WHY Decentralised CooperationLocal development is not local anymore. Today global and nationalprocesses are strongly linked to and influenced by the local level andvice versa .A multitude of new actors are looking to position themselves onlocal development process and within the evolving developmentcooperation architecture. Many of them DC.DC brings highly relevant resource: “local knowledge”: the challengeis how link it with the LG/LD process.A multilateral framework is needed. UNDP has already establishedsuch framework.
Increasing Importance of Local and Regional Governments• Local and regional governments worldwide deliver services for the citizens’ well-being, are well-being mandated to elaborate development plans in partnership with other public and private actors. In many cases the answers for local needs can only be given through linking with intermediate, national or global levels.• National and multilateral donors have been supporting decentralisation processes and local governance in developing countries for a long time. Evaluations of these programmes have underlined the importance of these processes and the necessity to adopt a multi-level approach, involving both national and sub-national structures. Peer support to local and regional government• In parallel, for over many decades, at sub-national level, local and regional governments have exchanged with and learned from each other, in order to develop and upgrade their capacity and effectiveness in meeting the needs of their people.• This type of cooperation has become increasingly important as a complementary tool to central government cooperation to support governance in developing countries.
... first time in ...DCF ... the Busan process ... RIO+20• DCF includes for the first time DC – Have local authorities the capacities to manage DC in line with their own priorities – How big is the risk of increasing fragmentation of development interventions – Do DC actors possess the capacities, skills and competencies to address local developmental challenges One proven way of addressing these challenges is by embedding DC within a multilateral framework• Recognition of local governments in the declarations of the High Level Forums – As a result of the lobbying efforts of UCLG, FOGAR and UNDP through the ART Initiative, both the Accra Agenda for Action (2008) and Busan Partnership for effective development cooperation (2011) recognize the role of local governments in ensuring effective development. – Donors and other development actors commit to “work more closely […] with local authorities […] in preparing, implementing and monitoring national development policies and plans” (Accra Agenda for Action), because “[…] local governments play critical roles in linking citizens with governments and in ensuring broad-based and democratic ownership of countries’ development agendas.” (Busan Partnership for effective development cooperation)• RIO+20 – Governance matters a lot for achieving integrated sustainable development – Brokering partnerships including private sector, civil society and local governments
Different Frameworks for DC in Europe Level of provision EU member states Legal framework High Belgium, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden Legal framework defines parameters of activity of LRG in the provision of development cooperation Germany (regional), Finland, Netherlands No formal legal framework shaping activity of LRG in development cooperation Moderate Denmark, Germany (local), UK No legal framework supporting activity of LGR in provision of development cooperation. Low Hungary, Poland, Latvia, Luxembourg and Romania Legal framework defines parameters of activity of LRG in the provision of development cooperation Austria, Estonia, Portugal, Malta, Slovenia, Lithuania and No clear supporting framework that defines capacity of LRG Bulgaria to engage in provision of development cooperation Czech Republic, Cyprus Ireland, Greece and Slovakia. No legal framework: constraints in the ability of LRG to engage in development cooperation.DC is also active in Asia, Latin America and Africa, e.g. AFRICITE 2012
DC ... different ModalitiesTypes Focus TimeframeTwinnings Traditionally to promote mutual understanding and peace; focus on cultural Since World War II exchangeSolidarity/ reconstruction partnerships After civil wars, national disasters or political persecution For example in Nicaragua, South Africa or more recently in HaitiInstitutional development partnerships Institutional development of local or regional governments (peer-to-peer) or Mainly since the 1980s their associations (Association Capacity Building) to effectively manage their responsibilities and tasks in service delivery to their citizens (or members)Thematic network partnerships Networks that focus on tackling challenges such as climate change Since the mid-1980sEconomically motivated partnerships Strategic international positioning to address development issues with a view Particularly since the last decade to engage in business relationshipsMulti-actor partnerships or territorial Local and regional development partnerships targeted at one or more sectors Mainly since the 1980s approach for local and regional in close partnership with different stakeholders (i.e. CSO), to enhance access development to services from the citizensMulti-actor partnerships or territorial Local and regional development partnerships articulated within a multilateral Mainly since 2000 approach for local and regional framework development within a multilateral framework
DC as important component of ODA ... besides obvious more important contributions DC also matters in terms of figures ....• In the early 1990s Spain saw the rise of a broad citizenship movement pushing for the achievement of the UN target of 0.7% of GDP destined to development cooperation. Autonomous Communities (regions) have their own development cooperation agencies, the provinces implement their own cooperation initiatives and the individual cities or municipalities are also committed to contributing 0.7% of their own budget to development cooperation. 19% of ODA financed by sub national actors.• There is a long record of Italian local and regional governments active in decentralised development cooperation. Italian regions provide about € 70 million, LGs 15-20 million per year.• The 16 German Länder, the German regional governments, are keen to raising their international profile and aim to contribute to development cooperation on the basis of complementarities. The financial contributions account for around 8% of the total ODA of Germany.
The European Structured DialogueIn March 2010, the European Commission launched a “Structured Dialogue” with Member States, the European Parliament,local and regional authorities, and non-state actors, on the role each should play in European development policy, inparticular with regard to the next EU financial period (2014-2020). Results to be reflected in the EC positions on aideffectiveness and for the next multiannual financial framework of the EC.Involvement of sub-national governments and UNDPPLATFORMA members called for stronger ownership of Southern actors at all levels andrecommended improved exchanges in partner countries between the EU delegations and therepresentative associations of sub-national governments.UNDP inter alia stressed the advantages of multilateral platforms in enhancingharmonization and alignment of development cooperation initiatives. The importance oflinking local with national and international agendas was also highlighted. UNDP’s work in promoting such dialogue between territories and its people is recognized by the EC. UNDP is informing the finalization of the EC policy as well as providing the framework for the implementation of concrete initiatives.
UNDP and DC – where do we standART as entry point for DC within UNDP (BERA strategy)Decentralized cooperation partners at the local level: UNDP work with DecentralizedCooperation over the last years has the potential to be a key part of a platform to buildconstituencies for development in donor countries. Through its work with regional and localauthorities, academic institutions and NGOs, the ART Initiative (Articulation of territorialnetworks for Sustainable Development) is working on aid effectiveness by enhancing localcapacities to articulate the different activities of decentralized cooperation within nationallyowned and developed local development plans. Not only do these partners play a crucial rolein their respective countries, they have also become major players through their global andregional networks. If UNDP wants to remain a first class development broker, it mustreinforce the capacities of developing countries, at sub national level, to access and captureexisting and future funding opportunities, and consider how best to facilitate and assist inbuilding the enabling environment for investments.
ART in figures Started: 2006 Partners• National Framework Programmes: 19 • Bilateral Cooperation: 9• Regions working with ART: 75 • UN Agencies: 12• Municipalities working with ART: 375 • Development Networks and Foundations: 40• National Coordination Committees: 19 • Decentralized Cooperation partners: 600 +• Territorial Working Groups: 100 • Networks of local and regional governments,• Local Economic Development Agencies: 60 territorial and tematique networks (e.g. LED,• Funds mobilized: US$ 156 Millions water, environment, etc.)• 80% implemented at the local levelDC and UNDP are mutually reinforcing - DC in its traditional way contributes to fragmentation – multilateral frameworks at local level are necessary to assure alignment – UNDP provides a global platform that links DC to local development frameworks – aid/development cooperation effectiveness at local level
The 5 unique Strengths of Decentralised Development CooperationPeer-to-peer learning for enhanced knowledgeTransfer of knowledge and experience between municipalities on a basis of trust and equality enables a genuine learning process. The partnership makesuse of the unique in-depth knowledge of local and regional governments on service delivery, good governance and accountability.Long term support for strengthening the local and regional government sectorThe long term relationship results in trust and good dialogue which enables sustainability and effective and efficient capacity developmentCost-effective sustainable processes through existing structuresStrengthening existing organisations and thus avoiding setting up parallel structures ensures sustainability. As long term consultants do not need to behired and project offices don’t need to be set up, the partnerships are cost-effective.Leverage learning effectsThe partnerships can leverage learning effects and knowledge between different levels of government and different levels of society. They contribute tobuilding leadership at the local level.ReciprocityAs the partnerships are built on a basis of equality, both partners benefit from the partnership; for European partners this mainly results in communitydevelopment and active citizenship through international visibility, increased capacity of solving problems through access to good practices, andstrengthened human resources. Most highlighted outcomes Improved public service delivery A strengthened role of local authorities in ongoing decentralisation processes, allowing them to manage local development in a better, more effective way Accomplishment of principles of transparency, effective citizen participation and accountability Boosted local authorities credibility and recognition for their role as driving force behind local development Source: Based on the evaluation of Municipal International Cooperation programmes. interviews with PLATFORMA members and UCLG (2012)
Integrated Local Governance & Local Development Institutional DimensionDevelopment Local Development Sector MinistriesPartners Local Governance Civil Society Traditional leaders Local Government Special interest Community/ Groups • Mayor • Councilors • Public servants Private sector (Business) leadersNon-State National AdvocacyActors Groups
ART ECUADOR Working Groups 7 provincial governments 52 municipial governments 7 Associations of parishes + de 120 rural parishes>35 deconcentrated government departments > 40 civil society organisations 12 univeristies 4 Public-private Local Economic Development Agencies >20 prívate sector entities > 35 international cooperation actors
DC within a multilateral framework - support to LG/LD Capacity supportComplementary to traditional capacity support efforts through exchange of experience and knowledge -strengthened decentralization processes - institution building - long term sustainable partnerships.Examples: Morocco, Sri Lanka, etc. Decentralised knowledgeNearly untapped pool of relevant knowledge available in the territories - UNDP to position itself asknowledge broker to mobilize knowledge and facilitate exchange - UNDP facilites harmonisation ofknowledge areas (certain issues are best delt with at local level, e.g. service delivery, DEL, youth, etc) –sustainable partnerships based on peer to peer learning - processes that do allow for mutual leraning andexcape many traditional development limitations (longer time frames, discussions between equals, etc.) -networks of Universities. Examples: Spain, LED Forum, ISIMED, EURADA etc. Harmonisation and alignment UNDP promotes harmonisation of DC actors for improved and more focused cooperation support - UNDP facilitates harmonisation between national /local process and DC action - UNDP promotes harmonisation between DC actors across countries - UNDP promotes alignment of DC towards integrated national and sub national plans and hence contributes towards implementation of integrated sub national . Examples: Morocco – Catalonia; ART FPs; Strategic Development Guidelines
DC within a multilateral framework - support to LG/LD Linking territorial priorities to international policiesLobbying, networking and providing entry points for local authorities and other territorial actors of theSouth to influence international policy processes - UNDP provides a platform for networking and policyformulation - UNDP facilitates local consultative processes to gather relevant local knowledge andthereby inform international processes. Examples: Busan, Rio, post 2015 SS cooperation and triangulation at teritorial levelUNDP as a platform for SS cooperation and triangulation at territorial level - UNDP as a facilitator tointegrate these new modalities within the LG/LD strategies/platforms - UNDP as a facilitator to linkterritorial best practices to national level efforts. Examples: Morocco/Mauretania/Senegal/Gabon; SriLanka/Indonesia; Dominican Republic/El Salvador Territorial approachFor example Smart Specialisation Strategy - learning from best practices - Strengthening local actorscapable of mobilising endogenous resources. Examples: Nariño Sensitization of European population for development issuesUN Millennium Campaign – DC proximity to their population – sensitization of European population ondevelopment cooperation and challenges related to MDGs and post 2015 - reporting back to citizens.Examples: Andalucía, Vic, etc.
DC within a multilateral framework - support to LG/LD LobbyingWith national cooperation for alignment towards territorial frameworks . Examples: Spain, Italy Mobilising their SMEs for development cooperationIn support of LED (governance processes and capacity building) - LED strategies as cornerstones of LD - B2B.Examples: Mozambique, El Salvador, Sri Lanka, Lebanon, etc. InnovationUNDP as a broker for innovations. Examples: ART framework programmes
Evidence: Development Cooperation Partners Harmonisation BELGIUM CH FRANCE ITALIE ESPAGNE MAROC
DC Partners ART Morocco PAY BASQUE (Un partenaire) CATALOGNE (11 partenaires) MADRID (Un partenaire)EXTREMADURA (Un partenaire) ILES BALEARES (Un partenaire) COMMUNAUTE VALENCIENNE (Un partenaire) ANDALOUSIE (17 partenaires)
Evidence: TANGER-TETOUAN Alignement DC Partners 70 Partnerships answering at the local demand proposed by h InternationalGuidelines for Development Cooperation and acting into PDC , instrument of decentralization policy
Leverage Effect ResourcesIn Nariño, Colombia,the elaboration of the2008-2011 RegionalStrategy forInternationalCooperation led to anincrease in number ofpartners andresources