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Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
Lean waste presentation slide
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Lean waste presentation slide

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  • 1. Toyota Production System and Lean Manufacturing D. Jorge Leon Texas A&M UniversityTOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEMThe Toyota Production System was adopted bymany Japanese companies in the aftermath of the1973 oil shock “Waste” Elimination Philosophy: “.. Above all, one of our most important purposes was increased productivity and reduced cost. To achieve this purpose, we put our emphasis on the notion of eliminating all kinds of unnecessaryfunctions in the factories. Our approach has been to investigate one byone the causes of various "unnecessaries" in manufacturing operations and to devise methods for their solution, often by trial and error ...” Taiicho Ohno, Former Vice President, Toyota Motor Corp., Former President, Japan Industrial Management Association; Former Chairman, Toyoda Spinning and Weaving Co., Ltd. 1
  • 2. PURPOSES OF JIT Primary Purpose: Profit through cost reduction (or improvement of Productivity) This is attained through WASTE elimination. Other important purposes: Quantity control: JIT, Kanban & Autonomation (visual control system) Quality control: Autonomation, improvement by small groups, functional management Respect for humanity :Flexible work force (adapt to demand changes), capitalize workers ideas. TYPES OF WASTE Excessive production resources (primary waste): excessive workforce excessive facilities excessive inventories unnecessary capital investment Overproduction (secondary waste - the WORST waste): leads to Excessive inventories (tertiary waste): extra jobs make overproduction invisible. adds losses in opportunity cost lead to Unnecessary capital investment (fourth waste): adds facility depreciations and overhead cost 2
  • 3. TO ACHIEVE THESE PUPOSES 7 Wastes Elimination Just-In-Time (JIT) Production Kanban System Production Smoothing 5S Setup Time ReductionMachine Layout & Multi-function WorkerAutonomation (Visual Management) 3
  • 4. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. Identification and Elimination of WastePhilosophy • Identification and elimination of waste is the central theme of a lean manufacturing production system • Lean manufacturing is a dynamic and constantly improving process dependent upon understanding and involvement by all employees • Successful implementation requires that all employees must be trained to identify and eliminate waste from their work • Waste exists in all work and at all levels in the organization 4
  • 5. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. Identification and Elimination of WastePhilosophyEffectiveness is the result of the integration of: - Man - Method - Material - Machine At the worksite • Waste exists in all work and at all levels in the organization 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Seven Types of Waste Over-production Wait time Transportation Processing Inventory Motion Defects 5
  • 6. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Over-production WasteDefinition Producing more than needed Producing faster than needed 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Over-production WasteCharacteristics: • Inventory Stockpiles • Extra equipment/oversized equipment • Unbalanced Material Flow • Extra Part Storage racks • Extra Manpower • Batch Processing • Complex Inventory Management • Excessive Capacity/Investment • Additional Floor Space/Outside Storage • Hidden Problems • Excessive Obsolescence • Large Lot Sizes • Building Ahead 6
  • 7. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Over-production WasteCauses: • Incapable Processes • Just in Case Reward System • Lack of Communication • Local Optimization • Automation in the Wrong Places • Cost Accounting Practices • Low Uptimes • Lack of Stable/Consitent Schedules 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Waiting Time WasteDefinition Idle Time That is Produced When Two Dependant Variables are not Fully Synchronized. • Man Wait Time • Machine Wait Time 7
  • 8. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Waiting Time WasteCharacteristics: • Man Waiting for Machine • Machine/Materials Waiting for Man • Unbalanced Operations (Work) • Lack of Operator Concern for Equipment Breakdowns • Unplanned Equipment Downtime 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Waiting Time WasteCauses: • Inconsistent Work Methods • Long Machine Change Over Time • Low Man/Machine Effectiveness • Lack of Proper Equipment/Materials 8
  • 9. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Transportation WasteDefinition Any Material Movement That Does Not Directly Support a Lean Manufacturing System 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Transportation WasteCharacteristics: • Extra carts, fork lifts, dollies • Multiple Storage Locations • Extra Material Racks • Complex Inventory Management • Extra Facility Space • Incorrect Inventory Counts • Damaged Material 9
  • 10. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Transportation WasteCauses: • Large Lot Processing • Unleveled Schedules • Lack of 5 S’s • Lack of Visual Controls • Improper Facility Layout • Large Buffers and In Process Kanbans 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Processing WasteDefinition Effort Which Adds No Value To a Product or Service. Enhancements which are Transparent to The Customers or Work Which Could Be Combined with Another Process. 10
  • 11. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Processing WasteCharacteristics: • Process Bottlenecks • Lack of Clear Customer Specifications • Endless Refinement • Redundant Approvals • Extra Copies/Excessive Information 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Processing WasteCauses: • Engineering Changes Without Processing Changes • Decision Making at Inappropriate Levels • Inefficient Policies and Procedures • Lack of Customer Input Concerning Requirements 11
  • 12. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Inventory WasteDefinition Any Supply in Excess of Process Requirements Necessary to Produce Goods or Services Just in Time. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Inventory WasteCharacteristics: • Extra Space on Receiving Docks • Material Between Processes • Stagnated Material Flow • LIFO instead of FIFO • Extensive Rework When Problems Surface • Long Lead Time for Engineering Changes • Additional Material Handling Resources (Men, Equipment, Racks, Storage Space) 12
  • 13. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Inventory WasteCauses: • Incapable Processes • Uncontrolled Bottleneck Processes • Incapable Suppliers • Long Change Over Times • Management Decisions • Local Optimization Inventory Level • Inaccurate Forcasting Systems Over Production Wait Time Process Defects 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Motion WasteDefinition Any Movement of People Which Does Not Contribute Added Value To The Product or Service 13
  • 14. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Motion WasteCharacteristics: • Looking for Tools • Excessive Reaching or Bending • Material Too Far Apart (Walk Time) • Equipment for Moving Parts • Extra “Busy” Movements While Waiting 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Motion WasteCauses: • Equipment, Office & Plant Layout • Lack of 5 S’s • Lack of Visual Controls • Inconsistent Work Methods (Standardized Work) • Large Batch Sizes 14
  • 15. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Rework or Correction WasteDefinition Repair of a Product or Service To Fulfill Customer requirements 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Rework or Correction WasteCharacteristics: • Extra Floor Space/Tools/Equipment • Extra Manpower To Inspect/Rework/Repair • Stockpiling Inventory • Complex Material Flow • Questionable Quality • Missed Shipments/Deliveries • Lower Profits Due To Scrap • Reactive Organization 15
  • 16. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Rework or Correction WasteCauses: • Incapable Processes • Excessive Variation • Incapable Suppliers • Management Decisions • Insufficient Training • Inadequate Tools/Equipment • Poor Layouts/Unnecessary Handling • High Inventory Levels 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Seven Types of Waste Over-production Wait time Transportation Processing Inventory Motion Defects 16
  • 17. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999. 7 Wastes, Applied Material’s, Lean Manufcaturing, Supplier Copy, 1999.Seven Types of Waste 17

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