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Basics of Beer

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  • 1. Food & Beverage ManagementThe Basics of Beer
  • 2. Beer is a fermentedalcoholic beverage madefrom malted Barley,water and hops
  • 3. History of Beer:Historians believe prehistoric man madebeer before learning to make bread. Beerhas been referred to as “liquid bread”.4300 BC. - Babylonian clay tabletsincluded recipes for making beer. Beerhad become then, as it is today, a vital partof civilization.America produces over 20% of theworld’s production of beer products.How many gallons of beer does theaverage American consume in one year?. 20 Gallons
  • 4. Malt Water Yeast Hops Other Grains
  • 5. Malt:Malt is sprouted barley. Barley is soaked inwater to begin the process of germination, thendried and toasted for flavor.Malting produces an enzyme, diastase, whichturns starch into sugar.
  • 6. WaterThe most important and most “publicized” ingredient.Water makes up 85–95% of the volume of beer.
  • 7. Yeast: Most crucial andcarefully selectedingredient.Fermentation bi-productscan affect the characterof beer.
  • 8. HopsPrimary flavoring ingredient.The “spice” of beer.Contributes to the overall character.Serves as a natural preservative.
  • 9. Other GrainsAdjunct grains – barley, rice, corn wheat.Rice is widely used in American beer tocreate lighter flavor.
  • 10. FermentingBrewing LageringMashing Packaging
  • 11. Mashing•Barley malt is ground and hot water added.•Diastase in the malt converts starch into sugar. Cornor rice is often added for flavor and stability.•The mash is then cooked at a low temperature forup to six hours to extract as much sugar as possiblefrom the grain.•The resulting sweet liquid, called “wort,” is strainedfor brewing.
  • 12. Brewing•The wort is transferred to a brew kettle, where it is boiled withhops for approximately two hours to achieve desired flavor andcolor.•The hops are removed and the flavored wort is strained,chilled, and pumped into the fermentation tank.•The decision to make it an ale or lager is made.
  • 13. Fermenting•The addition of yeast to the wort converts sugars into alcohol andcarbon dioxide.•Fermentation time is one - two weeks or more.•Carbon dioxide is trapped in the beer by fermenting the wort underpressure.•Ales - “Top Fermented”; yeast stays on top.•Lagers - “Bottom Fermented”; yeast falls to the bottom.
  • 14. Lagering•Lagering is the storing and conditioning stage.•Matures and ripens the beer, mellowing its flavor.•After storage, the beer is pasteurized or filtered, and then kegged,bottled or canned.
  • 15. Packaging12 oz. Bottles: 24 bottles to a case, loose or four six-packs.12 oz. Cans: 24 or 30 cans to a case.DraftKeg (half barrel) - 15.5 gallonsHalf Keg (pony keg) - 7.75 gallonsPasteurization: Kills any leftover yeasts, thereby maintaining theproper flavor and alcohol level.Genuine Draft: Uses a superfine filter; not pasteurized.
  • 16. Two main classifications of beer are the result ofStrain of yeast and Fermentation method Ale Lager
  • 17. Lager Lager Fermented at 37°– 49° Yeast sinks to the bottom for bottom fermentation. Beer is stored (lagered) and aged for several weeks or months. Best stored at 40°– 45° Characteristics Pale in color Lighter in taste Lower in alcohol
  • 18. Ale Ale Fermented at 50°– 70° Top fermented with a strain of yeast that floats on the surface Best stored at 40°– 45° Characteristics Darker in color Higher in alcohol Fuller body taste More distinctive flavor
  • 19. Light Lager: Pale color, soft, dry taste (Bud Light, Miller Lite; 3.2- 4%) Pilsner: Light color, stronger hops, dry tasteLager (St. Pauli Girl, Pilsner Urquell, & most American beers are Pilsner style; 3.2 – 4.5%) Dark Lager: Dark color, full body and sweet, slight hops taste (Beck’s Dark, Heineken Dark; 3.2 – 4.5%) Bock Beer: Dark, slightly sweet, malt flavor, more hops taste (Michelob Amber Bock; 6 – 10.5%) Dry, Ice Beer: Smooth taste, little aftertaste (Bud, Molson Ice; 5.5% alcohol). Malt Liquor: Cheaper version of lager beer, higher alcohol content (Colt 45; 5.5 - 6%). Steam Beer: Deep brown color, aromatic fragrance, tangy bitter taste with a dry finish (Anchor Steam; 4 – 5%).
  • 20. Ale Bitter Ale: Copper color, heavily hopped (Bass Ale) (4.5%) Stout: Dark, almost black, full bodied, rich, malt, strong taste (Guinness Stout) (up to 3.5%) Porter: Dark, malt, slightly sweet, less hops flavor (Yuenglings) (5%) Wheat Beer: Cloudy if unfiltered, complex taste, and unique spicy flavor (Sam Adams; 4 – 5%) Scottish Ale: Cloudy, strong, higher alcohol, slight smoke flavor from peat fires (Harplager; 4 – 5%) Pale Ale: Cloudy, hops flavor (Sierra Nevada; 4 – 5%)
  • 21. Non Alcoholic: Required by law to be called“malted beverage”, generally contain < .5 %ABV (Kaliber, O’Doul’s).Hybrid Beers: mixed styles of beer, fall into thefollowing categories: fruit & vegetable, herb &spice, wood aged, smoked (Pete’s StrawberryBlonde Ale).Malt Beverages: flavored beverage preparedfrom malted grains to which natural or artificialflavors have been added (Mike’s Hard Lemonade,Smirnoff Ice).
  • 22. FIFO: First in, first out. Rotation is critical. “Born-on Date”TemperatureCanned and bottled beerDry storage: 70° ~ Refrigerated storage: 40° ~ Draft Beer: 36°- 38°Effects of LightNatural – Spoiled beer (“skunk beer”)Skunking has nothing to do with temperature, oxidation, orbacterial infection, though all of these can spoil beer as well.
  • 23. SanitationDry storage & Draft – sweep, mop, free of debris.Lines should be cleaned every 2 weeks.Canned, Bottled, & Draft…Glassware should be spotless.Tilt glass at a 45-degree angle. Pour beer intothe glass. Straighten glass as pouring.Head should be no more than one-inch.Small breweries appeal to beer enthusiasts whoseek a high quality, local product, with diversity.
  • 24. Food & Beverage Management Drink & Serve Responsibly The End