Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Introduction to Political Parties in the U.S.
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Introduction to Political Parties in the U.S.

3,713
views

Published on

Published in: Education

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,713
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
114
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Political Parties
  • 2.
    • “ A party of order or stability, and a party of progress or reform, are both necessary elements of a healthy state of political life.”
    • John Stuart Mill (1859)
    • British Philosopher
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6.
    • Where do you think you fall on the political spectrum?
    • Why? How can you tell?
    • Let's find out how you score...
  • 7. Parties and What They Do
    • “Winning isn’t everything, it’s the only thing.”
    • Vince Lombardi
    • This can be said for the attitudes of the Democratic and Republican parties
    • Competing and Winning are two main goals of political parties
  • 8.
    • Political Party – a group of people who seek to control government through the winning of elections and the holding of public office
    • The two Major Parties in the U.S. are:
      • Republican
      • Democratic
  • 9.
    • Political parties are essential to democratic government
      • They are the medium through which options are presented to the people
      • Serve as a link between the people and their government
      • Some argue they are the principle means by which the will of the people is made known to government
  • 10. 5 Major Functions
    • Nominating Candidates for public office
      • THE major function
      • Select candidate and present them to the voters
      • Work to help their candidate win elections
      • Best tool for finding candidates and gathering support
      • Sets political parties apart from other groups in politics
  • 11.
    • Informing and Activating Supporters
      • Activate interest and participation in public affairs
      • Primarily by:
        • Campaigning for their candidates
        • Taking stands on issues
        • Criticizing the candidates/positions of their opponents
      • Inform voters the way THEY want them to be informed
        • Advertising
  • 12.
    • Act as a Bonding Agent
      • Ensures the good performance of its candidates and officeholders
      • Tries to make sure they are men and women who are both qualified and of good character
      • Prompts its successful candidates to perform well in office
        • If they fail to do so, both party and candidate may suffer the consequences in future elections
  • 13.
    • Governing
      • Public officeholders are regularly chosen on the basis of party
      • Congress and State legislatures are organized on party lines
        • Partisanship – government action based on firm allegiance to a political party
      • Legislative and Executive branches must cooperate in order to accomplish anything:
        • Political Parties provide the channel for these branches to work together
  • 14.
    • Watchdog
      • The party NOT in power closely watches the actions of the party in power*
        • * Party that controls the executive branch of government; i.e., the Presidency at the national level, or the governorship at the State level
      • Party out of power tries to convince the voters that they should be the ones making the decisions
      • Often makes those in power more responsive to the wishes and concerns of the people
  • 15. The Two-Party System
    • Two’s company, but three’s a crowd!
  • 16.
    • The two major political parties dominate American politics
    • &
    • The minor parties* do not have nearly as much power and influence as the major parties
      • * political parties without widespread support
      • Examples of minor parties include: Libertarian Party, Communist Party USA, Green Party of the United States
  • 17. Historical Basis
    • U.S. has historically always been a two-party system
      • Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists after the ratification of the Constitution
      • Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans formed at the beginning of John Adam’s presidency (Federalist)
      • Set the model for the Democrats
      • vs. Republicans we know today
  • 18. The Force of Tradition
    • Human institutions often become self-perpetuating
      • The fact that the nation began with a two-party system is a leading factor for the retention of it
    • Most Americans accept the idea of a two-party system simply because there has always been one.
      • Can explain why challenges from minor parties have made very little headway
  • 19. The Electoral System
    • Features of the American electoral system promote the existence of two major parties
      • Single-member districts – elections are contests in which only one candidate is elected to each office on the ballot
    • Discourages minor parties
      • Voters often see votes for a minor party as a wasted vote because of the influence of &
  • 20.
    • Much of American election law is purposely written to discourage non-major party candidates
      • Nearly all election law in this country is State law
      • Almost all of the 7,600+ State legislators are either
      • or
    • The two major parties deliberately shape election laws to preserve, protect, and defend the system in a bipartisan* way
      • * Bipartisan – two major parties find a common ground on an issue
  • 21.
    • Both major parties are generally alike
      • Both tend to be moderate
      • Both are build on compromise
      • Regularly seek to occupy the “middle of the road”
      • Seek the same prize: the votes of a majority of the electorate
    • To do so, they both must win over essentially the same people
      • Take policy positions that do not differ from one another
    • But they do have their differences…
  • 22.
    • Much more likely to:
      • Favor the play of private market forces in the economy
      • Argue that the Federal
      • Government should be less
      • extensively involved in
      • social welfare programs
  • 23.
    • More likely to support:
      • Social welfare programs
      • Government regulation of business practices
      • Efforts to improve the status of minorities
  • 24. One-Party Aspects of the U.S.
    • Effective two-party competition has spread rapidly in the past 40 years or so
      • Until the 1950s:
        • dominated the South
        • had controlled much of New England and Mid-West
      • Now:
        • win offices in every Northern state
        • are heavily influential in the South
  • 25.
    • About 1/3 of the States can be said to have a one-party system*
      • * One of the major parties regularly wins most elections in those states
  • 26. Party Membership Patterns
    • Each of the major parties ( & ) have always been composed of a cross-section of the population
      • However, some segments generally tend to align themselves with one or the other
        • : white males, Protestants, and business community, historically higher income
        • : African Americans, Catholics and Jews, Union Members, historically lower income
  • 27. Minor Parties in the U.S.
    • Sometimes difficult to describe and classify because of their number and variety
    • Some limit their efforts to small geographic regions, while others try to influence the nation
    • Most are short-lived, but a few have existed for decades
    • There are four distinct types of interest groups
  • 28.
    • Ideological Parties
      • Based on a particular set of beliefs
        • Social, economic, and political matters
          • Built around some variety of Marxist thought
            • ex: Socialist, Socialist Labor, Socialist Worker, Communist parties
            • Emphasize individualism
            • Call for doing away with most of government’s present functions and programs
        • ex: Libertarian Party
    • Rarely are able to win any votes
  • 29.
    • Single-Issue Parties
      • Concentrate on only one public-policy matter
      • Names usually indicate their primary concern
      • ex: “Know Nothing” Party, Right to Life Party
    • Do not stick around very long:
        • Die away as events pass by
        • Themes often fail to attract voters
        • One or both major parties take their key issues as their own
  • 30.
    • Economic Protest Parties
      • Rooted in periods of economic discontent
      • Proclaim their disgust with the major parties and demand better times
      • Focus their anger on such real or imagined enemies as:
        • The monetary system
        • “ Wall Street bankers”
        • Railroads
        • Foreign Imports
    • Draw their strength mostly from the agricultural South & West
    • Tend to fall away as the nation climbs out of the difficult economic period in which that party arose
  • 31.
    • Splinter Parties
      • Parties that have split away from one of the major parties
      • Most of the more important minor parties in our politics have been splinter parties
      • Most splinter parties are formed around a strong personality
          • Most often around someone who has failed to win his/her major party’s nomination
            • These parties most often fade or collapse when the leader steps aside