Gram Panchayats at cluster level with open participation of political parties. Term of a panchayat body was five years & elections were held regularly after every five years.
  21. 21. Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act,1992    L.M.Singhvi Committee recommended constitutional status for panchayats in 1986. Lok Sabha passed Constitution (Seventy-third Amendment) Act, 1992 (known as Panchayati Raj Act) which inserted Art.243 & Eleventh Schedule. The Act provides constitutional status to PRIs & all States/U.Ts are to constitute three/two tier PRIs depending on their total population.
  22. 22. Salient points of Constitution Amendment Act, 1992 Every Panchayat shall constitute Gram Sabha comprising all registered voters of the area.  In every tier seats shall be reserved for SC/ST members in proportion to their population in the panchayat.  Not less than one-third of the seats in all tiers shall be reserved for women.  The offices of chairpersons in each tier shall be reserved for SC/ST members in proportion to their population in the area. 
  23. 23. Salient Points Not less than one-third offices of chair-persons in all tiers shall be reserved for women.  Every panchayat shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting & no longer.  Devolution of powers & responsibilities upon Panchayats at the appropriate level for (a) preparation of plans for economic develop-ment & social justice, (b) implementation of schemes for economic development & social justice as may be entrusted to them. 
  24. 24. Salient Points Authorizing powers to impose taxes by the panchayats.  Assigning to panchayats such taxes, duties, tolls & fees levied/collected by the State Govt.  Providing grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the State  Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position of the Panchayats.  Maintenance of accounts by the Panchayats & auditing of such accounts.  Constitution of State Election Commission for conduct of all elections to the panchayats. 
  25. 25. Incorporation of amendments in the State Act.   These amendments brought about a fundamental change not only in the realm of local self-govt. but also in India‟s federal character. Some provisions viz, Gram Sansad, reserva-tion for women & SC/ST members in each tier of panchayats was inserted prior to the Con-stitution Amendment Act, 1992. Other provisions were incorporated in the State Act through the W.B.Panchayat (Amendment) Act,1994 and 1997.
  26. 26. Gram Unnayan Samiti Further amendment of the Act in 2003 has paved the way for constitution of GUS at Gram Sansad level.  Members of GUS are elected by the voters of a Gram Sansad from among themselves.  Elected member of GP from the GS is its ex-officio Chairperson. Members of GUS elect a Secretary from among themselves in its first meeting. Gus will assist GS to prepare its annual plan which shall be the basis of the GP plan. 
  27. 27. Thus the journey from the idea of Local SelfGovernment of Lord Ripon to the institutions of SelfGovernment or Local Govt. concept in the Seventythird Constitutional Amendment took more than a century.
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