Nanotechnology

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Nanotechnology

  1. 1. NANOTECHNOLOGY
  2. 2.  Nanotechnology (sometimes shortened to “Nanotech”) is the manipulation of matter on an atomic and molecular scale particularly within the range of 1-100 nanometers.  A nanometer (nm) is one-billionth of a meter, smaller than the wavelength of visible light and a hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair.  It is an exciting area of scientific development which promises ‘more for less’.  It offers ways to create smaller, cheaper, lighter and faster devices that can do more and cleverer things, use less raw materials and consume less energy.
  3. 3.  Nanotechnology originates from the Greek word “Dwarf”.  With the help of Nanotechnology, we can change the basic properties of an existing element by rearranging the atoms in a different form, to form almost an other element.  For example, Carbon atoms when arranged in one way forms granite.And, in another way it forms Diamond with completely different properties.  In this way we can prepare new elements with the qualities desired, by rearranging the atoms and the bond formations in the Nano scale.
  4. 4.  At the Nano Scale, objects are too small to see, even with a normal microscope. Hence Scientists use ScanningTunneling Microscopes or Atomic Force Microscopes.  The ScanningTunneling Microscope was invented by Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, for which they received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986.
  5. 5.  One of the most wonderful discovery of scientist by using Nanotechnology is the Carbon Nanotubes.  It is a one-atom-thick sheet of Carbon atoms arranged hexagonally.  When layers of it are piled one on top of another, the result is ordinary pencil graphite that shears apart like a tiny stack of paper.  But, when that same layer is rolled into a tube form, it form a fiber theoretically 100 times stronger than steel and lighter than a feather !
  6. 6.  By trusting the development of Nanotechnology, scientists are even claiming that certain kinds of machines, normally shown in Sci-fi films, like StarTrek, can also be made.  Scientists claim that, by nanotechnology, machines(known as replicators) that can produce any physical objects, from weapons, to a steaming cup of coffee, can also be made.  They are basically termed as “Molecular Manufacturing”.  They say that, Atoms and molecules stick together because they have complementary shapes that lock together, or charges that attract each other.As millions of these atoms are pieced together by nanomachines, a specific product will begin to take shape.
  7. 7. SMALLER AND MORE EFFICIENT CHIP DEVELOPED BY NANOTECHNOLOGY:
  8. 8. NANOBOTS:  Seeing the development, the scientists are even predicting the development of technology to the extent of creation of Nano scale robots called NANOBOTS(They do not exist till now).  Their size would be around 2.5 micrometers(2,500 nanometers).  They are so small in size that, they can be injected into a human body, to perform operation on a single defective cell.
  9. 9.  Nanobots can be used not only in medical field, but also in Astronomy, like in Space Shuttles for various research and mechanical purposes.  They can also be used in defense or military purposes.  They can also be used for spying, tracking purposes etc., as they are difficult to be seen and do not catch attention easily.
  10. 10.  Similarly, the behavior of an element at nano scale is very different when compared to the normal conditions.  For example, you can't walk up to a wall and immediately teleport to the other side of it, but, at the nano scale an electron can! It's called electron tunneling.  Not only that but, some Insulators even act as Semiconductors at the Nanoscale.
  11. 11. PRODUCTS WITH NANOTECHNOLOGY:  Sunscreen: Many sunscreens contain nanoparticles of zinc oxide or titanium oxide. Older sunscreen formulas use larger particles, which is what gives most sunscreens their whitish color. Smaller particles are less visible, meaning that when you rub the sunscreen into your skin, it doesn't give you a whitish tinge.
  12. 12.  Self-cleaning glass: A company called Pilkington offers a product they callActiv Glass, which uses nanoparticles to make the glassphotocatalytic and hydrophilic.The photocatalytic effect means that when UV radiation from light hits the glass, nanoparticles become energized and begin to break down and loosen organic molecules on the glass (in other words, dirt). Hydrophilic means that when water makes contact with the glass, it spreads across the glass evenly, which helps wash the glass clean.  Clothing: Scientists are using nanoparticles to enhance your clothing. By coating fabrics with a thin layer of zinc oxide nanoparticles, manufacturers can create clothes that give better protection from UV radiation. Some clothes have nanoparticles in the form of little hairs or whiskers that help repel water and other materials, making the clothing stain-resistant.
  13. 13.  Scratch- Resistant coatings: Engineers discovered that adding aluminum silicate nanoparticles to scratch-resistant polymer coatings made the coatings more effective, increasing resistance to chipping and scratching. Scratch-resistant coatings are common on everything from cars to eyeglass lenses.  Antimicrobial bandages: Scientist Robert Burrell created a process to manufacture antibacterial bandages using nanoparticles of silver. Silver ions block microbes' cellular respiration. In other words, silver smothers harmful cells, killing them.  Liquid Powder Display: Bridgestone Engineers have developed a quick response and flexible digital screen using Nanotechnology.
  14. 14. Liquid Powder Display:
  15. 15. CONCLUSION:  Hence, we can conclude that Nanotechnology affects almost every branch of science in one way or the other.  Therefore, Nanotechnology is an important branch of science and will play a very vital role in them.  And Soon, it will affect each and every part of our life in the near future, giving us a different way of living.

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