MSMC BUS3180 Topic 4 situation leadership lecture ppt

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MSMC BUS3180 Topic 4 situation leadership lecture ppt

  1. 1. Focuses on leadership in situations Emphasizes adapting style to different situations demanding different kinds of leadership Used extensively in organizational leadership training and development
  2. 2. Comprised of both a directive dimension & supportive dimension: Each dimension must be applied appropriately in a given situation Leaders evaluate employees to assess their competence and commitment to perform a given task
  3. 3. Situational Leadership looks at leadership style: the behavior pattern of an individual who attempts to influence others It includes both:  Directive (task) behaviors  Supportive (relationship) behaviors
  4. 4. Situational Leadership also looks at directive behaviors: how the leader helps group members in goal achievement via one-way communication through:  Giving directions  Establishing goals & how to achieve them  Methods of evaluation & time lines  Defining roles
  5. 5. Dimensions Definitions Supportive behaviors - Assist group members via two-way communication in feeling comfortable with themselves, coworkers, and situation  Asking for input  Problem solving  Praising, listening
  6. 6. Leadership Styles (Youtube video 6:46) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y47qRvPHoVU Infage - Situational Leadership (Youtube video 4:21) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUGdw3S_FGE
  7. 7. Leader focuses communication on goal achievement Spends LESS time using supportive behaviors A leader gives instruction about what and how goals are to be achieved by the subordinates and then supervises them carefully. • Useful for new employees; someone who lacks direction and skills • A micro-management style of leadership • Leaves no room for growth and development of subordinate
  8. 8. Leader focuses communication on BOTH goal achievement and supporting subordinates’ socio-emotional needs Requires leader involvement through encouragement and soliciting subordinate input • Subordinate is engaged in feedback but the leader still makes decisions • A great way to develop team members
  9. 9. Leader does NOT focus solely on goals; uses supportive behaviors to bring out employee skills in accomplishing the task Leader delegates day-to-day decision-making control, but is available to facilitate problem solving • Leader is more of a facilitator • Decisions are made as a team; leader clarifies decisions
  10. 10. Leader offers LESS task input and social support; facilitates subordinates’ confidence and motivation relation to the task Leader lessens involvement in planning, control of details, and goal clarification Gives subordinates control and refrains from intervention and unneeded social support • Subordinates control the activity and make decisions and involve the leader only when needed • Works for a team that works well together and understands what is expected from them and how to get what they need to accomplish goals • A communication process is critical for success
  11. 11.  Strengths  Criticisms  Application
  12. 12.  Marketplace approval. Situational leadership is perceived as providing a credible model for training employees to become effective leaders.  Practicality. Situational leadership is a straightforward approach that is easily understood and applied in a variety of settings.  Prescriptive value. Situational leadership clearly outlines what you should and should not do in various settings.
  13. 13.  Leader flexibility. Situational leadership stresses that effective leaders are those who can change their style based on task requirements and subordinate needs.  Differential treatment. Situational leadership is based on the premise that leaders need to treat each subordinate according to his/her unique needs.
  14. 14.  Lack of research raises theoretical considerations regarding the validity of the approach; validity is doubtful.  Further research is required to determine how commitment and competence are conceptualized for each developmental level. How to measure?  Conceptualization of commitment itself and why it varies is very unclear. How to measure?  Replication studies fail to support basic prescriptions of situational leadership model.
  15. 15.  Does not account for how particular demographics influence the leader-subordinate prescriptions of the model. Who is participating and how does this influence the outcome?  Fails to adequately address the issue of one-to-one versus group leadership in an organizational setting.  Questionnaires are biased in favor of situational leadership.
  16. 16.  Often used in consulting because it’s easy to conceptualize and apply.  Straightforward nature makes it practical for managers to apply.  Breadth of situational approach facilitates its applicability in virtually all types of organizations and levels of management in organizations.
  17. 17. • How important is structure to group success? • How can you promote group cohesion as a leader?
  18. 18.  Leaders set the tone in productive ways, helping group members perform at their highest levels of excellence.  Includes: o Providing structure & boundaries for followers so that they can work effectively o Paying attention to group members & helping them find meaning in their work
  19. 19.  Setting the tone demands that leaders: 1. Provide Structure 2. Clarify Norms 3. Build Cohesiveness 4. Promote Standards of Excellence
  20. 20.  Providing structure gives people a sense of security, direction, & stability. o They know where they “fit in.” o They have an “architectural drawing” that gives form & meaning to their activities.  Group work without structure is more difficult for everyone involved.
  21. 21. Telling people the goals of the group o Gives a clear picture of assignments & responsibilities o Gives group members a sense of direction Identifying the unique ways that each member can contribute to the group o Synergy o Challenge: to find how each individual group member can contribute to the group’s mission
  22. 22. Discuss  How would you go about finding out the unique ways that each member can contribute to the group’s mission?
  23. 23. Norms are the rules of behavior that are established & shared by group members. o What is appropriate/inappropriate, right/wrong, & allowed/not allowed in groups o Develop early in a group & are difficult to change Leaders need to try to shape norms that will maximize group effectiveness.
  24. 24. Discuss  How have you experienced leaders trying to shape group norms?  How effective were they?  What are some examples of group norms? Why are norms sometimes difficult to change?
  25. 25. Cohesiveness is the sense of “we-ness,” or the esprit de corps, that exists within a group. Allows members to: o Express their personal viewpoints, give and receive feedback, accept differing opinions, & feel free to do meaningful work. o Appreciate the group & to be appreciated by the group
  26. 26.  Increased participation and better interaction among members  Group membership is more consistent  Group exerts strong influence on members  Member satisfaction is high  Members are more productive
  27. 27. To Build Cohesiveness: o Create a climate of trust. o Invite members to be active participants. o Encourage passive members to become involved. o Listen and accept group members for who they are.
  28. 28. o Help group members achieve their goals. o Promote the free expression of divergent viewpoints. o Share leadership responsibilities. o Foster and promote member-to-member interaction.
  29. 29. Standards of Excellence are the expressed & implied expectations for performance that exist within a group or organization. Standards of excellence indicate: o What group members need to know o What skills group members need to acquire o How much initiative and effort they need o How group members are expected to treat one another o What goals they need to achieve o What the consequences are if they fail to achieve goals
  30. 30.  Leaders need to articulate their concrete expectations clearly for team members. o Groups must establish mutual goals & identify specific objectives for achieving results. o This is the first critical step in managing performance.  Without expectations, members are uncertain about what is required of them & flounder.
  31. 31.  Leaders must give constructive feedback & resolve performance issues.  Constructive feedback is honest, direct communication about member performance. o Not mean-spirited, nor is it overly nice or patronizing o Lets group members know how to maintain or improve  Resolving performance issues is critical for effective leadership.
  32. 32. Effective leaders reward group members for achieving results. Rewarding results is a practical process that every leader can do. o Includes paying attention to members, offering encouragement, & giving personalized appreciation o Can be in dramatic or simple actions Members feel valued & there is a greater sense of group identity & community spirit.
  33. 33. Case Study: A Tale of Two Classes  In setting the tone for your classes, what kind of structure has each of your professor’s put in place?  How would you describe the group norms for each class?  What actions has each professor taken to establish cohesiveness in the classes?  What standards of excellence has each professor established for the courses?  Which class atmosphere would you do best in? Why?
  34. 34. Summary Setting the tone is a complex process that involves a great deal of work on the leader’s part. Leaders who set the tone in positive ways will find payoffs in remarkable group performance.
  35. 35. Case Study  Your small group is working on a community service project for your leadership class. Unfortunately, one of your group members is not doing his share of the work. He doesn’t follow through on tasks that he volunteers for, won’t return phone calls or respond to your emails, and misses some of the group’s meetings. You go to your professor to complain about the student, but the professor tells you to resolve the problem yourselves. How would you confront this group member constructively?
  36. 36. Case Study Susan was recently hired as a project manager for a car battery plant. She and her team are charged with developing a more long lasting battery for electric cars. Her supervisor estimates the project will take about 14 months. Because this is a growing industry, there is great competition with rival companies but also potentially great reward for developing an excellent product. A few weeks into the project, the supervisor runs into a member of Susan’s team and asks him how things are going. He replies that things are a bit tense. At a recent brainstorming session Susan chided the engineers for not coming up with more creative designs. She told the lead engineer she worked with better designers in her previous company. Susan comes in early and stays late every day. She often assigns work to team members after 4:00 in the afternoon and expects them to stay late to finish, even if they have other evening commitments. How would you engage Susan in conversation about her behavior: If you were her supervisor? If you were her team member?

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